गुप्तकालीन राजस्व  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

samudragupt dvara prachalit sikka

gupt kal 'bharat ka svarn yug' kaha jata hai. gupt samrajy men rajapad vnshanugat siddhant par adharit tha. raja apane bade putr ko yuvaraj ghoshit karata tha. apane utkarsh ke samay men gupt samrajy uttar men himalay se lekar dakshin men vindhy parvat tak evn poorv men 'bngal ki khadi' se lekar pashchim men saurashtr tak phaila hua tha. gupt vnsh ke kuchh any shasak, jaise- narasinhagupt (baladily), kumaragupt dvitiy, budhagupt, vainyagupt, bhanugupt, kumaragupt tritiy, vishnugupt adi men milakar kul 476 ee. se 550 ee. tak shasan kiya tha.

rajakiy ay ka srot

'prayag prashasti' men shaktishali gupt samrat samudragupt ko prithvi par shasan karane vala eeshvar ka pratinidhi kaha gaya hai. sath hi usaki tulana kuber, varun, indr v yamaraj adi devataon se bhi ki gee hai. gupt rajaon ne apane samrajy ke bhitar anek chhote-chhote rajaon par shasan kiya tha. samrajy ki prashasan vyavastha aur rajasv adi ki niti bahut sudridh thi. gupt kal men rajakiy ay ke pramukh srot 'kar' the, jo nimnalikhit the-

  • bhag - yah kar raja ko bhoomi ke utpadan se prapt hone vale bhag ka chhatha hissa tha.
  • bhog - sambhavatah raja ko har din phal-phool evn sabjiyon ke roop men diya jane vala kar.
  • pranayakar - gupt kal men yah gramavasiyon par lagaya gaya anivary ya svechchha chanda tha. bhoomikar bhog ka ullekh 'manusmriti' men bhi hua hai. isi prakar 'bhent' namak kar ka ullekh 'harshacharit' men aya hai.
  • uparikar evn udrngakar - yah ek prakar ka bhoomi kar hota tha. bhoomi kar ki adayagi donon hi roopon men 'hirany' (nakad) ya 'mey' (ann) men kiya ja sakata tha, kintu chhathi shati ke bad kisanon ko bhoomi kar ki adayagi ann ke roop men karane ke lie badhy hona pada. bhoomi ka svami krishakon evn unaki striyon se bekar ya vishti liya karata tha. gupt abhilekhon men bhoomikar ko 'udrng' ya 'bhagakar' kaha gaya hai. smriti grnthon men isaka 'raja ki vritti' ke roop men ullekh kiya gaya hai.
  • haladand kar - yah kar hal par lagata tha. gupt kal men vanikon, shilpiyon, shakkar evn nil banane vale par rajakar lagata tha.

rajasv ke any srot

gupt kal men rajasv ke any mahattvapoorn sroton men bhoomi, ratn, chhipa hua gupt dhan, khan evn namak adi the. in par sidhe samrat ka ekadhipaty hota tha[1] par kadachit yadi is tarah ki khan ya gupt dhan kisi aisi bhoomi par nikal aye, jo kisi ko pahale se anudan men mili hai to is par raja ka koee bhi adhikar nahin rah jata tha.

bhoo-rajasv

snbhavatah gupt kal men bhoo-rajasv kul utpadan ka 1/4 se 1/6 tak hota tha. smritikar manu ne 'manusmriti' kaha hai ki- "bhoomi par usi ka adhikar hota hai, jo bhoomi ko sarvapratham jngal se bhoomi men parivartit karata hai." brihaspati aur narad smritiyon men yah spasht roop se kaha gaya hai ki kisi bhi vyakti ka zamin par malikana adhikar tabhi mana ja sakata hai, jab usake pas qanooni dastavej ho. is samay prachalan men qarib 5 prakar ki bhoomi ka ullekh milata hai-

  1. kshetr bhoomi- aisi bhoomi jo kheti ke yogy hoti ho.
  2. vastu bhoomi- aisi bhoomi jo nivas ke yogy hoti ho.
  3. charagah bhoomi - pashuon ke chara yogy bhoomi.
  4. sil - aisi bhoomi jo jotane yogy nahin hoti thi.
  5. agrahat - aisi bhoomi jo jngali hoti thi.
not
samudragupt ka svarn sikka

amarasinh ne 'amarakosh' men 12 prakar ki bhoomi ka ullekh kiya hai, jo nimnalikhit hain-

  1. urvara
  2. oosar
  3. maru
  4. aprahat
  5. sadval
  6. pnkil
  7. jal
  8. kachchh
  9. sharkara
  10. sharkavati
  11. nadimatrik
  12. devamatrik

krishi ki sthiti

krishi se jude hue karyon ko 'mahakshatalik' evn 'karanik' dekhata tha. gupt kal men sinchaee ke sadhanon ke abhav ke karan adhikansh krishi varsha par adharit thi. varahamihir ki 'vrihattasnhita' men varsha ki snbhavana aur varsha ke abhav ke prashn par kafi vichar vimarsh hua hai.
chaval ki fasal
'vrihattasnhita' men hi varsha se hone vali tin fasalon ka ullekh hai. skandagupt ke joonagadh ke abhilekh se yah pramanit hota hai ki isane 'sudarshan jhil' ki marammat karavaee thi. sinchaee men 'rahat' ya 'ghatiyntr' ya prayog hota tha. gupt kal men sona, chandi, tanba evn loha jaisi dhatuon ka prachalan tha. palane yogy pashuon men 'amarakosh' men ghode, bhains, oont, bakari, bhed, gadha, kutta, billi adi ka vivaran prapt hota hai.

hven tsang ka kathan

chini yatri hven tsang ne gupt kal ki fasalon ke vishay men bataya hai ki pashchimottar bharat men eekh (ganna) aur gehoon tatha magadh evn usake poorvi kshetron men chaval ki paidavar hoti thi. 'amarakosh' men ullikhit kataee-bunaee, hathakaragha evn dhage ke vivaran se lagata hai ki gupt kal men vastr nirman ke kshetr men shreniyan mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhati thin. shreniyan, vyavasayik udyam evn nirman ke kshetr men bhi ve mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhati thin. shreniyan apane antarik mamalon men poorn svatntr hoti thin. shreni ke pradhan ko 'jyeshthak' kaha jata tha. yah pad anuvnshik hota tha. nalanda evn vaishali se gupt kalin shreshthiyon, sarthavahon evn kulikon ki muharen prapt hoti hai. shreniyan adhunik baink ka bhi kam karati thin. ye dhan ko apane pas jama karati evn byaj par dhan udhar deti thi. byaj ke roop men prapt dhan ka upayog mndiron men dipak jalane ke kam men kiya jata tha. 437-438 ee ke 'mndasaur abhilekh' men resham bunakaron ki shreni ke dvara vishal soory mndir ke nirman evn marammat ka ullekh milata hai.

skandagupt ka abhilekh

skandagupt ke indaur ke tamrapatr abhilekh men indrapur ke dev vishnu brahman dvara 'tailik shreni' ka ullekh milata hai, jo byaj ke rupaye men se soory mndir men dipak jalane men prayukt tel ke kharch ko vahan karata tha. gupt kal men shreni se badi snstha, jisaki shilp shreniyan sadasy hoti thi, use 'nigam' kaha jata tha. pratyek shilpiyon ki alag-alag shreniyan hoti thi. ye shreniyan apane qanoon evn parampara ki avahelana karane valon ko saza dene ka adhikar rakhati thin. vyaparik netritv karane vala 'sarthavah' kahalata tha. nigam ka pradhan 'shreshthi'[2] kahalata tha. vyaparik samitiyon ko 'nigam' kahate the.

guptakalin abhilekh evn unake pravartak

guptakalin abhilekh evn pravartak
shasak/prarvatak pramukh abhilekh
1- samudragupt prayag prashasti, eran prashasti, gaya tamr shasanalekh, nalnda shasanalekh
2- chandragupt dvitiy sanchi shilalekh, udayagiri ka pratham evn dvitiy shilalekh, gadhava ka pratham shilalekh, mathura stambhalekh, meharauli prashasti.
3- kumar gupt mndasaur shilalekh, gadhava ka dvitiy evn tritiy shilalekh, vilasad stambhalekh, udayagiri ka tritiy guhalekh, manakunvar buddhamoorti lekh, karmadada linkalekh, dhanadeh tamralekh, kitaeekuti tamralekh, baigram tamralekh, damodar pratham evn dvitiy tamralekh.
4- skandagupt joonagadh prashasti, bhitari stambhalekh, supiya stambhalekh, kahanv stambhalekh, indaur tamralekh.
5- kumaragupt dvitiy saranath buddhamoorti lekh
6- bhanugupt eran stambh lekh.
7- vishnugupt pncham domodar tamralekh.
8- budhagupt eran stambh lekh, rajaghat (varanasi) stambh lekh, pahad tamralekh, nandapur tamralekh, chaturth damodar tamralekh.
9- vainyagupt tipara (guneedhar) tamralekh.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. narad smriti
  2. mahajan ya nagar ka dhanavan vyakti

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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