bharatakosh ke snsthapak/snpadak ke fesabuk laiv ke lie yahan klik karen.

वैशेषिक दर्शन की तत्त्व मीमांसा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

  • maharshi kanad ne vaisheshikasootr men dravy, gun, karm, samany, vishesh aur samavay namak chh: padarthon ka nirdesh kiya aur prashastapad prabhriti bhashyakaron ne pray: kanad ke mantavy ka anusaran karate hue padarthon ka vishleshan kiya.
  • shivadity (10vin shati) se poorvavarti achary chandramati ke atirikt pray: any sabhi prakhyat vyakhyakaron ne padarthon ki snkhya chh: hi mani, kintu shivadity ne saptapadarthi men kanadokt chh: padarthon men abhav ko bhi jod kar saptapadarthavad ka pravartan karate hue vaisheshik chintan men ek krantikari parivartan kar diya. yadyapi chandramati (6thi shati) ne dashapadarthi (dashapadarthashastr) men kanadasammat chh: padartho men shakti, ashakti, samany-vishesh aur abhav ko jodakar dash padarthon ka ullekh kiya tha, kintu chini anuvad ke roop men upalabdh is granth ka aur isamen pravartit dashapadarthavad ka vaisheshik ke chintan par koee vishesh prabhav nahin pada. han, aisa pratit hota hai ki abhav ke padarthatv par chandramati ke samay se lekar shivadity ke samay tak jo charcha huee, usako manyata dete hue hi shivadity ne abhav ka padarthatv to pratishthapit kar hi diya. kuchh vidvanon ka yah bhi mat hai ki kanad ne arambh men moolat: dravy, gun aur karm ye tin hi padarth mane the. shesh tin ka pravartan bad men hua. adhikatar yahi mat prachalit hai, phir bhi snkshepat: chh: padarthon ka pariganan kanad ne hi kar diya tha.
  • vibhinn vidvanon dvara kiye gaye anusandhanon dvara jo tathy samane aye hain, unake anusar vaisheshik tattv-mimansa men pramukh roop se char mat prachalit hue, jinhen
  1. tripadarthavad
  2. shatpadarthavad
  3. dashapadarthavad tatha
  4. saptapadarthavad kaha ja sakata hai.

nyay aur vaisheshik saman tantr mane jate hain. vaisheshikasootr aur nyayasootr ki rachana se poorv snbhavat: anvikshiki ke antargat in donon shastron ka samavesh hota raha, kintu kalantar men nyayashastr men pramanon ke vivechan ko aur vaisheshik shastr men prameyon ke vishleshan ko pramukhata di gee jisase ki donon ka vikas prithakh-prithakh roop men hua. bad ke katipay prakaran granthon men phir in donon shastron ka samanvay karane ka prayas kiya gaya, par vastut: aise uttarakalin granthon men bhi kuchh nyayapradhan hain aur kuchh vaisheshikapradhan. nyay ke acharyon ne gautam pravartit solah padarthon men vaisheshikasammat sat pradarthon ka, tatha vaisheshik ke vyakhyakaron ne vaisheshikasammat sat padarthon men nyayasammat solah padarthon ka antarbhav karate hue in donon darshanon men samanvay karane ka prayatn kiya, kintu isase in donon darshanon ki apani-apani vishishtata par koee viparit prabhav nahin pada aur donon shastron ka prithakh-prithakh pradhany aj bhi bana hua hai.

padarth

vaisheshik darshan men tattv shabd ke sthan par padarth shabd ko prayukt kiya gaya hai. padarth shabd ka vyutpattimoolak[1] ashay yah hai ki koee bhi aisi vastu, jisakon koee nam diya ja sake arthat jo shabd se snketit ki ja sake aur indriy-grahy ho vah arth kahalati hai.[2] katipay vidvanon ke anusar jis prakar hathi ke pad (charan-chihn) ko dekhakar hathi ka gyan kiya ja sakata hai, usi prakar pad (shabd) se arth ka gyan hota hai. vaisheshikasootr men padarth ka lakshan upalabdh nahin hota. padarth shabd ka prayog bhi sootrakar ne keval ek bar kiya hai.[3]

  • prashastapad (chaturth shati) ke anusar padarth vah hai jisamen astitv, abhidheyatv aur gyeyatv ho.[4]
  • ye tinon hi lakshan-sadharmy ke adhayak hain, arthat padarthon ke ye tin saman dharm hain. prashastapad ka yah bhi kahana hai ki nity dravyon ke atirikt any sabhi padarth kisi par ashrit rahate hain. ashrit ka arth hai paratantr roop se rahana, n ki samavay sambandh se. prashastapad dvara prayukt astitv, abhidheyatv aur gyeyatv in tin shabdon ka vishleshan uttaravarti acharyon ne apani-apani drishti se kiya. unamen se katipay acharyon ke nimnalikhit kathan dhyan dene yogy hain—

astitv

  • shridhar (10vin shati) ka yah kathan hai ki kisi vastu ka jo svaroop hai, vahi usaka astitv hai.[5] jabaki vyomashivachary (9vin shati) ke vichar men 'asti' ya 'sath' is prakar ka gyan hi astitv kahalata hai.
  • nyayalilavatikar vallabhachary (12vin shati) sattasnbandhabuddhi ko hi astitv kahate hain.
  • jagadish tarkalnkar (16vin shati) ne sookti namak tika men bhavatvavishisht svaroopasattv ko hi 'astitv' kaha hai.
  • samanyataya astitv aur satta ko paryayavachi mana ja sakata hai, kintu vaisheshik darshan ke anusar inamen bhed hai. astitv satta ki apeksha adhik vyapak hai, kyonki satta men bhi astitv hai. astitv kisi vastu ka apana svaroop hai, yah satta samany ki tarah samavay sambandh se vastu men nahin rahata. vah to vastu ka apana hi vishesh roop hai.
  • vaisheshikon ke anusar satta keval dravy, gun aur karm in tin men hi samavay sambandh se rahati hai. in tin men rahane ke karan usako samany kaha jata hai, n ki adhik vyapakata ke karan. is prakar satta 'samany' ka aur 'astitv' svaroop-vishesh ka dyotak hai. astitv vyapak hai aur satta vyapy.

abhidheyatv
abhidhan ka ashay hai- nam ya shabd. shabdon se jisaka ullekh ho sake, vah abhidhey hai.

  • udayanachary ne abhidhey ko hi padarth mana hai.[6]
  • annnbhatt bhi pramukhataya abhidheyatv ko hi padarthon ka samany lakshan manate hain.[7] snsar men jo bhi vastu hai, usaka koee nam hai. at: vah abhidhey hai. jo abhidhey hai, vah pramey hai aur jo pramey hai, vah padarth hai. koee bhi arth (vastu) jo sngya se sngyit ho, padarth kahalata hai.

gyeyatv

  • shivadity ke anusar padarth ve hain, jo pramiti ke vishay hon.[8] padarth agyey nahin, apitu gyey hain. vishv ke sabhi padarth ghat-pat adi, jinaka astitv hai, ve gyey arthat gyanayogy bhi hain. agyey vishay ki satta ko svikar nahin kiya ja sakata. jisaka astitv hai vah sat hai, jo sat hai vah gyey hai, aur jo gyey hai vah abhidhey hai.
  • vastut: astitv, abhidheyatv aur gyeyatv men se kisi ek lakshan se bhi padarth ki paribhasha ki ja sakati hai, kyenki asti ya sat shabd dvara ullikhit bhav padarthon ke sndarbh men abhidheyatv aur gyeyatv koee bhinn snkalpanaen nahin hain. vastut: astitv, abhidheyatv aur gyeyatv ye bhav padarthon ke saman dharm hai. aisa pratit hota hai ki padarth ki paribhasha men 'astitv' shabd ke samavesh se yah snketit kiya gaya hai ki vastu vaisi hai, jaisa usaka svaroop hai, n ki vaisi, jaisi ham use kalpit karate hain. isase vigyanavad ka nirasan hota hai aur shoonyavad ka bhi pratyakhyan ho jata hai. gyeyatv se snshayavad aur agyeyavad tatha abhidheyatv se yah bataya gaya hai ki vastugyan ki abhivyakti avashyak hai. pratit hota hai ki prashastapad bhi is bat se parichit the ki in tinon lakshanon men se kisi ek se bhi padarth ko paribhashit kiya ja sakata hai, kintu unhonne apane poorvavarti ya samasamayik acharyon ki vibhinn shnkaon ke samadhan ke lie tinon ko ek sath rakhakar yah pratipadit kiya ki -
  1. padarth sat hai,
  2. padarth abhidhey hai aur
  3. padarth gyey hai. phir bhi paravarti kee granthakaron ne inamen se kisi ek ko bhi padarth ka samagr lakshan manakar kam chala liya.
  • udayanachary aur annnbhatt ne abhidheyatv ko aur shivadity ne gyeyatv aur prameyatv ko pramukhata di. 'astitv' ko chhodane ka karan snbhavat: yah tha ki inake samay tak abhav ki satpam padarth ke roop men pratishtha ho rahi thi ya ho chuki thi. yadyapi vastuon ke dharm unase prithakh nahin hote, phir bhi dharm aur dharmi ke bhed se unamen parthaky mana jata hai. dravyadi chh: padarthon men astitv, abhidheyatv aur gyeyatv ye tin saman dharm hain. kintu shridhar ka is sndarbh men yah kathan hai ki ye tinon avastha-bhed se prithakh hain, moolat: to ve vastu ke svaroop ke hi dyotak hain.[9] vastut: ye tinon shabd ek hi vastu ke tin pakshon ka akhyan karate hain. yah gyatavy hai ki astitv aur abhav ki snkalpanaon men parasparik virodh ka pratyakhyan karate hue shridhar ne yah bataya ki satta keval dravy, gun aur karm men rahati hai, jabaki astitv any sabhi padarthon men, aur yahan tak ki abhav men bhi rahata hai. vishvanath pnchanan ne bhi astitv ko abhavasahit saton padarthon ka sadharmy mana. at: satta aur astitv do bhinn-bhinn snkalpanaen hain.[10] yadyapi shridhar dvara niroopit 'astitv' ke arth ko grahan karane par abhav ke padarthatv ka samadhan ho sakata hai. par shnkar mishr ne is samasya ka samadhan yah kahakar kiya ki gyeyatv aur abhidheyatv to chh: padarthon ke upalakshan matr hain, vastut: unamen saton padarthon ka sadharmy hai. itane sare akhyan-pratyakhyanon ke rahate hue bhi padarth ke lakshan men 'astitv' ki snghatakata abhav ke pariprekshy men abhi bhi vivadaspad bani huee hai. phir bhi snkshep men yah kaha ja sakata hai ki prashastapad ke anusar jo sath, abhidhey aur gyey hai, usi ko padarth kaha ja sakata hai.

padarth snkhya

vaisheshik men padarthon ki snkhya ke sndarbh men pramukh roop se char sopan ya char mat upalabdh hote hain. unaka snkshipt vivaran is prakar hai-
tripadarthavad

  • anek vidvanon ka yah mat hai ki vaisheshik sootr men kanad ne pahale dravy, gun aur karm in tin hi padarthon ka pariganan kiya tha. is bat ka adhar yah hai ki vaisheshik sootr ke pratham adhyay ke pratham ahnik men keval inhin tinon ka niroopan hai aur athaven adhyay ke dvitiy ahnik men inhin tin ko arth-sngya se nirdisht kiya gaya hai.[11]
  • satta bhi dravy, gun, karm men hi mani gee hai.[12]
  • inake atirikt shesh tin arthat samany vishesh aur samavay ka vishleshan bad men kiya gaya hai.
  • is prakar anek vidvanon ka yah mat hai ki kanad dvara jis prakar se in chh: padarthon ka ullekh kiya gaya, usase yah siddh hota hai ki kanad ne dravy, gun aur karm ko pramukh roop se padarth mana aur samany vishesh aur samavay ke padarthatv ka niroopan gaun roop men kiya. is prakar yah kaha ja sakata hai ki padarthon ki snkalpana ke vikas-kram ke pratham sopan men kanad ne gaun roop men avashisht tin tattvon ka pariganan karate hue bhi pramukhataya dravy, gun aur karm in tin ko hi padarth sngya se nirdisht kiya tha.

shatpadarthavad
vaisheshikasootr men chh: padarthon ka ullekh poorvokt roop men upalabdh hota hai. phir bhi kee vidvanon ka yah mat hai ki siddhant ke roop men shatpadarthavad ki vidhivat sthapana prashastapad ne ki. is manyata ke samarthan men yah bat bhi kahi jati hai ki vaisheshikasootr ki chandranandavritti aur mithilavritti men prathamadhyay ke pratham ahnik ke us sootr ki vyakhya nahin hai, jo padarth-ganana se sambaddh mana jata hai.

  • radhakrishnan prabhriti anek vidvan yah manate hain ki yah sootr prakshipt hai.[13]
  • prashastapad ne bhashy ke arambh men hi yah sthapana ki ki padarth chh: hain—dravy-gun-karm-samany-vishesh-samavayanan shannan padarthanan sadharmyavaidharmyabhyan tattvgyann ni:shreyasahetu:. tachcheshvarachodanabhivyaktadh dharmadev.[14]
  • in chh: padarthon men bhi vikas ka ek kram raha hai. vikasakram ke pratham charan men sarvapratham dravy ka gyan hua. phir jab dravyon men bhed dikhaee diya to dravyon men antarnihit guno, visheshataon ka pata chala. isi prakar jab vastuon ki sthiti men parivartan ka bodh hua to parivartan men antarnihit karm ki avadharana huee aur is prakar sarvapratham dravy, gun aur karm ye tin padarth mane gaye.
  • vikas ke dvitiy sopan ka arambh anek vastuon men kuchh samanataon ke dikhaee dene ke karan hua, phalat: samany ya jati namak tattv bhi padarth ki koti men gina jane laga. is samany men bhi samanata ke sath hi vyavartakata ka bhi bodh hua. udaharanataya jaise gotv namak samany ek gau ko any gauon ke saman nirdisht karata hai, vaise hi vah gobhinn ashv adi praniyon se gau ko prithakh bhi karata hai. at: isake lie 'samany-vishesh' namak ek padarth ki avadharan ki gee. kintu gathabandhan ki is avadharana ko lok-svikriti nahin mil paee, at: uttaravarti acharyon ne yahi uchit samajha ki vastuon men samanata ko vyakt karane vale tattv 'samany' ka aur unamen vaishishtay batane vale tattv vishesh ka prithakh-prithakh roop se padarthatv mana jae. dravy, gun, karm, samany aur vishesh ki padarth ke roop men avadharana ke sath yah bhi dekha gaya ki vastuon men bahy aur antarik snbandh bhi vidyaman hain. jaise snyog ek sambandh hai, kintu vah pahale se asambaddh vastuon ko hi ek doosare se jod sakata hai. kintu vah keval bahy sambandh hai, jabaki vastuon men antarvati sambandh bhi hote hain. at: vastuon men paye jane vale antarik sambandh ke roop men samavay ki avadharana ki gee aur is prakar samavay ko ek padarth manakar prashastapad adi acharyon ne shatpadarthavad ko ek vyavasthit roop de diya.[15]

saptapadarthavad
vaisheshikasammat padarthamimansa ke vikasakram ke dvitiy charan men prashastapad prabhriti bhashyakaron ne shatpadarthavad ko pratishthapit kar diya tha. kintu shatpadarthi avadharana mukhyat: bhav padarthon par hi charitarth hoti hai, abhav par nahin. chandramati jaise bhashyakaron ke granthon se bhi is bat ke snket milate hain ki abhav-padarthatv ke sambandh men shivadity se pahale bhi vichar hota raha. phir bhi yah to spasht hi hai ki paramparin roop se charchit aur pray: padarthashrinkhala men pariganit hone ke bad bhi abhav ka padarthatv vivadaspad rahata chala a raha tha. shivadity ne saptapadarthi men abhav ko pratishthit karake padarthon ki snkhya vidhivat sat nirdharit kar di.
dashapadarthavad
chandramati (6thi shati) ne dashapadarthashastr (dashapadarthi) men

  1. dravy
  2. gun
  3. karm
  4. samany
  5. vishesh
  6. samavay
  7. shakti
  8. ashakti
  9. samany-vishesh tatha
  10. abhav namak das padarthon ka pariganan kiya. inamen se chh: to vaisheshik parampara men pahale se hi svikrit the. baki char ka avataran chandramati ne kiya. in charon men se shakti ke padarthatv ka ullekh prabhakar matanuyayi mimansakon ne bhi kiya.

inamen se abhav ka samavesh to shivadity (10vin shati) ne saptapadarthi men kar diya, kintu chandramati pariganit shesh tin ka padarthatv uttaravarti vaisheshik parampara men svikary nahin ho paya, snkshep men prastut hai ki shakti, ashakti aur samany-vishesh ko padarth manane ke paksh men chandramati adi vaisheshikon, acharyon aur prabhakar mimansakon ke kya tark the aur any acharyon ne unako kyon nahin apanaya?
shakti ke prithakh padarthatv ka nirasan
mimansakon ka yah tark hai ki shakti ek atirikt padarth hai. yah is udaharan se siddh hota hai ki chandrakantamani ki upasthiti ya sannidhi men ag aur kashth ke snyog se bhi dahakriya nahin hoti. isake viparit yadi chandrakantamani ki upasthiti ya sannidhi n ho to dahakriya ho jati hai. isase yah spasht hota hai ki chandrakantamani ki upasthiti men dahakriya nahin hoti aur anupasthiti men ho jati hai. at: shakti ek atirikt padarth hai. is tark ka khandan is prakar kiya jata hai ki yadi kisi vastu ke samip hone ya n hone se shakti ka utpad aur vinash mana jaega to is prakar anek shaktiyan manani padengi. at: isaki apeksha yah manana adhik uchit hai ki agni matr nahin, apitu uttejak mani ke abhav se vishisht agni hi dah ka karan hoti hai. shakti ke padarthatv ka khandan karate hue shivadity ne yah bataya ki shakti prithakh padarth nahin, apitu dravyadi svaroop hi hai. drisht karanon se hi drisht kary ki utpatti hoti hai. at: adrishti shakti ko karan manana uchit nahin hai. ek hi kary ki utpatti anek karanon se bhi ho sakati hai. jaise ki ag, kashth ke gharshan se athava sooryakant mani ke prabhav se bhi utpann ho sakati hai. at: dah ka karan shakti nahin, apitu uttejakabhav vishishtamanyabhav hai.[16] agni men rahane vali shakti agni ke atirikt aur kuchh nahin he, vah agni hi hai.
ashakti ke prithakh padarthatv ka nirasan
jaise bhav padarthon ke viparit abhav ka padarthatv svikar kiya gaya hai, usi prakar shakti ke viparit ashakti ko bhi ek padarth manakar chandramati ne padarthon ki ganana men isaka bhi samavesh kiya, kintu vaisheshik ki uttaravarti padarthamimansa par isaka koee vishesh prabhav nahin pada.
samany-vishesh ke prithakh padarthatv ka nirasan

  • chandramati ne dash padarthon men 'samany-vishesh' ka bhi pariganan kiya. katipay vaisheshikon ne yah dekha ki aisi anek vastuen hain, jinamen samanata dikhaee deti hai, kintu vah samanata n keval samanadharma vastuon ko ek varg men rakhati hai, apitu any varg ki vastuon se usako alag bhi karati hai. is prakar unhonne samany-vishesh namak ek gathajod ki kalpana ki aur usako ek padarth mana.
  • samany aur vishesh ka padarthatv prithakh-prithakh roop se to vaisheshik darshan men svikrit hai hi. prashastapad ka to yah bhi vichar raha ki samany se keval satta ka bodh hota hai aur vishesh se keval any vishesh ka. at: unhonne samany aur vishesh ke bich ki sthiti ko aparasamany kaha, jo ki samany aur vishesh ki madhyasth kadi jaisa hai. dashapadarthi men bhi sambhavat: aisi hi snkalpana ko dhyan men rakhate hue samany-vishesh ka ek alag padarth ke roop men ullekh kiya gaya. kintu is snkalpana ko bhi uttaravarti vaisheshikon ki svikriti nahin mil paee.

sadrishy adi ke prithakh padarthatv ka nirasan

  • prabhakar mimansakon ne dravy, gun, karm, samany, samavay, shakti, sadrishy aur snkhya namak ath padarth mane, jabaki bhatt mimansakon ne dravy, samany, gun, karm aur abhav ya anupalabdhi in panch ko hi padarth mana.[17] prabhakarokt padarthon men sadrishy ke padarthatv par gahari vipratipattiyan prakat karane ke sath-sath vaisheshikon ka yah mat raha ki shivadityokt saptapadarthon ke atirikt any kisi tattv ka prithakh padarthatv svikar nahin kiya ja sakata.
  • sadrishy ke padarthatv ke snbandh men prabhakar mimansakon ne yah tark diya ki sadrishy aur samany men antar hai. sadrishy samanyasahit sabhi padarthon men rahata hai, at: sadrishy bhi ek padarth hai. is avadharana ke viparit shridhar yah kahate hain ki sadrishy bhi ek prithakh padarth nahin hai, apitu upadhiroop samany hai.[18]
  • padmanath mishr ka bhi yah kathan hai ki kisi padarth ke bahut se dharmon ka usase bhinn doosare padarth men paya jana hi sadrishy hai, jaise chandramukh men. at: sadrishy koee prithakh padarth nahin hai. udayanachary ne bhi yah kaha hai ki sadrishy dravyadi chh: bhav padarthon men hi samavisht hai.[19]
  • vishvanath pnchanan ka bhi yahi vichar hai ki sadrishy padarthantar nahin hai.[20]
  • dinakarikar ka vichar hai ki sadrishy ke padarthatv ko svikar karate hue bhi tattvgyan men sahayak n hone ke karan prithakh padarth ke roop men sadrishy ke pariganan ki navy naiyayik avashyakata nahin samajhate.
  • prashastabhashy ki setu-tika men padmanabh mishr ne poorvapaksh ke roop men bhed, shakti, shuddhi, ashuddhi, bhavana, svatv, kshanik, vaishishty, samooh, prakaritv, snkhya, sadrishy, taratv, mandatv, adharadheyabhav, vynjanavritti, sphot, snsargamaryada, ling, visheshan-visheshyabhav, karanatv, svaroop, sambandh, aur tattedanta in 23 tattvon ka ullekh karate hue unake padarthatv ko asvikrit kiya padarthon ki snkhya sat hi pratipadit ki.
  • isi prakar nyayalilavatikar vallabhachary ne bhi tamas, shakti gyanata, vaishishtay, adharadhey bhav aur sadrishy ke padarthatv ka poorvapaksh ki drishti se upasthapan karake unaka nirakaran kiya.
  • shivadity ne bhi nimnalikhit sat tattvon ke prithakh padarthatv ka pratyakhyan karate hue yah kaha ki
  1. madhyatv paraparatv ka abhav h
  2. tamash ka antarbhav abhav men ho jata hai
  3. shakti dravyadisvaroop hai,
  4. visheshy visheshan visheshyabhavasambandh hai,
  5. gyatata gyanavishayak sambandh ke atirikt aur kuchh nahin hain
  6. sadrishy upadhi roop hai aur
  7. laghutv gurutv ka abhav hai.
  • manamanoharakar vadivagishvar ne bhi shakti, gyatata, vishishtata, vishayavishayibhav, sadrishy aur pradhan ke padarthatv ka poorvapaksh ke roop men upanyas karake inake padarthatv ka nirasan kiya tatha tamas ko bhi prithakh padarth n manakar abhav men hi usaka antarbhav kiya.
  • nyay-vaisheshik parampara ke katipay uttaravarti acharyon ne vaisheshikasammat in sat padarthon men se kuchh ko svikar nahin kiya.
  • udaharanataya raghunath shiromani ne padarthatatvanirnay namak laghugranth men vishesh ke padarthatv ka khandan kiya[21] aur kshan, svatv, shakti, karanatv, karyatv, snkhya, vaishishty evn vishayata ye ath padarth atirikt roop men manane ka vidhan kiya.
  • isi prakar venidatt (18vin shati) ne padarthamandan namak granth men dravy, gun, karm, dharm aur abhav ye panch hi padarth mane aur vishesh ka padarthatv svikar nahin kiya. any darshanon ke anek acharyon ko bhi vishesh ka padarthatv many nahin hua.

is prakar ham dekhate hain ki padarthon ke abhidhan aur snkhya ke snbandh men vaisheshik ke acharyon aur any darshanikon ne bhi vibhinn mat prastut kiye. kintu vaisheshik padarthamimansa ke vikasakram men antat: shivadity dvara niroopit saptapadarthavad hi sarvadhik many samajha gaya.
vaisheshik ke sapt padarthon men nyay ke solah padarthon ka antarbhav
yon to yah prashn uthana anavashyak sa hai ki nyay men pariganit 16 padarthon ka vaisheshik men nirdisht 7 padarthon men kaise antarbhav hota hai, kyonki nyayasootr men padarthon ki nahin, apitu shastrarth men upayogi vishayon ki ganana ki gee hai. phir bhi, antarbhav ki rooparekha nimnalikhit roop se sampann hoti hai.[22]

  1. dravy(atma) men- praman (pratyaksh kuchh acharyon ke anusar gun men), prayojan, drishtant, hetvabhas (sndarbhanusar gun men bhi), nigrahasthan (sndarbhanusar) tatha siddhant ka antarbhav mana ja sakata hai.
  2. gun (buddhi) men- arth praman (anuman), snshay, avayav, tark, nirnay, vad, jalp, vitanda, chhal aur jati ko antarbhoot kiya ja sakata hai.
  3. karm
  4. samany
  5. vishesh
  6. samavay— nyay-vaisheshik men saman hai, kintu inake vargikaran aur niroopan men kuchh bhed hai. vatsyayan ke anusar nyay ke prameyon ka inamen aur inaka nyay ke prameyon men antarbhav hai. nyayashastr men inaki charcha prameyon ke antargat ki gee hai.
  7. abhav men— nigrahasthan (agyan, apratibha tatha vikshep) tatha apavarg (du:khon ki atyantik nivritti) ka antarbhav ho jata hai.

dravy

vaisheshikon ne poorvokt prakar se sat padarthon ka ullekh kiya hai aur brahmand ki samast vastuon ko sat vargon men vargikrit kiya hai. padarthon ki snkhya ke sambandh men vaisheshik ke vibhinn acharyon aur vibhinn darshanikon men matabhed hain, dravy ka samany svaroop, dravyon ke lakshan aur unake pramukh bhedon ka snkshep men ullekh karenge.
dravy ka lakshan

  • vaisheshik darshan men mukhyat: is drishtikon ke adhar par padarthon ka vivechan kiya gaya ki padarthon men samanat: sadharmy hai aur antarik vibhinnata unaka niji vaishishty hai, jo unhen unake varg ki any vastuon se prithakh karati hai. kanad ne dravy ke lakshan ka niroopan karate hue yah pratipadit kiya ki kary ka samavayikaran aur gun evn kriya ka ashrayabhoot padarth hi

dravy hai.[23] prithvi adi nau dravyon ka is lakshan se yukt hona hi unaka sadharmy hai. is lakshan ko kanadottaravarti pray: sabhi vaisheshikon ne apane dravyaparak chintan ka adhar banaya, kintu unake vicharon men kahin-kahin kuchh antar bhi dikhaee deta hai.

  • kanad ke uparyukt lakshan ka ashay yah hai ki dravy
  1. karm ka ashray hai,
  2. gunon ka ashray hai aur
  3. karyon ka samavayikaran hai.
  • katipay uttaravarti acharyon ne in tinon ghatakon men se kisi ek ko hi dravy ka lakshan manane ki avadharanaon ka bhi vishleshan kiya. unamen se katipay ne is ashnka ka bhi udbhavan kiya ki 'jo karm ka ashray ho vah dravy hai'- yadi kanad sootr ka keval yahi ek ghatak dravy ka lakshan mana jaega, to isamen avyapti dosh a jayega, kyonki akash, kal aur dik bhi padarth hain jabaki ve nishkriy hain, unamen karm hota hi nahin hai. yadyapi pratyek kriyashil padarth dravy mana ja sakata hai, kintu pratyek dravy ko kriyashil nahin mana ja sakata. 'jo gunon ka ashray ho vah dravy hai' keval is ghatak ko bhi kuchh acharyon ne dravy ka poorn lakshan man liya.[24] kintu is sndarbh men yah apatti ki jati hai ki 'utpatti ke pratham kshan men padarth gunarahit hota hai.' at: yah lakshan avyapt hai.
  • parantu is apatti ka uttar dete hue udayanachary ne kaha ki dravy kabhi bhi gunon ke atyantabhav ka adhikaran nahin hota. is kathan ka yah ashay hai ki utpatti ke pratham kshan men bhale hi dravy men gunashrayata n ho, kintu us samay bhi usamen gunon ka ashray banane ki shakti to rahati hi hai aur is prakar dravy gunon ke atyantabhav ka anadhikaran hai.[25]
  • chitsukhachary adi acharyon ne keval is ghatak ko hi poorn lakshan manane par apatti ki, at: is lakshan ko bhi nirvivad nahin kaha ja sakata. bauddh darshan men dharmon ko kshan roop men sat mana gaya hai tatha dharmi ya dravy ko asat. punj (samuday) ke atirikt avayavi nam ki koir vastu nahin hai. sare tantu alag kar diye jaen to pat ka koir astitv nahin rahata. at: dravy ki snkalpana matr par bhi vipratipatti karate hue bauddhon ne yah tark diya ki gunon se prithakh dravy ki koee satta nahin hai, jaise ki chakshu adi indriyon ke dvara roop adi ka hi grahan hota hai. roop ke bina kisi aisi vastu ka hamen alag se pratyaksh nahin hota, jisamen vah roop, gun rahata ho, jo vastuon ko snshlisht roop men prastut kar deti hai. at: bauddh matanusar gunon se prithakh dravy ka koee astitv nahin hai.[26]
  • bauddhon ke is akshep ka uttar nyay-vaisheshik men is prakar diya gaya hai ki yadi dravy jaise ghat keval roop (nil) sparsh adi gunon ka samudayamatr hota to ek hi ashray dravy ke sambandh men do bhinn-bhinn gunon jaise dekhane (roop) aur chhoone (sparsh) ka nirdesh nahin ho sakata tha.[27] at: yah siddh hota hai ki ashrayabhoot dravy (ghat) roop aur sparsh ka samuday matr nahin, apitu unase prithakh evn svatntr avayavi hai.
  • yah gyatavy hai ki sankhy men dharmi aur dharmon ka tattvat: abhinn mana gaya hai. vedant men tattvat: dharmon ko asat aur dharmi ko sat mana gaya hai.
  • vaisheshik men dharm aur dharmi donon ko vastusat mana gaya hai. 'jo samavayikaran ho vahi dravy hai' kanadasootr ke keval is tritiy ghatak ko hi dravy ki poorn paribhasha manane ki avadharana ka bhi anek uttaravarti acharyon ne samarthan kiya hai.[28]
  • in acharyo ke kathanon ka sar yah hai ki samavayikaran vah hota hai, jisamen samavet rahakar hi kary utpann hota hai. pratyek kary ki samavetata dravy par ashrit hai. snyog aur vibhag namak kary vibhu dravyon se bhi sambaddh hai.[29] in acharyon ka yah mat hai ki is anshik ghatak ko hi poora lakshan manane men koee dosh nahin hai. kanadasootr ke tin ghatakon par adharit uparyukt tin prithakh-prithakh paribhashaon ki svat:poorn svatantr avadharanaon ke pravartan ke bavajood samanyat: in tinon ghatakon ko ek sath rakhakar tatha tinon ke samanvit ashay ko dhyan men rakhate hue yah kahana upayukt hoga ki kanad ke anusar dravy vah hai jo kriya ka samavayikaran tatha gun aur karm ka ashray ho. 'dravyatv jati se yukt evn gun ka jo ashray ho, vah dravy hai'[30] – is jatighatit lakshan ki riti se bhi dravy ke lakshan ka ullekh prashastapadabhashy, vyomavati, kiranavali, saptapadarthi adi granthon men milata hai, kintu chitsukh ne is mat ki alochana karate hue is sndarbh men yah kaha ki dravyatv jati men koee praman nahin hai. kintu siddhant chandroday adi granthon men yah bataya gaya hai ki dravyatv jati ki svatntr satta hai aur vah pratyaksh athava anuman praman se gyat hoti hai.
  • shridharachary ne poorv paksh ke roop men yah shnka uthaee ki jal ko dekhane ke anantar agni ko dekhane par 'yah vahi hai'- aisi anugat pratiti nahin hoti. at: dravyatv nam ki koir jati kaise mani ja sakati hai aur nyayakandali men is siddhant ka pratipadan kiya ki gun aur karm ka ashray hone ke atirikt dravy ki apani svatantr satta hai. at: dravy usako kahate hain, jisaki svapradhany roop se svatantr pratiti ho. isaka ashay yah hua ki dravy vah hai, jisaki apani pratiti ke lie kisi any ashray ki avashyakata nahin hoti. yahi svatantry dravy ka dravyatv hai, jo jal aur ag ko ek hi varg men rakh sakata hai. yadyapi chitsukh jaise acharyon ne svatantry ko dravy ki jati ke roop men svikar nahin kiya, tathapi vaisheshik nay men shridhar ke is mat ko uttaravarti acharyon se atyadhik adar prapt hua. snkshepat: uparyukt kathanon ko yadi ek sath rakha ja sake to ham yah kah sakate hain ki padarth vah hai, jo kisi kary ka samavayikaran ho, gun aur karm ka ashray ho, dravyatv jati se yukt ho, aur jisaki svapradhany roop se svatantr pratiti ho.[31]

dravy ke bhed
vaisheshik men dravy ke prithvi ap, tej, vayu, akash, kal, dik, atma aur man ye nau bhed mane gaye hain.[32]

  • in nau dravyon men prithvi, jal, tej- ye tin anity dravy hain,
  • vayu, akash, kal, disha, atma aur man- ye chh: nity dravy hain.
  • kuchh achary vayu ko bhi anity dravy manate hain.
  • bhatt mimansakon ke matanusar tamas aur shabd bhi atirikt dravy hain.
  • kintu vaisheshikon ke anusar tamas prakash ka abhavamatr hai aur shabd bhi prithakh dravy nahin hai.
  • kandalikar ke anusar atma namak dravy men eeshvar ka samavesh bhi ho jata hai. at: prashastapad arambh men hi yah kah dete hain ki vaisheshik nay men dravy keval nau hi many hain. any darshanon men in nau se atirikt jo dravy mane gaye hain, ve vaisheshikon ke anusar prithakh dravyon ke roop men svikar karane yogy nahin hain.[33]
  • raghunath shiromani ne dik, kal aur akash ko eeshvar (atma) men antarbhoot manakar tatha man ko asamavet bhoot kahakar dravyon ki snkhya panch tak hi simit karane ki avadharana pravartit ki.[34] kintu is bat ka vaisheshik nay par koee prabhav nahin dikhaee padata.
  • venidatt ne padarthamandan namak granth men raghunath shiromani ki manyataon ka prabal roop se khandan kiya.[35] at: yahi manana hi tarkasngat hai ki vaisheshik darshan men nau hi dravy mane gaye hain.
  • pariganit nau dravyon men se pratham panch, pnchamahabhoot sngya se adhik vikhyat hain.

prithvi

  • kanad ke anusar roop, ras, gandh aur sparsh ye charon gun jisamen samavay sambandh se rahate hon vah prithvi hai.[36]
  • prashastapad ne in charon gunon men das any gun yani snkhya, pariman, prithaktv, snyog, vibhag, paratv, aparatv, gurutv, dravatv aur snskar jodate hue yah bataya ki prithvi men chaudah gun paye jate hain. inamen se gandh prithvi ka vyavartak gun hain.[37]
  • roop, ras aur sparsh vishesh gun hain aur shesh das samany gun hain. prithvi do prakar ki hai.
  1. nity- paramanuroop aur
  2. anity paramanujany karyaroop.
  • prithvi ke karyaroop paramanuon men
  1. sharir,
  2. indriy aur vishay ke bhed se tin prakar ka dravyarambhakatv mana jata hai.
  • parthiv sharir bhogayatan hota hai. sharir mukhyat: prithvi ke paramanuon se nirmit aur gandhavan hota hai, at: vaisheshikon ne sharir ko parthiv hi mana hai, panchabhautik nahin.
  • vaisheshikon ke anusar parthiv paramanu sharir ke upadan karan aur any bhooton ke paramanu unake nimitt karan hote hain, kintu lokaprasiddh ke karan panchon bhooton ke paramanuon ko sharir ka upadan karan mana jata hai.
  • at: sharir ka panchabhautikatv prakhyat ho gaya, jis par vaisheshik mat ka kaee khas prabhav nahin pada. sharir se snyukt, aparoksh pratiti ke sadhan tatha atindriy dravy ko indriy kaha jata hai. indriyon men se ghranendriy hi gandh ko grahan karati hai at: ghranendriy hi mukhyat: parthiv indriy hain.[38]
  • parthiv dravy ke tritiy bhed ke antargat sabhi sharirarahit aur indriyarahit vishay ate hain.[39]
  • prithvi ki paribhasha men kanad aur prashastapad ne anek gunon ka ullekh kiya tha; kintu vaisheshik chintan ke vikas kram ke sath antat: yah bat many ho gee ki jo gandhavati ho, vah prithvi hai.[40]
  • prithvi ka gyan pratyaksh praman se hota hai.

aph (jal)

  • sootrakar kanad ke anusar roop, ras, sparsh namak gunon ka ashray tatha snigdh dravy hi jal hai.[41]
  • prashastapad ne prithvi ke saman jal men bhi samavay sambandh se chaudah gunon ke paye jane ka ullekh kiya hai.
  • jal ka rng apakaj aur abhasvar shukl hota hai.
  • yamuna ke jal men jo nilapan hai, vah yamuna ke srot men paye jane vale parthiv kanon ke snyog ke karan aupadhik hai. jal men sneh ke sath-sath sansiddhik dravatv hain.[42]
  • jal ka shaity hi vastavik hai. usamen keval madhur ras hi paya jata hai.[43]
  • usake avantar svad kharapan, khattapan adi parthiv paramanuon ke karan hote hain.
  • adhunik vigyan ke anusar jal sarvatha svadarahit hota hai, at: jal ke madhury ke sambandh men vaisheshikon ka mat chinty hai.[44]
  • prithvi ki tarah jal bhi paramanu roop men nity aur karyaroop men anity hota hai. karyaroop jal men sharir, indriy (rasana) aur vishay-bhed se tin prakar ka dravyarambhakatv samavayikaranatv mana jata hai. arthat jal sharirarambhak, indriyarambhak aur vishayarambhak hota hai. sarita, him, karaka adi vishay roop jal hai. jal ka gyan pratyaksh praman se hota hai.

tej

  • sootrakar ke anusar roop aur sparsh (ushn) jisamen samavay sambandh se rahate hain, vah dravy tez kahalata hai.[45] *prashastapad ke anusar tez men roop aur sparsh namak do vishesh gun tatha snkhya, pariman, prithaktv snyog, vibhag, paratv, aparatv, dravatv aur snskar namak nau samany gun rahate hain. isaka roop chamakila shukl hota hai.[46]
  • yah ushn hi hota hai aur dravatv isamen naimittik roop se rahata hai. tez do prakar ka hota hai, paramanuroop men nity aur karyaroop men anity. karyaroop tez ke paramanuon men sharir, indriy aur

vishay bhed se tin prakar ka dravyarambhakatv (samavayikaranatv) mana jata hai.

  • tejas sharir ayonij hote hain jo adityalok men paye jate hain aur parthiv avayavon ke snyog se upabhog men samarth hote hain. tejas ke paramanuon se utpann hone vali indriy chakshu hai. kary ke samay tez ke paramanuon se utpann vishay (vastuvarg) char prakar ka hota hai.[47]
  1. bhaum- jo kashth-indhan se udbhoot, oordhvajvalanashil evn pakana, jalana, svedan adi kriyaon ko karane men samarth (agni) hai,
  2. divy- jo jal se dipt hota hai aur soory, vidyuth adi ke roop men antariksh men vidyaman hai,
  3. udary- jo khaye hue bhojan ko ras adi ke roop men parinat karane ka nimitt (jatharagni) hai;
  4. akaraj- jo khan se utpann hota hai arthath suvarn adi jo jal ke saman aparthiv hain aur jalaye jane par bhi apane roop ko nahin chhodate. parthiv avayavon se snyog ke karan suvarn ka rng pit dikhaee deta hai. kintu vah vastavik nahin hai. suvarn ka vastavik roop to bhasvar shukl hai. poorvamimansakon ne suvarn ko parthiv hi mana hai, tejas nahin. unaki is manyata ko poorvapaksh ke roop men rakhakar isaka manamanohar, vishvanath, annnbhatt adi ne khandan kiya hai.[48]
  • suvarn se snyukt parthiv avayavon men rahane ke karan isaki upalabdhi suvarn men bhi ho jati hain jis prakar gandh prithvi ka svabhavik gun hai, usi prakar ushnasparh tez ka svabhavik gun hai. at: uttaravarti acharyon ne ushnasparshavatta ko hi tez ka lakshan mana hai.[49]
  • tez ka gyan pratyaksh praman se hota hai.

vayu

  • jis dravy men sparsh namak gun samavay sambandh se rahe, usako vayu kaha jata hai.[50]
  • sootrakar ke is kathan men prashastapad ne yah bat bhi jodi ki vayu men sparsh ke atirikt snkhya, pariman, prithaktv, snyog, vibhag, paratv, aparatv tatha snskar ye gun bhi rahate hain.[51]
  • vayu ka sparsh anushn, ashit tatha apakaj hone ke karan prithvi adi ke sparsh se bhinn hota hai. vayu rooparahit hota hai. vayu bhi anu (nity) aur kary (anity) roop men do prakar ka hota hai. karyaroop vayu ke paramanuon men sharir, indriy, vishay aur pran ke bhed se char prakar ka dravyarambhakatv (samavayikaranatv) rahata hai.[52]
  • vishvanath ke anusar vishay men hi pran ka antarbhav hone se vayaviy sharir ayonij hote hain. ve vayulok men rahate hain aur parthiv anuon ke snyog se upabhog men samarth hote hain vayaviy indriy tvak hoti hai, jo sare sharir men vidyaman rahati hai.[53] kintu is sndarbh men jayant bhatt ka yah kathan bhi dhyan dene yogy hai ki tvagindriy se shariravarak charm hi nahin, apitu sharir ke bhitari tantuon ka bhi grahan hona chahie. vayu ka pratyaksh nahin hota. usaka sparsh, shabd, kamp adi se anuman hota hai. vayu ki gati tiryak hoti hai. sammoorchchhan (vishesh prakar ka snyog) sannipat (takarav), trin ke oordhvagaman adi ke adhar par yah bhi anuman kiya jata hai ki vayu anek hain. sharir men ras, mal adi ka prerak vayu pran kahalata hai aur moolat: ek hai, kintu sthanabhed aur kriyabhed se vah
  1. mukhanasika se nishkraman aur pravesh karane ke karan pran,
  2. mal adi ko niche le jane ke karan apan,
  3. sab or le jane se saman,
  4. oopar le jane se udan aur
  5. nadi dvaron men vistrit hone se vyan kahalata hai.
  • sootrakar aur prashastapad ke anusar vayu ka gyan anuman praman se hota hai, kintu vyom shivachary, raghunath shiromani, venidatt adi acharyon ka yah mat hai ki vayu ka gyan pratyaksh praman se ho jata hai.[54]
  • annnbhatt ne rooparahit aur sparshavan ko vayu kaha hai. ab pray: vayu ka yahi lakshan sarvasadharan men adhik prachalit hai.

akash

  • vaisheshik sootrakar kanad ne prithvi, jal, tez aur vayu ki paribhasha mukhyat: unamen samavay sambandh se vidyaman pramukh gunon ke adhar par sakaratmak vidhi se ki, kintu akash ki paribhasha ka avasar ane par kanad ne arambh men nakaratmak vidhi se yah kaha ki akash vah hai[55] jisamen roop, ras, gandh aur sparsh namak gun nahin rahate. kintu bad men unhonne yah bataya ki parisheshanuman se yah siddh hota hai ki akash vah hai, jo shabd ka ashray hai.
  • prashastapad ke kathanon ka ashay bhi yah hai ki akash vah hai, jisaka vyapak shabd hai. akash ek paribhashik sngya hai. arthat akash ko 'akash' bina kisi nimitt ke vaise hi kaha gaya hai, jaise ki vyaktivachak sngya ke roop men kisi balak ko devadatt kah diya jata hai. at: 'akashatv' jaisi koee jati (samany) usamen nahin hai. jis prakar se prithvi ghat ka karyarambhak dravy hai, us prakar se akash kisi avantar dravy ka arambhak nahin hota. jaisi prithvitv ki parajati (vyapak samany) dravyatv hai aur aparajati (vyapy samany) ghatatv hai, vaisi parajati hone par bhi koee aparajati akash ki nahin hai. yadyapi gun aur karm ki apeksha se bhi aparajati ki pratiti ka vidhan hai, kintu akash men shabd adi jo chh: gun bataye ge hain, ve samany gun hain. at: unamen aparajati ka ghatakatv nahin mana ja sakata. shabd vishesh gun hote hue bhi anek dravyon ka gun nahin hai. at: vah jati ka ghatak nahin hota. is prakar anekavrittita n hone ke karan akash men 'akashatv' namak samany ki avadharana nahin ki ja sakati.
  • kintu uparyukt mantavy ka khyapan karane ke anantar bhi prashastapad yah kahate hain ki akash men shabd, snkhya, pariman, prithaktv, snyag aur vibhag ye chh: gun vidyaman hain aur pariganit gunon men shabd ko sarvapratham rakhate hain, jisase vaisheshik ke uttaravarti acharyon ne bhi kanad aur prashastapad ke ashayon ke anuroop shabd ko parisheshanuman ke adhar par akash ka pramukh gun man liya aur is prakar annnbhatt ne antat: akash ki yah paribhasha ki 'shabdagunakamh akashamh' arthat jis dravy men shabd namak gun rahata hai vah akash hai. akash ek hai, nity hai aur vibhu hai.[56] akash ki n to utpatti hoti hai aur n nash. vah akhand dravy hai. usake avayav nahin hote. akash ka pratyaksh gyan nahin hota. usaka gyan parisheshanuman se hota hai. 'ih pakshi' adi udaharanon ke adhar par mimansakon ne akash ko pratyakshagamy mana hai, kintu vaisheshikon ke anusar 'ih pakshi' adi kathan akash ka nahin, apitu alokamandal ka snket karate hain. at: akash, shabd dvara anumey dravy hai.
  • vaisheshikon ke anusar shabd ka gun hai, gun ka ashray koee n koee dravy hota hai. prithvi adi any ath dravy shabd ke ashray nahin hain. at: akash ke atirikt koee dravyantar ashray ke roop men upalabdh n hone ke karan akash ko parisheshanuman se shabdagun ka ashray mana gaya hai. akash ka koee samavayi, asamavayi aur nimitt karan nahin hai. shabd usaka gyapak hetu hai, karak nahin.
  • bhatt mimansak shabd ko gun nahin apitu dravy manate hain. kintu vaisheshikon ke anusar shabd ka dravyatv siddh nahin hota. sootrakar kanad ne yah spasht roop se kaha hai ki dravy vah hota hai, jisake keval ek hi nahin, apitu anek samavayikaran hon. shabd ka keval ek samavayikaran hai, vah akash hai. at: shabd ekadravyashrayi gun hai.[57] vah dravy nahin hai, apitu dravy se bhinn hai aur gun ki koti men ata hai. is prakar vaisheshik nayanusar akash prithakh roop se ek vibhu aur nity dravy hai.

kal

  • kal ke sndarbh men poori vaisheshik parampara ke chintan ka samahar sa rakhate hue annnbhatt ne yah bataya ki 'atit adi ke vyavahar ka hetu kal kahalata hai. vah ek hai, vibhu hai tatha nity hai.[58]' is paribhasha men jin char ghatakon ka samavesh kiya gaya hai, un par vaisheshik darshan ke lagabhag sabhi acharyon ne gahara vichar-vimarsh kiya hai.
  • kanad ne kal ke dravyatv ka ullekh karate hue usake atitadivyavaharahetutv par hi adhik bal diya. unhonne kaha ki apar (kanishth) adi men jo apar adi (kanishth hone) ka gyan hota hai vah kal ki siddhi men ling arthat nimitt karan hai. adhik sooryakriya ke sambandh se yukt bhrata ko par (jyeshth) tatha alp sooryakriya ke sambandh se yukt bhrata ko apar (kanishth) kaha jata hai. at: soory aur pind (sharir) ke madhy jo paratvaparatv-bodhak aur yugapat, chir, kshipr adi sambandhaghatak dravy hai, vahi kal hai.[59]
  • prashastapad ne akash evn dik ke saman kal ko paribhashik sngya mana aur sootrakar ke kathan ka anugaman karate hue yah kaha ki paurvaparyy, yaugapady, ayaugapady, chiratv aur kshipratv ki pratitiyan kal ki anumiti ki hetu hain.
  • kal ki satta ke siddh hone par bhi usake dravyatv par uthaee jane vali shnkaon ka samadhan vaisheshik is prakar karate hain ki prithvi adi any ath dravyon men se kisi men bhi kshan, nimesh adi kalabodhak pratitiyon ko snyukt nahin kiya ja sakata at: jis dravy ke sath hamare kshan adi ka gyan snyukt hota hai, vah kal hai.
  • shridharachary ne sooryakriya ya sooryaparivartan ke sthan par manushy-sharir ke bhautik parivartan ki pratiti ko kal ka anumapak batakar ek nee udbhavana ki.[60]
  • isi prakar vallabhachary ne nyayalilavati men yah kaha ki 'yah pustak vartaman hai', 'yah mej vartaman hai', aise vakyon men vishay ka bhed hone par bhi unaki vartamanata ek jaisi hai.[61]
  • at: vartamanatv hi kal ka gyapak hai. astitv vyaktigat svaroop ya satta samany svaroop ko dyotit karata hai, jabaki vartamanatv vastuon ke kalik sambandh ka nidarshak hai.
  • sootrakar ne yah bhi kaha ki any karyon ka nimitt karan kal hai.[62]
  • isi prakar prashastapad ke kathanon ka bhi yah sar hai ki -
  1. par, apar adi pratitiyon ka ,
  2. vastuon ki utpatti, sthiti aur vinash ka,
  3. tatha kshan, nimesh adi pratitiyon ka jo hetu hai, vah kal kahalata hai.
  • shivadity aur chandrakant ne kal ko prithakh dravy nahin mana. unake anusar kal aur dikh akash se abhinn hain.
  • raghunath shiromani ne bhi kal ko dravy n manate hue yah kaha ki eeshvar se atirikt kal ko prithakh dravy manane ki koee avashyakata nahin hai, kyonki eeshvar hi kalavyavahar ka vishay hai.[63]
  • kintu dinakar bhatt var vainidatt ne raghun ke mat ka khandan karate hue yah pratipadit kiya ki kal ko prithakh dravy mane bina hamari kalik anubhootiyon ka samadhan nahin hota.
  • jayantabhatt, nageshabhatt, yogabhashyakar vyas adi ke anusar kal ki snkalpana kalpanaprasoot hai, kal kshanapravah matr hai. at: vah svatntr dravy nahin hai, kintu vaisheshik inake mat ko svikar nahin karate aur kal ko ek prithakh dravy hi manate hain.
  • snkshep men vaisheshik mat ka sar yah hai ki kshan, nimesh adi kal ki vyavaharik upadhiyan hain. inaka nash hone se bhi kal ka nash nahin hota, at: kal ek nity dravy hai, upadhibhed se usamen anekata hone par bhi kal vastut: ek hai aur par, apar adi kalik pratitiyon ka koee any adhar dravy n hone ke karan kal prithakh roop se ek vibhu evn nity dravy hai.

disha

  • vaisheshik mat ka sarasngrah karate hue annnbhatt ne yah kaha ki 'prachi adi ke vyavahar-hetu ko dikh (disha) kahate hain. dikh ek ha, vibhu hai aur nity hai.[64]' is paribhasha men ullikhit pramukh ghatakon ka vaisheshikon ki lambi parampara men bada gahan vishleshan kiya gaya hai.
  • kanad ne yah bataya ki-'jisase : yah par hai; yah apar hai'- aisa gyan hota hai, vah dikh siddhi men ling hai.' kanad ne yah bhi kaha ki dikh ka dravyatv aur nityatv vayu ke saman hai. disha ke tattvik bhedon ka koee hetu nahin paya jata at: vah ek hai. kintu snyogatmak upadhiyon ke karan usamen prachi, pratichi adi bhed se nanatv ka vyavahar hota hai.[65]
  • prashastapad ne aparajati (vyapyasamany) ke abhav ke karan disha ko bhi akash aur kal ke saman ek paribhashik sngya mana aur sootrakar ke mantavy ka anuvad sa karate hue yah bataya ki -'yah isase poorv men hai; yah isase pashchim men hai- aisi pratitiyan jisaki bodhak hon, vah disha hai.[66]' kisi parichchhinn pariman vale moortt dravy ko avadhi (kendrabindu) man karake poorv, dakshin, pashchim, uttar adi pratitiyan ki jati hain. kintu disha ke bodhak ling men bhed n hone ke karan disha vastut: ek hai. prachi adi bhed disha ki vyavaharik upadhiyan hai. kal ke saman disha men bhi ekatv snkhya, paramamahat pariman, ek prithaktv, snyog aur vibhag ye panch gun hote hain.
  • chitsukh, chandrakant, shivadity adi ne disha ke prithakh dravyatv ka pray: is adhar par khandan kiya hai ki akash, kal evn disha prithakh-prithakh dravy nahin, apitu ek hi dravy ke tin paksh pratit hote hain. raghunath shiromani aur bhasarvgy ke anu sar disha eeshvar se abhinn hai aur dishasambandhi sabhi pratitiyan eeshvar ki upadhiyan hain.[67]
  • vaiyakaran aur bauddh kal aur disha ko kshanik pravahaman vigyan kahate hain sankhy dvara ye donon akash men antarbhoot bataye gaye hain.
  • vedant ke anusar kal aur disha parabrahm par aropit pratibhasik pratitiyan hain. keval vaisheshik men hi unaka prithakh dravyatv mana gaya hai.
  • is sndarbh men yah bhi gyatavy hai ki yadi sootrakar kanad ko akash, kal aur disha ka prithakh-prithakh dravyatv abhipret n hota, to yah inake vishleshan ke lie prithakh-prithakh sootron ka nirman kyon karate? in tinon dravyon ka svaroop, karyakshetr aur prayojan bhinn hai. udaharanataya akash ek bhootadravy hai, dik moort dravy nahin hai. kal, kalik paratvaparatv ka hetu hota hai, jabaki disha, deshik paratvaparatv ki hetu hai. kalik pratitiyan sthir hoti hain, jabaki desh ki pratitiyan kendr sapeksh hone se asthir hoti hain. at: venidatt jaise uttaravarti vaisheshikon ka bhi yahi kathan hai ki disha prithaki roop se ek vibhu aur nity dravy hai.[68]

atma

  • sootrakar kanad ne atma ke dravyatv ka vishleshan karate hue sarvapratham yah kaha ki pran, apan, nimesh, unmesh, jivan, manogati, indriyantar vikar, sukh-du:kh, ichchha, dvesh aur prayatn namak lingon se atma ka anuman hota hai. gyan adi gunon ka ashray hone ke karan atma ek dravy hai aur kisi avantar (apar samany) dravy ka arambhak n hone ke karan nity hai. atma ka pratyaksh nahin hota. roop adi ke saman gyan bhi ek gun hai. usaka bhi ashray koee dravy hona chahie. prithvi adi any ath dravy gyan ke ashray nahin hai. at: parisheshanuman se jo dravy gyan ka ashray hai, usako atma kaha jata hai.
  • kanad ne yah bhi kaha ki– gyanadi ke ashrayabhoot dravy ki atmasngya ved vihit hai. is ved vihit atma ka any ath dravyon men antarbhav nahin ho sakata. 'ahamh' shabd ka atmavachitv suprasiddh hai. 'main devadatt hoon' aise vakyon men sharir men aham ki pratiti upacharavash hoti hai. pratyek atma men sukh, du:kh ki pratiti bhinn-bhinn roop se hoti hai. at: jivatma ek nahin apitu anek hain, nana hain.[69]
  • prashastapad ne bhi sootrakar ka anuvartan karate hue prakarantar se yah kaha ki sookshm hone ke karan atma ka pratyaksh nahin hota, kintu 'jaise basoola adi karanon (hathiyaron) ko koee badhee chalata hai, vaise hi shrotr adi karanon (indriyon) ko chalane vala bhi koee hoga'- is prakar se karan prayojak ke roop men atma ka anuman kiya jata hain prashastapad ne kee any udaharanon ke dvara bhi yah bataya ki pravritti-nivritti adi ka prerak bhi koir chetan hi ho sakata hai. vahi atma hai. sukh, du:kh, ichchha, dvesh aur prayatn namak gunon se bhi guni atma ka anuman hota hai. prithvi, sharir, indriy adi ke sath ahn pratyay ka yog nahin hota. vah keval atma ke sath hota hai. prashastapad ne atma men buddhi, sukh, du:kh, ichchha, dvesh, prayatn, dharm, adharm, snskar, snkhya, pariman, prithaktv snyog aur vibhag in chaudah gunon ka ullekh karate hue yah bhi kaha ki inamen buddhi se lekar snskar paryant pratham ath atma ke vishesh gun hain aur snkhyaadi shesh chh: samany gun. vishesh gun any dravyon men nahin paye jate, jabaki samany any dravyon men bhi paye jate hain.[70]
  • kanad aur prashastapad ke kathanon ka shnkar mishr prabhriti katipay uttaravarti vyakhyakaron ne kuchh bhinn ashay grahan kiya aur yah kaha ki atmh ka manas pratyaksh hota hai. main hoon- yah gyan, manasapratyaksh hai, n ki anumanajany. kanad ke ek any kathan ko spasht karate hue shnkar mishr ne yah bhi bataya ki jis prakar vayu ke paramanuon men avayavon ke vishay men koee praman n hone se ve nity mane jate hain, vaise hi atma ke avayav manane men koee praman n hone ke karan atma nity hai tatha anadi ka ashray hone ke karan atma ek dravy hai.[71]
  • vedant adi men gyan ko atma ka svaroop mana jata hai, kintu vaisheshik darshan ke anusar gyan atma ka agantuk gun hai.
  • nyayamnjari men jayant ne bhi yah kaha ki svaroopat: atma jad ya achetan hai. indriy aur vishay ka man ke sath snyog hone se atma men chaitany utpann hota hai.[72] atma vibhu hai. vah n to anupariman hai, n madhyamapariman.
  • annnbhatt ne vaisheshik mat ka sarasngrah karate hue yah bataya ki gyan ka jo adhikaran hai, vah atma hai. vah do prakar ka hai, jivatma aur paramatma. paramatma ek hai aur jivatma pratyek sharir men bhinn-bhinn hone ke karan anek hai.[73] is sndarbh men udyotakar ka yah kathan bhi smaraniy hai ki paramatma nity gyan ka adhikaran hai jabaki jivatma anity gyan ka.
  • shridhar ne bhi yah bataya hai ki jivatma shariradhari hota hai jabaki paramatma kabhi bhi sharir dharan nahin karata.[74]

man

  • nyay-vaisheshik ka yah siddhant hai ki gandhadi vishayon ka ghranadi indriyon se, indriyon ka man se, au man ka atma se snyog hone par hi pratyaksh gyan hota hai. vishay ka indriy ke sath aur indriy ka atma se adhishthanamoolak sampark hone par bhi yadi indriy aur atma ke bich man snyukt ya sannihit nahin hai to gyan nahin hota, aur snprikt ya sannihit hai to gyan hota hai. gandhadi ekadhik vishayon ke sath ghranadi ekadhik indriyon ka yugapad snyog ho jane par bhi unamen se keval ek hi vishay ka gyan hota hai, kyonki man unamen se keval ek hi indriy ke sath sambaddh ho sakata hai, ek hi samay ekadhik ke sath nahin. man ki avyapritata ya anyatr vyapritata ke karan kabhi-kabhi indriyon se snyukt hone par bhi vishay ka bodh nahin hota. at: kanad yah kahate hain ki vishayon aur indriyon ke yugapad snyog ki sthiti men kisi ek vishay men gyan ke sadbhav aur any vishay men gyan ke abhav ko hetu manakar jis dravy ka anuman kiya jata hai, vah man kahalata hai. kanad yah bhi kahate hain ki jaise vayu sparshadi gunon ka ashray hone ke karan dravy aur avantar srishti ka samarambhak n hone ke karan nity hai, vaise hi snyogadi gunon ka ashray hone ke karan man dravy hai aur apar samany arthat kisi sajatiy avantar dravy ka samarambhak dravy n hone ke karan vah nity hai. sharir ke pratyek avayav ya ang men hi anek yugapat prayatn n hone tatha atma men ek kal men hi anek yugapad gyan utpann n hone ke karan yah siddh hota hai ki man prati sharir ek hai arthat bhinn-bhinn shariron men bhinn-bhinn hai.[75]
  • prashastapad adi bhashyakaron ne kanad ke kathanon ko prakaratnar se prastut karate hue yah bataya ki atma, indriy tatha vishay ke sannidhy ke hote hue bhi gyan, sukh adi kary kabhi hote hain, kabhi nahin hote hain. at: atma, indriy aur vishay in tinon ke atirikt kisi any hetu ki apeksha hai, vahi hetu man hai. prashastapad ne man ko snkhya, pariman, prithaktv, snyog, vibhag, paratv, aparatv aur snskar namak ath gunon ka achetan, pararthak, moort, anupariman tatha ashu snchari mana hai.[76]
  • prashastapad ke anusar smriti bhi kisi indriy par adharit hoti hai. shrotrendriy smriti ka hetubhoot jo indriy hai, vahi man hai. sukhadi ki pratiti ka karan bhi man hi he. is prakar prashastapad ke anusar yugapadi gyananutpatti, smriti aur sukhadi ki pratiti in tin hetuon se man ka anuman hota hai.
  • vyutpatti ke anusar man ka arth hai- manan ka sadhan -'manyate budhyateaneneti' (manh-sarvadhatubhyoasunh). kintu man antarik anubhavon men hi nahin, apitu bahy vastuon ke pratyaksh men bhi sahayak hota hai. at: prashastapad ne yah bataya ki man vah dravy hai, jo manastvajati se yukt ho.
  • nyayabhashyakar vatsyayan ke anusar bhi sabhi prakar ke gyan ka hetu jo indriy hai, vah man hai. man gyan ka ashray nahin, apitu gyan ka karan hai.[77]
  • udayanachary ke mat men man ek moort dravy hai aur sparsharahit hai.
  • shivadity ka yah vichar hai ki man manastvajati se yukt, sparsharahit, kriya ka adhikaran dravy hai.
  • vallabhachary vishvanath adi acharyon ne bataya ki sukh-du:khadi ka anubhav karane vali antarindriy hi man hai. bahy indriyan apane-apane vishayon ka tabhi grahan kar sakati hain, jab man bhi unake sath ho. at: man sukh adi ka grahak indriy hone ke sath-sath any indriyon dvara unake arthagrahan men bhi sahayak hota hai. gyan ke ayogapath se yah siddh hota hai ki prati sharir bhinn-bhinn hai, at: usamen anekatv hai.
  • shridhar ka yah kathan hai ki do vibhu dravyon ke bich snyog snbhav nahin hai. atma vibhu hai at: man ko bhi vibhu nahin mana ja sakata, vah anu hai.[78] bahy indriyan man ko nahin dekh sakatin, at: man ek atindriy dravy hai.[79]

gun ka svaroop aur bhed

  • kanad ke anusar samavay sambandh se dravy men ashray lene ka jisaka svabhav ho, jo svayn gun ka ashray n ho, snyog aur vibhag ka karan n ho aur any kisi ki apeksha n rakhata ho, vah gun namak padarth hai.[80]
  • prashastapad ne yah bataya ki gunatv ka samavayi hona, dravy men ashrit hona, gunarahit hona, kriyarahit hona sabhi gunon ka sadharmy hai.[81]
  • keshavamishr ke mat men jo samany jati se asamavayikaran banane vala ho, spandan rahit kriyavan n ho aur dravy par ashrit ho, vah gun kahalata hai.[82]
  • vishvanath ne dravyashrit nirgun aur nishkriy ho gun kaha hai.[83]
  • kanad ne nimnalikhit satrah gunon ka ullekh kiya hai-
  1. roo
  2. ras
  3. gandh
  4. sparsh
  5. snkhya
  6. pariman
  7. prithaktv
  8. snyog
  9. vibhag
  10. paratv
  11. aparatv
  12. buddhi
  13. sukh
  14. du:kh
  15. ichchha
  16. dvesh aur
  17. prayatn.
  • prashastapad ne vaisheshikasootr (1-1-6) men ullikhit 'ch' pad ko adhar banakar nimnalikhit sat gunon ko jodakar gunon ki snkhya 24 tak pahuncha di-
  1. gurutv
  2. dravatv
  3. sneh
  4. snskar
  5. dharm
  6. adharm aur
  7. shabd
  • shnkar mishr ke matanusar kanad ne in sat gunon ka pariganan nahin kiya kyonki ye to prasiddh hain hi.
  • kuchh vidvanon ne
  1. laghutv
  2. mridutv
  3. kathinatv aur
  4. alasy ko jodakar gunon ki snkhya 28 karane ka prayatn kiya hai.
  • kee acharyon ne
  1. paratv
  2. aparatv aur prithaktv ko anavashyak manakar gunon ki snkhya 21 bataee hai. kintu samanyataya yahi mana jata hai ki vaisheshik darshan men gunon ki snkhya 24 hai. navyanyay men paratv, aparatv ko viprakrishtatv aur sannikrishtatv ya jyeshthatv aur kanishthatv men antarnihit man liya gaya hai aur prithaktv ko anyonyabhav ka hi ek roop bataya gaya hai. at: navyanaiyayik 21 gun manate hain. vishvanath ne uparyukt chaubis gunon ka vargikaran nimnalikhit roop se kiya hai-

ashrayadravyon ki moortamoortaparak

  • keval moort dravyon men rahane vale jaise roop, ras adi.
  • keval amoort dravyon men rahane vale, jaise- buddhi, sukh adi.
  • moort aur amoort donon prakar ke dravyon men rahane vale, jaise- snkhya, pariman adi.

ashray-snkhyaparak
in gunon men se kuchh ek-ek dravy men rahate hain aur kuchh ekadhik dravyon men. snyog, vibhag, snkhya, anekashrit gun hain aur any ekashrit.
samany-visheshaparak
vishvanath ne gunon ka vargikaran

  1. samany aur
  2. vishesh roop men bhi kiya hai.
  • unake matanusar samany gun hain- snkhya, pariman, prithaktv, snyog, vibhag, paratv, aparatv, asansiddhik dravatv, gurutv tatha veg-snskar.
  • vishesh gun hain- buddhi, sukh, du:kh, ichchha, dvesh, prayatn, roop, ras, gandh, sparsh, sneh, sansiddhik dravatv, dharm, adharm, bhavana, snskar tatha shabd.

indriyagrahyataparak
vishvanath ne yah bhi bataya hai ki indriyagrahyata ke adhar par bhi gunon ka nimnalikhit roop se vargikaran kiya ja sakata hai-

  1. ekendriyagrahy- roop, ras, gandh, sparsh tatha shabd.
  2. dvindriyagrahy- (chakshu aur tvakh se) snkhya, pariman, prithaktv, snyog, vibhag, paratv, aparatv, dravatv, sneh, veg-snskar.
  3. atindiy- gurutv, buddhi, sukh, ichchha, dvesh, prayatn, dharm, adharm tatha bhavana-snskar.
  • gunon ka snkshipt vivaran annnbhatt dvara ullikhit kramanusar nimnalikhit hai-

roop ka svaroop
keval chakshu dvara grahan kiye jane vale vishesh gun ko roop kahate hain. yahan par grahan ka ashay hai laukik pratyaksh-yogy jati ka ashray. drisht vastu men parimanavatta, vyaktata tatha any gunon se anabhibhootata honi chahie tabhi usaka roop chakshugrahyi hoga. 'chakshumatri' shabd ke prayog ka yah ashay hai ki chakshu se bhinn bahirindriy dvara roop ka grahan nahin hota. antarindriy man par yah bat lagoo nahin hoti. roop prithvi, jal aur tez in tinon dravyon men rahata hai aur shukl, nil, rakt, pit, harit, kapish aur chitr bhed se sat prakar ka hota hai.
ras ka svaroop
jibh se pratyaksh hone vale gun ka nam ras hai. ras chh: prakar ka hota hai- mathur, aml, lavan, katu, tikt tatha kashay. ras prithvi aur jal men rahata hai. prithvi men chh: prakar kajal rahata hai, kintu jal men keval madhur ras rahata hai aur vah apakaj hota hai. chitraras ki satta ko naiyayikon ne svikar nahin kiya, kyonki ankh kisi vastu ke vistrit bhag ke roopon ko ek sath dekh sakati hai, kintu jihvagr ek samay ek hi ras ka grahan kar sakata hai.
gandh ka svaroop
ghran indriy dvara grahan kiye jane yogy gun ko gandh kahate hain. sugandh aur durgandh ke bhed se yah do prakar ka hota hai aur keval prithvi men rahata hai aur anity hai. sugandh aur durgandh gamy hain. naiyayikon ne chitragandh ki satta ko bhi svikar nahin kiya. jal men gandh ka jo abhas hota hai, vah prithvi ke snyog ke karan snyukt samavay sambandh se hota hai.
sparsh ka svaroop
jis gun ka keval tvacha se pratyaksh hota hai, vah sparsh kahalata hai. sparsh tin prakar ka hota hai aur char dravyon men rahata hain- shit (jal men), ushn (tez men) tatha anushnashit (prithvi aur vayu men). yah prithvi, jal, tez aur vayu men rahata hai. navy naiyayik kathin aur sukumar ko bhi sparsh ka bhed manate hain, jabaki prachin naiyayik unako snyog ke antargat samavisht karate hain.
snkhya ka svaroop

  • ek, do adi vyavahar ke karan ko snkhya kaha jata hai. doosare shabdon men snkhya vah samany gun hai, jo ekatv adi vyavahar ka nimitt hota hai. vah nau dravyon men rahati hai aur ek se lekar parardh paryant hoti hai. snkhya do prakar ki hoti hai- ek dravy men rahane vali ekatv aur anek dravyon men rahane vali- dvitv tritv adi. ekatv bhi do prakar ka hota hai-
  1. nity, jo prithvi, jal, tez aur vayu ke paramanu tatha akash, kal, dikh, atma aur man in nity padarthon men rahata hai aur
  2. anity, jo apane ashray ghat-pat adi ke samavayi karan tantu adi anity padarthon men rahata hai. in padarthon ke nash se tadgat ekatv bhi nasht ho jata hai pat ka roop apane samavayikaranon ke roop se utpann hota hai. dvitvadi namak snkhya to sabhi dravyon men anity hoti hai.
  • dvitv snkhya ki utpatti do dravyon men jaise 'yah ek ghat hai' yah bhi ek ghat hai' is apekshabuddhi se hoti hai. dvitv do dravyon ka gun hai, at: do dravy dvitv ke samavayikaran hote hain aur donon dravyon ke donon ekatv asamavayikaran hote hain, ekatv ki apekshabuddhi nimitt karan hoti hai. apekshabuddhi ke nash se dvitv ka bhi nash ho jata hai.
  • sadharanataya to snkhya ek pratitimatr hai, kintu nyayavaisheshik ki drishti se roop adi ke saman snkhya bhi ek gun hai. snkshepat: dvitv adi ki utpatti (dvitvoday prakriya) vaisheshikon ke anusar is prakar hai—
  • pratham kshan men – indriy ka ghatadvay se sambandh.
  • dvitiy kshan men- ekatvasamany ka gyan.
  • tritiy kshan men – ek yah, ek yah, is prakar ki apekshabuddhi ka utpann hona.
  • chaturth kshan men – dvitv snkhya ki utpatti
  • pncham kshan men – dvitv samany (jati ka gyan).
  • shashth kshan men- dvitv snkhya ka gyan.
  • saptam kshan men – dvitvasnkhyavishisht do ghat vyakti ka gyan.
  • ashtham kshan men – dvitv gyan se atsnskar.

pariman ka svaroop
man ke vyavahar arthath do ser adi napane aur taulane ke asadharan karan ko pariman kaha jata hai. pariman nau dravyon men rahata hai aur anu, mahat, dirsh v hrisv bhed se char prakar ka hota hai. pariman ka nity aur anity ke roop men bhi vargikaran kiya jata hai. nity dravyon men rahane vala pariman nity aur anity dravyon men rahane vala pariman anity hota hai. karyagat pariman ke tin upabhed hain-

  1. snkhyayoni
  2. parimanayoni tatha
  3. prachayayoni.
  4. prithakatv ka svaroop

prithakta ke vyavahar ke asadharan karan ko prithaktv kaha jata hai. yah do prakar ka hota hai- jahan ek vastu men any vastu se prithakth pratit hoti hain, vahan ek prithaktv aur jahan do vastuon men any vastu ya vastuon se prithakta pratit hoti hai (jaise ghat aur pat pustak se prithakh hai) vahan dviprithaktv adi. ek prithaktv nity dravy men rahata hua nity hota hai aur anity dravy men rahata hua anity. dviprithakty adi sarvatr anity hi hota hai, kyonki usaka adhar dvitv adi snkhya he, jisako anity mana jata hai. 'yah ghat us ghat se prithakh hai'- is prakar ka vyavahar dravyon ke snbandh men pray: dekha jata hai. is prakar ki pratiti ka nimitt ek gun mana jata hai. yahi prithaktv hai. anyonyabhav ke adhar par yah pratiti nahin ho sakati, kyonki anyonyabhav to 'ghat pat nahin hai' adi aise udaharanon par charitarth hota hai, jinamen tadatmy ka abhav hai. is prakar prithaktv ki pratiti bhavatmak hai jabaki anyonyabhav ki pratiti abhavatmak hoti hai.
snyog ka svaroop
jab do dravy is prakar samipasth hote hain ki unake bich koee vyavadhan n ho to unake mel ko snyog kahate hain. is prakar snyog ek samany gun hai, jo do dravyon par ashrit rahata hai. snyog avyapyavritti hota hai. udaharanataya pustak aur mej ka snyog do dravyon se sambaddh hota he, kintu yah snyog donon dravyon ko poorn roop se nahin gherata, keval unake ek desh men rahata hai. mej ke sath pustak ke ek parshv ka aur pustak ke sath mej ke ek bhag ka hi snyog hota hai. snyog ko keval vyavadhanabhav nahin kaha ja sakata, kyonki vyavadhanabhav to kuchh door par sthit dravyon men bhi ho sakata hai. kintu snyog men to vyavadhanabhav to kuchh door par sthit dravyon men bhi ho sakata hai. kintu snyog men to vyavadhanabhav ke sath hi mel hona bhi avashyak hai.

  • snyog tin prakar ka hota hai-
  1. anyatarakarmaj,
  2. ubhayakarmaj aur
  3. snyogaj-snyogakarmaj.
  • snyoganash ke do karan hote hain-
  1. ashray ka nash aur
  2. vibhag.
  • snyog ka yah vargikaran vaisheshik drishti se hai. naiyayikon ke anusar to snyog ke do bhed hote hain- jany aur ajany. jany snyog ke tin upabhed hote hain-
  1. anyatar karmaj,
  2. ubhayakarmaj aur
  3. snyogaj.
  • ajany snyog vibhu dravyon men hota hai aur usaka koir avantar bhed nahin hota. vaisheshik darshan akash, kal adi vibhu dravyon ke nity snyog ke siddhant ko svikar nahin karata. vibhu dravyon men viprakarsh bhi nahin hai aur vibhutv ke karan unamen snyog manana bhi vyarth hai. ashay yah hai ki vaisheshik mat men nity evn vibhu dravyon ka paraspar snyog nahin hota. phalasvaroop akash ka atma ke sath athava do atma ka paraspar snyog nahin hota.

vibhag ka svaroop
paraspar mile hue padarthon ke alag-alag ho jane se snyog ka jo nash hota hai, usako vibhag kahate hain. vah sabhi dravyon men rahata hai. keshav mishr ke anusar 'yah dravy se vibhakt hai'- is prakar ke alagav ki pratiti ka asadharan karan vibhag kahalata he. vah snyogapoorvak hota hai aur do dravyon men hota hai. vibhag tin prakar ka mana gaya hai- anyatarakarmaj, ubhayakarmaj aur vibhagaj.
paratv aur aparatv ka svaroop
'yah par hai, yah apar hai'- is prakar ke vyavahar ka asadharan karan paratv evn aparatv hai. ve do prakar ke hain- dikkrit aur (kh) kalakrit.

  1. dikkrit paratv-aparatv- ek hi dasha men sthit do dravyon men 'yah dravy is dravy ke samip hai'- is prakar ke gyan ke sahayog se disha aur vastu ke snyog dvara samipasth vastu men aparatv utpann hota hai. aparatv ki utpatti ka sadhan sannikarsh hai. isi prakar 'yah dravy is dravy se door hai'– aisi buddhi ke sahayog se digdravy ke snyog se viprakrisht dravy men paratv utpann hota hai. paratv ki utpatti ka sadhan viprakarsh hai.
  2. kalakrit paratv aur aparatv

vartaman kal ko adhar manakar do vastuon ya vyaktiyon men ek aniyat disha men sthit yuvak tatha vriddhi shariron men 'yah (yuvak sharir) is (vriddhi sharir) ki apeksha alpatar kal se sambaddh' hai- is prakar vriddhiroop nimittakaran ke sahayog se kalasharir-roop asamavayikaran se yuva manushy ke shariraroop ashray men aparatv utpann hota hai tatha yah (vriddh sharir) is (yuvak sharir) ki apeksha adhik kal se sambandh rakhata hai' is pratiti se vriddh sharir men paratv utpann hota hai. yah gyatavy hai ki dikkrit paratvaparatv ek disha men sthit do dravyon men hi utpann hua karate hain, bhinn-bhinn dishaon men sthit dravyon men nahin, kintu kalakrit paratvaparatv ke lie pindon ka ek hi disha men sthit hona avashyak nahin hai.
gurutv ka svaroop
gurutv us dharmavishesh (gun) ko kahate hain, jisake karan kisi dravy ka pratham patan hota hai. kisi vastu ki oopar se niche ki or jane ki kriya ka nam patan hai. patan-kriya jis vastu men hoti hai, vah vastu patan ka samavayikaran hoti hai aur svayn us vastu ka jo apana bharipan hai vah us vastu men snyog, veg ya prayatn ka abhav ho jata hai. at: patan ka samavayikaran koir n koee dravy hota hai, asamavayikaran gurutv hota hai. paramanu ka gurutv nity hota hai. paramanu se bhinn prithvi aur jal ka gurutv anity hota hai. pahali patan-kriya se vastu men jo veg utpann hota hai, vah bad ki patan-kriya ka asamavayikaran hai. vrint se toot kar bhoomi par pahunchane tak phal men anek kriyaen hoti hain. unamen pahali patan-kriya ka asamavayikaran phal ka gurutv hota hai aur bad ki patanakriyaon ka asamavayikaran pahali patan-kriya se utpann phalagat veg hota hai.
dravatv ka svaroop
kisi taral vastu ke choone, tapakane ya ek sthan se doosare sthan tak bahakar pahunchane men anek spandanakriyaen hoti hai. unamen se pratham spandan ka asamavayikaran dravatv (taralata) kahalata hai, jo ki bhoomi, tez aur jal men rahata hai. ghrit adi parthiv dravatv tatha suvarn adi men jo dravatv hai, vah naimittik (agnisnyogajany) hota hai, jab ki jal men jo dravatv hai vah svabhavik hai. pahali kriya ke bad ki jo spandan kriyaen hoti hain, unaka asamavayikaran veg hota hai.
sneh ka svaroop
'chikanapan' namak jo gun hai, vah sneh kahalata hai. vah keval jal men rahata hai. sneh aisa gun hai, jisake karan prithakh-prithakh roop se vidyaman kan ya ansh pind roop men parinat ho jate hain. sneh do prakar ka hota hai- nity aur anity. jal ke paramanuon men nity hota hai aur karyaroop jal men anity. anity sneh karan gunapoorvak hota hai aur tabhi tak rahata hai, jab tak usaka ashray dravy dvayanuk adi rahata hai.
shabd (gun) ka svaroop
shabd vah gun hai jisaka grahan shrotr ke dvara kiya jata hai. shabd ka ashray dravy akash hai. at: yah akash ka vishesh gun bhi kaha jata hai. shabd do prakar ka hota hai- dhvanyatmak aur varnatmak. bheri adi se utpann shabd dhvanyatmak aur kanth se utpann shabd varnatmak kahalata hai. bheri adi dish men utpann shabd shrotr tak kaise pahunchata hai, is sambandh men naiyayikon ne mukhyat: jin do nyayon ka ullekh kiya hai, ve hain-

  1. vichitarnganyay aur
  2. kadambamukulanyay.
  • nyayakandali men shridhar ne vichitarnganyay ko anyatikata niroopit kiya hai.

buddhi ka svaroop
gunon men buddhi ka bhi pariganan kiya gaya hai. buddhi atma ka gun hai, kyonki atma ko hi man tatha bahyendriyon ke dvara arth ka prakash arthat gyan hota hai. sankhy men buddhi ko mahatatattv kaha gaya hai kintu vaisheshik yah manate hain ki buddhi gyan ka paryay hai.

  • prashastapad ne is sndarbh men thik vaisa hi vichar vyakt kiya hai, jaisa ki nyayasootrakar gautam ne kiya tha ki buddhi, upalabdhi aur gyan paryayavachi shabd hain.[84]
  • shivadity ne bhi atmashray prakash ko buddhi kaha hai.[85] buddhi ka manas pratyaksh hota hai. buddhi ke pramukh do bhed hain- vidya aur avidya.
  • vishvanath pnchanan ne vidya ko prama aur avidya ko aprama kaha hai.
  • annnbhatt ne sab prakar ke vyavahar hetu ko buddhi kaha hai. unhonne buddhi ke bhed bataye- smriti aur anubhav. anubhav bhi do prakar ka hota hai- yatharth aur ayatharth. yatharth anubhav ko hi prama kahate hain.

sukh ka svaroop

  • jisako sabhi prani chahen ya jo sab logon ko anukool lage, vah sukh kahalata hai. sukh nyay-vaisheshik ke anusar atma ka ek vishesh gun hai. katipay acharyon ke mat men 'main sukhi hoon' is prakar ke anuvyavasay men jis gyan ki pratiti hoti hai, vah sukh kahalata hai. atma ke us gun ko bhi katipay acharyon ne sukh kaha hai, jisaka asadharan karan dharm hai.
  • prashastapadabhashy men karan bhed se char prakar ke sukhon ka ullekh kiya gaya hai-
  1. samanyasukh, jo ki priy vastuon ki upalabdhi, anushng adi se prapt hota hai;
  2. smritisukh, jo ki bhootakal ke vishayon ke smaran se hota hai,
  3. snkalpaj, jo anagat vishayon ke snkalp se hota hai aur
  4. vidya shamasantoshadijanyasukh, jo ki poorvokt tin prakar ke karanon se bhinn vidya adi se jany ek vishisht sukh hota hai.
  • sukh ka vargikaran (k) svakiy aur (kh) parakiy bhed se bhi kiya ja sakata hai. apane sukh ka to anubhav hota hai, kintu parakiy sukh to anuman dvara hota hai. ek any prakar ka vargikaran. (k) laukik aur (kh) paralaukik roop se bhi ho sakata hai. laukik sukh ke bhi nimnalikhit bhed mane ja sakate hain-
  1. vaishayik, jo sansarik vastuon ke bhog se milata hai;
  2. manasik, jo ki ichchhit vishayon ke anusaran se prapt hota hai;
  3. abhyasik, jo kisi kriya ke lagatar karate rahane se prapt hota hai; aur
  4. abhimanik, jo vaidushy adi dharmon ke arop ki anubhooti se prapt hota hai.

du:kh ka svaroop
gunon men du:kh ki bhi ganana ki gee hai. du:kh sadharan: pida ko kahate hain, jisako samanyat: koee bhi nahin chahata. nyasootr men du:kh ki ganana barah prameyon men ki gee hai.
ichchha ka svaroop
keshav mishr ne rag ko aur annnbhatt ne kam ko ichchha kaha hai. ichchha ka vistrit niroopan prashastapadabhashy men upalabdh hota hai. samanyat: aprapt ko prapt karane ki abhilasha ichchha kahalati hai, prapti ki abhilasha apane liye ho chahe doosare ke lie. yah atma ka gun hai. isaki utpatti smritisapeksh ya sukhadisapeksh atmaman:snyogaroopi asamavayikaran se atmaroop samavayikakaran men hoti hain isake do prakar hote hain: sopadhik tatha nirupadhik. sukh ke prati jo ichchha hoti hai, vah nirupadhik hoti hai aur sukh ke sadhanon ke prati jo ichchha hoti hai, vah sopadhik hoti hai. ichchha prayatn, smaran, dharm, adharm adi ka karan hoti hai.
dvesh ka svaroop

  • annnbhatt ke anusar krodh ka hi doosara nam dvesh hain.
  • prashastapad ke anusar dvesh vah gun hai, jisake utpann hone par prani apane ko prajvalit-sa anubhav karata hai. yah du:khasapeksh athava smritisapeksh atmaman:snyog se utpann hota hai aur prayatn, smriti, dharm aur adharm ka karan hai. droh ke bhi kee bhed hote hain, jaise ki
  1. droh- upakari ke prati bhi apakar kar baithana,
  2. manyu- apakari vyakti ke prati apakar karane men asamarth rahane par andar hi andar utpann hone vala dvesh,
  3. akshama doosare ke gunon ko n sah sakana arthath asahishnuta,
  4. amarsh- apane gunon ke tiraskar ki ashnka se doosare men gunon ke prati vidvesh,
  5. abhyasooya- apakar ko sahan karane men asamarth vyakti ke man men chirakal tak rahane vala dvesh. yah sabhi dvesh pun: svakiy aur parakiy prakar se ho sakate hain. svakiy dvesh ka gyan manas pratyaksh se aur parakiy dvesh ka gyan anuman adi se hota hai.

prayatn ka svaroop
annnbhatt ne 'kriti' ko prayatn kaha hai. prashastapad ke anusar prayatn, snrambh aur utsah paryayavachi shabd hain. prayatn do prakar ka hota hai- (1) jivanapoorvak aur (2) ichchhadveshapoorvak. suptavastha men vartaman prani ke pran tatha apan vayu ke shvas-prashvas roop vyapar ko chalane vala aur jagradavastha men ant:karan ko bahy indriyon se snyukt karane vala prayatn jivanayoni prayatn kahalata hai. isamen dharm tatha adharm roop nimitt karan ki apeksha karane vala atma tatha man ka snyog asamavayikaran hai. hit ki prapti aur ahit ki nivritti karanevali sharir ki kriyaon ka hetu ichchha ya dveshamoolak prayatn kahalata hai. isamen ichchha athava dvesharoop nimitt karan ki apeksha karane vala atma tatha man ka snyog asamavayikaran hai.
dharm aur adharm ka svaroop
annnbhatt ne vihit karmon se jany adrisht ko dharm aur nishiddh karmon se utpann adrisht ko adharm kaha hai. keshavamishr ke anusar sukh tatha du:kh ke asadharan karan kramash: dharm aur adharm kahalate hain. inaka gyan pratyaksh se nahin, apitu agam ya anuman se hota hai. anuman ka roop is prakar hoga-devadatt ke sharir adi devadatt ke vishesh gunon se utpann hote hain (pratigya), kyonki ye kary hote hain (pratigya), kyonki ye kary hote huye devadatt ke bhog ke hetu hain. (hetu), jaise devadatt ke prayatn se utpann hone vali vastu vastr adi (udaharan), is prakar sharir adi ka nimitt hone vale vishesh gun hi dharm tatha adharm hain.
snskar ka svaroop

  • varadaraj ke matanusar jis gun men vah karan utpann hota hai, jo ki usi jati ka ho jis ka kary hai, (yadyapi vah vijatiy hota hai) to vah snskar kahalata hai. arthat jab bhi koee gun ya karm bahy sahayata ke bina antarik shakti se hi usi prakar ka kary utpann kar de to vah snskar hota hai.
  • keshav mishr ke anusar snskar sambandhi vyavahar ka asadharan karan snskar kahalata hai. snskar tin prakar ka hota hai- veg, bhavana aur sthitisthapak. snskar ke in tin bhedon men vaise to bhavana hi vastut: snskar hain shesh do snskar nahin hain, kintu katipay vidvanon ka yah kathan bhi dhyan dene yogy hai ki in tinon men bahy karanon ke bina svayn hi kary karane ki kshamata samanaroop se hai.

dravyon men gun-bodhak chakr
bharatiy darshanasar namak granth (pri.240) men achary baladev upadhyay ne karikavali ke adhar par dravy men gunon ke avasthan ki talika nimnalikhit roop se di hai-

prithvi

jal

tej

vayu

akash

kal

dikh

eeshvar

jivatma

man

sparsh

sparsh

sparsh

sparsh

snkhya

snkhya

snkhya

snkhya

snkhya

snkhya

snkhya

snkhya

snkhya

snkhya

pariman

pariman

pariman

pariman

pariman

pariman

pariman

pariman

pariman

pariman

prithaktv

prithaktv

prithaktv

prithaktv

prithaktv

prithaktv

prithaktv

prithaktv

prithaktv

prithaktv

snyog

snyog

snyog

snyog

snyog

snyog

snyog

snyog

snyog

snyog

vibhag

vibhag

vibhag

vibhag

vibhag

vibhag

viyog

viyog

viyog

viyog

shabd

 

 

buddhi

buddhi

paratv

paratv

paratv

paratv

paratv

 

 

 

ichchha

ichchha

aparatv

aparatv

aparatv

aparatv

aparatv

 

 

 

yatn

yatn

veg

veg

veg

veg

veg

 

 

 

 

sukh

 

gurutv

gurutv

dravatv

 

 

 

 

 

du:kh

 

dravatv

dravatv

roop

 

 

 

 

 

dvesh

 

roop

roop

 

 

 

 

 

 

bhavana

 

ras

ras

 

 

 

 

 

 

dharm

 

gndh

sneh

 

 

 

 

 

 

adharm

 

14 gun

14 gun

11 gun

9 gun

6 gun

5 gun

5 gun

8 gun

14 gun

8 gun

karm ka svaroop

karm ka ashay hai kriya ya gati, jaise chalana, phirana adi. karm moort dravy men hi rahata hai.

  • kanad ke anusar ek samay ek dravy men rahata ho, gun se bhinn ho tatha snyog evn vibhag ke prati sakshat karan bhi ho vah karm hai.[86]
  • prashastapad ne kanad ke mantavy ko spasht karate hue kaha ki ek ke chalane par sab men chalane ki utpatti nahin hoti aur jis sthal men ek hi samay anekon ki chalanakriya hoti hai, vahan bhi karan anek hi hain, kyonki chalanakriyaon ke kary abhighat tatha adhar men bhed hai. nodan (dhakelana), gurutv (bharipan), veg aur prayatn ye char karm ke prerak karan hain. karm ke pramukh bhed panch hain-
  1. utkshepan,
  2. apekshepan,
  3. akunchan,
  4. prasaran tatha
  5. gaman.

oordhv desh ke sath hone vale snyog ke prati karanabhoot kriya utkshepan aur adhodesh ke sath hone vale snyog ke prati karanabhoot kriya apakshepan kahalati hai. sharir se sannikrisht snyog ka janak karm akunchan tatha sharir se viprakasht snyog ka janak karm hai- prasaran. inake atirikt any sab karm gaman kahalate hain. bhraman, rechan adi any bhi asnkhy karm hain, kintu unaka gaman men hi antarbhav ho jata hai. utkshepan adi karm niyat digh-desh-snyoganukool hote hain, jabaki bhraman, rechan adi aniyatadigdeshasnyoganukool hote hain. isake sath hi yah bhi gyatavy hai ki utkshepan adi ichchha-sapeksh karm hain, jab ki rechan adi par yah niyam lagoo nahin hota. udaharan ke roop men gend ko maidan men patakane ke bad jo uchhal usamen ata hai, vah utkshepan nahin kahala sakata. kyonki vah utplavan svat: hota hai, kisi ki ichchha se nahin.

samany ka svaroop

  • keshav mishr ke anusar anuvritti pratyay ke hetu ko samany kahate hain.[87]
  • vishvanath pnchanan ke mat men jo nity ho aur anek (ek se adhik) vastuon men samavay sambandh se rahata ho, vah samany kahalata hai.[88]
  • annnbhatt ka yahi mat hai, kintu unhonne lakshan men samavay shabd ke sthan par anugat shabd ka prayog kiya hai.[89]
  • kanad ne samany aur vishesh ko buddhisapeksh kaha hai.[90]
  • kanad ne jin chh: padarthon ke sadharmy (anugat dharm) aur vaidharmy (viparit dharm) ke gyan ke dvara utpann tattvgyan se ni:shreyas ki prapti ka ullekh kiya hai, unamen se samany bhi ek bataya hai. unaka yah bhi kathan hai ki samany ke do roop hote hain-
  1. samany arthat keval anuvritti buddhi se sambaddh samany tatha
  2. samanyavishesh arthat anuvritti aur vyavritti roop ubhayavidh buddhi se sambaddh samany. sootrakar kanad ne samany ka koee spasht lakshan nahin diya.
  • prashastapad ne kanad ke kathan ko spasht karate hue yah kaha ki samany ka uparyukt pratham roop parasamany kahalata hai aur dvitiy roop aparasamany. par (vyapak) samany keval satta hai jisamen mahavishayatv arthat sarvadhik deshavrittita hai. usase keval anugat pratiti hi hoti hai. samanyashray dravyadi tin padarthon men vah anugat buddhi ko hi utpann karata hai, n ki vyavrittibuddhi ko. jis prakar paraspar bhinn charm, vastr, kambal adi dravyon men 'nil-nil' ityakarak ekakar gyan hota hai, usi prakar se bhinn-bhinn prithvi adi nau dravyon, roop adi chaubis gunon aur utpekshan adi panch karmon men bhi 'sath-sath' aisa ekakar gyan hota hai. apar samany anugatabuddhi aur bhedabuddhi donon ka karan hota hai at: vah samanyavishesh kahalata hai. udaharanataya dravyatv prithvi, jal adi nau dravyon men anugat buddhi ka karan hai, kintu gun aur karm se vah bhedabuddhi ka karan bhi hain at: vah samany tatha vishesh ubhayaroop hai. dravyatv, gunatv adi samany dravy, gun adi padarthon se bhinn hone ke karan hi samany nity hai; yadi donon men abhed ho to samany ka bhi dravyadi ke saman utpatti tatha nash hone lage. anugatakar gyanaroop samany ka lakshan pratyek vyakti men vilakshan n hone se tatha bhed men praman n hone ke karan bhi samany apane adharabhoot vyaktiyon men ek hi hai.
  • 'samany' apane vishay men samavay sambandh se rahata hai. yadyapi samany aniyatadesh hota hai at: sarvatr utpann hone vale svavishay go vyaktiyon ke samany vahan par vartaman ashvadi vyaktiyon men bhi sambaddh ho sakate hain. kintu gotv jati ke abhivynjak sasnadi roop avayav-snsthan ke goroop vyaktiyon men niyat hone ke karan gotv jati ka go vyaktiyon men hi samavay hai, n ki ashv adi pindon men.[91]

vishesh ka svaroop

ghat adi se lekar dvayanukaparyant pratyek vastu ka paraspar bhed apane-apane avayavon ke bhed se mana jata hai, kintu avayavon ke adhar par bhed karate-karate aur sthool se sookshm ki or jate-jate jab ham paramanu tak pahunchate hain to ek aisi bhi sthiti a jati hai ki usake bhed avayav ke adhar par nahin kiye ja sakate, kyonki paramanu ka avayav hota hi nahin hai. aisi sthiti men paramanu adi ka parasparik bhed batane ke liye vaisheshik ne 'vishesh' namak padarth ki kalpana ki hai aur nyay ke uttaravarti granthon men bhi usaki charcha ki gee hai. snkshep men 'vishesh' ke lakshan men do baten mukhy hain.

  1. ek to yah ki vishesh vastuon men parasparik vyavartan ka antim tattv ya dharm hai. vishesh ka koee vishesh nahin hota arthat yah svatovyavartak arthat svayn ko sabase bhinn karane vala bhi hota hai isi lie isako 'anty vishesh' kaha jata hai.
  2. doosari bat yah hai ki vishesh keval nity dravyon arthat prithvi adi char prakahar ke anuon aur akashadi char vibhu dravyon men rahata hai. 'vishesh antim hota hai'- is prakar ka ashay yah hai ki jaise sabase adhik desh vali 'jati' ko satta kaha jata hai, usi prakar aise sabase chhote dharm ko jo keval ek hi padarth men rahe, vishesh kaha jata hai. samany-vishesh ki sarvadhik vyapak antim sima ka nam satta hai aur nimnatam sima ka nam vishesh hai. vishesh keval ek padarth men rahata hai, at: vah samany nahin ho sakata. vah keval vishesh hi rahata hai. 'vishesh nity dravyon men rahata hai'- is kathan ka yah ashay hai ki ghat adi karyon ka sookshm se sookshmatam roop dhoondhate-dhoondhate ham ant men dvayanuk tak pahunchate hain. dvayanuk se bhi sookshm 'anu' hai, ve alag-alag vyakti hain aur nity hain. vishesh unhin bhinn-bhinn aur nity vyaktiyon men rahate hain.
  • anu ka koee avayav nahin hota, at: yah prashn uthata hai ki ek paramanu ka doosare se bhed kaise samajha jae? arthath paramanuon ke prithakh-prithakh vyaktitv ka adhar kya hai? isi adhar ke roop men vishesh ki kalpana ki gee hai. vaisheshikon ki yah manyata hai ki dvayanuk ka snghatan karane vale pratyek paramanu men ek vishesh namak padarth rahata hai, jo ashrayabhoot paramanu ko doosare paramanu se bhi prithakh karata hai. ek vishesh ka doosare vishesh se bhed karane vala bhi vishesh hi hai. vishesh svayn apana vibhedak hai. vishesh ka svabhav hi vyavritti hai at: usake sampark se sajatiy paramanu bhi ek doosare se alag ho jate hain. vishesh ko mane bina paramanuon ka ek doosare se bhed nahin ho sakata. is sndarbh men ek prashn yah bhi upasthit hota hai ki yadi ek vishesh ka doosare vishesh se bhed svayn hi ho jata hai to ek paramanu ka doosare paramanu se bhed bhi svayn hi kyon nahin ho jata? is shnka ka samadhan prashastapad ne yah kah kar kar diya ki vishesh ka to svabhav hi vyavritti hai, jabaki paramanu ka svabhav vyavritti nahin hai. isake sath ek paramanu ka doosare paramanu se tadatmy hai, jabaki ek vishesh ka doosare vishesh se tadatmy nahin hai.
  • vishesh ke sambandh men ek shnka yah bhi uthaee jati hai ki yogajadharm ke samarthy se yogiyon ko jaise atindriy padarthon ka darshan hota ha, vaise hi unhen bina vishesh ke hi gyan ho jaega phir unako 'vishesh' ki kya avashyakata hai? prashastapad is shnka ka samadhan is prakar karate hain ki yogiyon ko bhi jo gyan hota hai vah bina nimitt ke nahin ho sakata.

samavay ka svaroop

jin do padarthon men koee vinashyata ki avastha ko prapt hue bina aparashrit hi rahata hai, unake bich jo sambandh hota hai, usako samavay kahate hain. in do padarthon men se koee ek padarth (yatha pat) hi doosare (yatha tantu) par ashrit rahata hai. donon ka ek doosare par ashrit rahana avashyak nahin hai, kyonki udaharanataya tantu to bina pat ke bhi rah sakata hai.

  • kanad yah kahate hain ki jis sambandh ke karan avayavon men avayavi, vyakti men jati adi ka bodh hota hai, vah samavay kahalata hai.[92]
  • prashastapad bhi lagabhag isi kathan ka anuvartan karate hain.[93]
  • vaisheshiki ke anusar samavay ek nity sambandh hai, jab ki snyog anity sambandh hai. kintu avayavon men avayavi samavay sambandh se rahata hai. navyanaiyayik samavay ko nity nahin manate. vaise prachin naiyayikon aur vaisheshikon ki drishti men bhi nityatv ka ashay yahan par yah hai ki kary ko utpann kiye bina sanh ise utpann kiya ja sakata hai aur n kary ko nasht kiye bina ise nasht kiya ja sakata hai.
  • samavay gun nahin apitu padarth hai aur yah samavayiyon men tadatmy sambandh se rahata hai. prachin naiyayikon ke matanusar samavay ka pratyaksh hota hai, kintu vaisheshikon ke anusar isaka anuman hota hai. annnbhatt bhi yahan sapar vaisheshik mat ka hi anugaman karate hain.
  • mimansak aur vedanti samavay sambandh ko nahin manate.
  • shnkarachary ke anusar snyog (gun) dravy men jis sambandh se rahata hai, vah samavay hai at: samavay padarth nahin hai. yadi tadatmy sambandh se dravy men samavay ki avasthiti mani jaye to snyog ki hi dravy men tadatmy sambandh se avasthiti kyon n mani jae?
  • jaise ki pahale bhi kaha gaya, samavay sambandh ayutasiddh do padarthon ke bich rahata hai. ayutasiddh ka ashay hai- jo n kabhi snyukt siddh kiye ja saken, aur n vibhajit. aise yugmon ke adhar par ayutasiddh sambandh panch prakar ka mana gaya hai-
  1. avayav aur avayavi men,
  2. gun (roop) aur guni
  3. kriya aur kriyavanh men,
  4. jati (ghatatv) aur vyakti (ghat) men tatha
  5. vishesh aur adhikaran nity (akash, paramanu adi) dravy men.
  • annnbhatt ne samavay keval ek prakar ka hi mana hai. samavay siddhant ke adhar par hi nyay-vaisheshik darshanon ko vastuvadi kaha jata hai. kyonki isi par karanavad aur paramanuvad nirbhar karate hain. bauddhon ke is tark ka ki avayavi (vastr) avayavon (tantuon) se bhinn yani paramanu-punj ke atirikt koee vastu nahin hai, naiyayik is prakar khandan karate hain ki paramanu-punj ka darshan nahin hota, jabaki ghat ko dekh kar yah pratiti hoti hai ki ek sthool ghat hai. at: avayav-avayavi ki prithakh satta anubhavasiddh hai.

abhav ka svaroop

pratyek pratiti kisi sadvastu par adharit hoti hai. at: abhavatmak pratiti ka bhi koee ashray hai, usi ko abhav kahate hain. prachin naiyayikon aur vaisheshikon ne keval bhav padarthon ka ullekh kiya than kintu uttaravarti prakaranagranthakaron ne bhi nyay-vaisheshik paramparaon ko snyukt roop men age badhaya hai aur unake granthon men abhav ka bhi vishleshan kiya gaya hai. vaise padarth ke roop men abhav ka pramukh roop se pratipadan shivadity ne kiya hai.

  • prashastapad ne keval yah ullekh kiya ki abhav ko kuchh logon ne prithakh praman mana, kintu vah bhi anuman hi hai.[94]
  • katipay vidvanon ka yah kathan hai ki kanad ne 'karanabhavatkaryabhav:' aur 'asat: kriyagunavyapadeshabhavadarthantaramh' jaise sootron men abhav ke padarthatv ko svikar kiya hai.

vaise abhav ka samany arth hai- 'nishedh- mukhapramanagamyatv' arthath 'n' shabd se abhilap kiye janevale gyan ka vishay.[95]

  • madhavachary ke anusar abhav us padarth ko kahate hain, jo samavay sambandh se rahit hokar samavay se bhinn ho. gyatavy hai ki dravyon ka samavay sambandh apane par ashrit gunadi ke sath hota hai. gun aur karm apane ashray dravy ke sath ya apane par ashrit samany ke sath samavay sambandh rakhate hain. at: abhav ke lakshan men asamavayatve sati kahane se sabhi padarthon ki aur 'asamavay' kahane se svayn abhav ke samavayatv ki vyavritti ho jati hai.[96]
  • vishvanath pnchanan ne abhav ke sarvapratham do bhed mane hain- snsargabhav aur anyonyabhav; aur snsargabhav ke tin bhed kiye hain- pragabhav, pradhvnsabhav tatha atyantabhav aur anyonyabhav. *annnbhatt ke anusar jisaka adi n ho kintu ant ho vah pragabhav hai, jaise patthar par padane se ghade ka phootana. dhvns ke bad bhi arthath nasht hone ke bad bhi jo kary utpann hota hai, usake sambandh men naiyayikon ka yah mat hai ki vah to nasht hue kary se bhinn kary hota hai. atyantabhav anadi tatha anant hota hai, jaise vayu men roop ka abhav hai. in tinon abhavon men ghat adi ke snsarg (snyog, samavay) ka abhav prakat hota hai. isalie ye snsargabhav kahalate hain. do vastuon men tadatmy ka jo abhav hota hai, usako anyonyabhav kahate hain, jaise ghat pat nahin hai. atyantabhav aur anyonyabhav donon hi traikalik arthat nity hain, kintu atyantabhav snyogasamavay- sambandh par nirbhar hai, jabaki anyonyabhav tadatmy-sambandh par adharit hai.


tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. padanamh arth: abhidhey: padarth:
  2. richchhantindriyani yn soarth:
  3. vaisheshik sootr 1.1.4
  4. shannamapi padarthanan sadharmyamh astitv-abhidheyatv-gyeyatvani. ashritatvn chanyatr nityadravyebhy.-prashastapadabhashyamh.
  5. yasy vastuno yath svaroopn tadev tasyastitvamh.-nyay kandali pri. 41
  6. abhidheyatvamh abhidhanayogyata. shabden snketalakshan: sambandh: ki.; abhidhey: padarth:.-lakshanavali
  7. abhidheyatvn padarthasamanyalakshanamh, t.di. pri.2
  8. pramitivishaya: padartha:-saptapadarthi
  9. nyayakandali pri. 41
  10. nyayakandali pri. 42
  11. arth iti dravyagunakarmasu, vaisheshik sootr, 8.2.3
  12. saditi yato dravyagunakarmasu sa satta, vaisheshik sootr 1.2.7
  13. IP, Radhakrishnan, Vol II p.186
  14. prashastapadabhashyamh, arambh:
  15. Frauwallner, HIP Vol. II pp 79-80
  16. nyayasidhdantamuktavali pri. 40
  17. prakaranapanjika, pri. 78
  18. sadrishyamh upadhiroopn samanyamh s.p.pri. 46
  19. tadetatsadrishyametasvekan vidyamasadayannatirichyate. anasadayann padarthibhooy sthatumutsahate, nya.kri.pri. 399
  20. sadrishyamapi n padardhantarn, kintu tadbhinnatve sati tadgatabhooyodharmatvamh, nya.si.mu.,pri.29-30
  21. visheshoapi n padarthantar:, manabhavat, raghu. padarthatattvanirnay:, pri. 43
  22. drashtavy- bharatiy nyayashastr (da.chakradhar bijalavan) pri. 438
  23. kriyagunavath samavayikaranamiti dravyalakshanamh, vaisheshik sootr 1.1.5
  24. gunashrayo dravyamh, nya. li., pri. 7; t. bha. pri. 5
  25. tatr gunatyantabhavanadhikarann dravyamh l.v., pri. 2
  26. tattvasngrah:, shlo. 564-574
  27. n ch dvabhyamh indriyabhyamh ekarthagrahanamh vina pratisandhann nyayyamh; vyo. pri. 44
  28. tatr samavayikarann dravyamh, t.bha.pri. 239
  29. kalakashadinan snyogavibhagajanakatven karmavath sattetarajatimattvasiddhe:, nya.li. pri. 94-97
  30. dravyatvajatimattvn gunavattvn va dravyasamanyalakshanamh, t.di. pri. 4
  31. chitsukhi, pri. 302
  32. vaisheshikasootr 1.1.5
  33. pr. bha. pri. 4
  34. prithivyaptejovayyavatman iti panchaiv dravyani, vyomaderishvaratmanyevantarbhootatvath manasashchasamavetabhooteantarbhavadityahurnavina:, dinakari nya.si.mu. pri.46
  35. padarthamandan
  36. rooparasagandhasparshavati prithvi, vaisheshikasootr, 2.1.1
  37. kshitavev gandh:, pr. bha. pri. 29
  38. indriyn ghranatvalakshanamh bha. sh. ka. 8
  39. sharirendriyavyatiriktamatmopabhogasadhann vishay:; nya.k. pri. 82
  40. tatr gandhavati prithvi, t.sn.
  41. rooparasasparshavaty apo drava: hinagdha:, vai.soo. 2.1.2
  42. dravatvn sansiddhakiroopen jalasyadharanamh, setu pri. 241
  43. kiranavali, pri. 67-68
  44. dharmendranath shastri, nya.si.mu. vyakhya, pri. 200
  45. vai. soo. 2.1.3
  46. pr. bha.
  47. C.F.-Sources of Energy: Bhauma=Celestial; Divya=Chemical or Terrestrial; Udarya= Abdominal; Akaraja=Minerar
  48. nya.si.mu. pri. 133-136
  49. ushnasparshavattej:, t.sn.
  50. sparshavanh vayu:, vai.soo. 2.1.4
  51. pr.bha. (vayu-niroopan
  52. nya.si.mu. pri. 44
  53. nya.m. bhag-2 pri. 48
  54. vyomavati, pri. 274; p.t.ni.pri. 52-53; p.man., pri. 20
  55. t akashe n vidyante, vai.soo. 2.1.5
  56. shabdagunakamakashamh, t. sn.
  57. ekadravyatvann dravyamh, vai.soo., 2.2.23
  58. atitanagatahetu: kal:, s chaiko vibhurnityashch, t.sn.
  59. aparasminnaparn yugapachchirn kshipramiti kalalingani, vai.soo.
  60. yuvasthavirayon: shariravasthabheden tatkaranataya kalasnyogeanumite sati pashchattayo: kalavishishtavagati:, nya. k. pri. 158
  61. evn kaloapi sarvatrabhinnakaravartamanapratyayavedy:, nyayalilavati, pri. 310
  62. nityeshvabhavath anityeshu bhavath karann kalakhyeti, vai.soo. 2.2.9
  63. padarthatattvanirnay:, pri. 23
  64. prachyadivyavaharaheturdikh, sa chaika, nitya vibhvi ch, t.sn.
  65. vai.soo. 2.2.10-16
  66. pr.pa.bha., pri. 56
  67. p.t.ni.
  68. p.m.
  69. vai.soo. 2.2.4-21
  70. pr.pa.bha., pri. 59-66
  71. vai.soo. upaskar
  72. nya. mn., bhag-2 pri.6
  73. gyanadhikaranamatma, t. sn.
  74. nya. k. pri. 139
  75. vai.soo. 3.2.1.-3
  76. pr.pa.bha. pri. 69
  77. nya.bha. 1.1.6
  78. nya. k., pri. 223
  79. vai.soo. 4.1.6
  80. dravyashrayyagunavanh snyogavibhageshvakaranamanapeksh iti gunalakshanamh, vai.se. 1.1.16
  81. roopadinan gunanan sarveshan gunatvabhisambandhon dravyashritatvn nirgunatvn nishkriyatvamh, pr.pa.bha., pri. 69
  82. samanyavanh asamavayikaranamh aspandatma gun: s ch dravyashrit ev, t.bha. pri. 260
  83. tarkadipika, pri. 16
  84. buddhirupalabdhigyann pratyay iti paryay:, pr. bha. pri. 130
  85. atmashray: prakashon buddhi:, s.sh. pri. 76
  86. ekadravyamagunn snyogavibhageshvanapekshakaranamiti karmalakshanamh, vai.soo. 1.1.17
  87. anuvrittipratyayahetu: samanyamh, t.bha. pri. 224
  88. nityatve sati anekasamavetatvn samanyamh nya.si. mu.
  89. nityamekamanekanugatn samanyamh, t.sn.
  90. samanyn vishesh iti budhyapekshamh, vai.soo. 1.2.3
  91. pr. pa. bha. shrinivas vyakhya pri. 250
  92. ihedamiti yat: karyakaranayo: s samavay:, vai.soo. 7.2.24
  93. ayutasiddhanamadharyadharabhootanan y: sambandh: ihapratyayahetu: s samavay:, pr.pa.bha. (shrinivas snskaran) pri. 256
  94. nanpadapratitivishayatvamh abhavatvamh t.bha.
  95. s chasamavayatve satyasamavay:, s.d.s. pri. 444
  96. abhavoapyanumanamev, pr.bha. pri. 180


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