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भारत का इतिहास पाषाण काल  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bharat ka itihas
pashan yug- 70000 se 3300 ee.poo
meharagadh snskriti 7000-3300 ee.poo
sindhu ghati sabhyata- 3300-1700 ee.poo
hadappa snskriti 1700-1300 ee.poo
vaidik kal- 1500–500 ee.poo
prachin bharat - 1200 ee.poo–240 ee.
mahajanapad 700–300 ee.poo
magadh samrajy 545–320 ee.poo
satavahan samrajy 230 ee.poo-199 ee.
maury samrajy 321–184 ee.poo
shung samrajy 184–123 ee.poo
shak samrajy 123 ee.poo–200 ee.
kushan samrajy 60–240 ee.
poorv madhyakalin bharat- 240 ee.poo– 800 ee.
chol samrajy 250 ee.poo- 1070 ee.
gupt samrajy 280–550 ee.
pal samrajy 750–1174 ee.
pratihar samrajy 830–963 ee.
rajapoot kal 900–1162 ee.
madhyakalin bharat- 500 ee.– 1761 ee.
dilli saltanat
gulam vnsh
khilaji vnsh
tugalaq vnsh
saiyyad vnsh
lodi vnsh
mugal samrajy
1206–1526 ee.
1206-1290 ee.
1290-1320 ee.
1320-1414 ee.
1414-1451 ee.
1451-1526 ee.
1526–1857 ee.
dakkan saltanat
bahamani vnsh
nizamashahi vnsh
1490–1596 ee.
1358-1518 ee.
1490-1565 ee.
dakshini samrajy
rashtrakoot vnsh
hoyasal samrajy
kakatiya samrajy
vijayanagar samrajy
1040-1565 ee.
736-973 ee.
1040–1346 ee.
1083-1323 ee.
1326-1565 ee.
adhunik bharat- 1762–1947 ee.
maratha samrajy 1674-1818 ee.
sikh rajyasngh 1716-1849 ee.
aupanivesh kal 1760-1947 ee.

samast itihas ko tin kalon men vibhajit kiya ja ekata hai-

  1. prakhitihas ya pragaitihasik kal Prehistoric Age
  2. ady aitihasik kal Proto-historic Age
  3. aitihasik kal Historic Age

prakh itihas ya pragaitihasik kal

is kal men manushy ne ghatanaon ka koee likhit vivaran nahin rakha. is kal men vishay men jo bhi janakari milati hai vah pashan ke upakaranon, mitti ke bartanon, khilaune adi se prapt hoti hai.

ady aitihasik kal

is kal men lekhan kala ke prachalan ke bad bhi upalabdh lekh padhe nahin ja sake hain.

aitihasik kal

manav vikas ke us kal ko itihas kaha jata hai, jisake lie likhit vivaran upalabdh hai. manushy ki kahani aj se lagabhag das lakh varsh poorv prarambh hoti hai, par ‘gyani manav‘ homo saipiyns Homo sapiens ka pravesh is dharati par aj se qarib tis ya chalis hazar varsh pahale hi hua.

pashan kal

yah kal manushy ki sabhyata ka prarambhik kal mana jata hai. is kal ko tin bhagon men vibhajit kiya ja sakata hai. -

  1. pura pashan kal Paleolithic Age
  2. madhy pashan kal Mesolithic Age evn
  3. nav pashan kal athava uttar pashan kal Neolithic Age

purapashan kal

yoonani bhasha men Palaios prachin evn Lithos pashan ke arth men prayukt hota tha. inhin shabdon ke adhar par Paleolithic Age (pashanakal) shabd bana . yah kal akhetak evn khady-sngrahan kal ke roop men bhi jana jata hai. abhi tak bharat men pura pashanakalin manushy ke avashesh kahin se bhi nahin mil paye hain, jo kuchh bhi avashesh ke roop men mila hai, vah hai us samay prayog men laye jane vale patthar ke upakaran. prapt upakaranon ke adhar par yah anuman lagaya ja raha hai ki ye lagabhag 2,50,000 ee.poo. ke honge. abhi hal men maharashtr ke 'bori' namak sthan khudaee men mile avasheshon se aisa anuman lagaya ja raha hai ki is prithvi par 'manushy' ki upasthiti lagabhag 14 lakh varsh purani hai. gol pattharon se banaye gaye prastar upakaran mukhy roop se sohan nadi ghati men milate hain.

samany pattharon ke kor tatha flaks pranali dvara banaye gaye aujar mukhy roop se madras, vartaman chennee men paye gaye hain. in donon pranaliyon se nirmit prastar ke aujar singarauli ghati, mirzapur envn belan ghati, ilahabad men mile hain. madhy pradesh ke bhopal nagar ke pas bhim betaka men mili parvat guphayen evn shailashrriy bhi mahattvapoorn hain. is samay ke manushyon ka jivan poornaroop se shikar par nirbhar tha. ve agni ke prayog se anabhigy the. sambhavatah is samay ke manushy nigreto Negreto jati ke the. bharat men purapashan yug ko aujar-praudyogiki ke adhar par tin avasthaon men banta ja ekata hain. yah avasthaen hain-

purapashan kalin snskritiyan
kal avasthaen
1- nimn purapashan kal hastakuthar Hand-axe aur vidarani Cleaver udyog
2- madhy purapashan kal

shalk (flaks) se bane auzar

3- uchch purapashan kal

shalkon aur falakon (bled) par bane aujar

  • poorv purapashan kal ke mahattvapoorn sthal hain -
poorv purapashan kal ke mahattvapoorn sthal
sthal kshetr
1- pahalagam kashmir
2- venalaghati

ilahabad zile men, uttar pradesh

3- bhimabetaka aur adamagadh

hoshngabad zile men madhy pradesh

4- 16 ar aur singi talab

nagaur zile men, rajasthan

5- nevasa

ahamadanagar zile men maharashtr

6- hunsagi

gulabarga zile men karnatak

7- attiramapakkam

tamilanadu

  • madhy purapashan yug ke mahattvapoorn sthal hain -
  1. bhimabetaka
  2. nevasa
  3. pushkar
  4. oopari sindh ki rohiri pahadiyan
  5. narmada ke kinare sthit samanapur
  • purapashan kal men prayukt hone vale prastar upakaranon ke akar evn jalavayu men hone vale parivartan ke adhar par is kal ko ham tin vargo men vibhajit kar sakate hain.-
  1. nimn pura pashan kal (2,50,000-1,00,000 ee.poo.)
  2. madhy purapashan kal (1,00,000- 40,000 ee.poo.)
  3. uchch purapashan kal (40,000- 10,000 ee.poo.)

madhy pashan kal

is kal men prayukt hone vale upakaran akar men bahut chhote hote the, jinhen laghu pashanopakaran maikrolith kahate the. purapashan kal men prayukt hone vale kachche padarth kvartajait ke sthan par madhy pashan kal men jespar, eget, chart aur chalasidani jaise padarth prayukt kiye gaye. is samay ke prastar upakaran rajasthan, malava, gujarat, pashchim bngal, udisa, andhr pradesh evn maisoor men paye gaye hain. abhi hal men hi kuchh avashesh mirjapur ke singarauli, banda evn vindhy kshetr se bhi prapt hue hain. madhy pashanakalin manav asthi-pnjar ke kuchh avashesh pratapagadh, uttar pradesh ke saray nahar ray tatha mahadaha namak sthan se prapt hue hain. madhy pashanakalin jivan bhi shikar par adhik nirbhar tha. is samay tak log pashuon men gay, bail, bhed, ghode evn bhainson ka shikar karane lage the.

jivit vyakti ke aparivartit jaivik gunasootron ke pramanon ke adhar par bharat men manav ka sabase pahala praman keral se mila hai jo sattar hazar sal purana hone ki snbhavana hai. is vyakti ke gunasootr afriqa ke prachin manav ke jaivik gunasootron (jins) se poori tarah milate hain.[1] yah kal vah hai jab afriqa se adi manav ne vishv ke anek hisson men basana prarambh kiya jo pachas se sattar hazar sal pahale ka mana jata hai. krishi snbndhi pratham sakshy 'sambhar' rajasthan men paudhe bone ka hai jo eesa se sat hazar varsh purana hai. 3000 ee. poorv tatha 1500 ee. poorv ke bich sindhu ghati men ek unnat sabhyata vartaman thi, jisake avashesh mohan jodado (muan-jo-dado) aur hadappa men mile hain. vishvas kiya jata hai ki bharat men aryon ka pravesh bad men hua. vedon men hamen us kal ki sabhyata ki ek jhanki milati hai.

madhy pashan kal ke antim charan men kuchh sakshyon ke adhar par pratit hota hai ki log krishi evn pashupalan ki or akarshit ho rahe the is samay mili samadhiyon se spasht hota hai ki log antyeshti kriya se parichit the. manav asthipnjar ke sath kahin-kahin par kutte ke asthipnjar bhi mile hai jinase pratit hota hai ki ye log manushy ke prachin kal se hi sahachar the.

bagor aur adamagadh men chhathi shatabdi ee.poo. ke as-pas madhy pashan yugin logon dvara bhede, bakariyan rakh jane ka sakshy milata hai. madhy pashan yugin snskriti ke mahattvapoorn sthal hain -

madhy pashan yugin snskriti ke mahattvapoorn sthal
sthal kshetr
1- bagor rajasthan
2- lnghanaj

gujarat

3- saray nahararay, chopani mando, mahagada v damadama

uttar pradesh

4- bhimabetaka, adamagadh

madhy pradesh

nav pashan athava uttar pashan kal

sadharanataya is kal ki sima 3500 ee.poo. se 1000 ee.poo. ke bich mani jati hai. yoonani bhasha ka Neo shabd navin ke arth men prayukt hota hai. isalie is kal ko ‘navapashan kal‘ bhi kaha jata hai. is kal ki sabhyata bharat ke vishal kshetr men phaili huee thi. sarvapratham 1860 ee. men 'li mesuriyar' Le Mesurier ne is kal ka pratham prastar upakaran uttar pradesh ki tauns nadi ki ghati se prapt kiya. isake bad 1872 ee. men 'nibaliyan frezar' ne karnatak ke 'belari' kshetr ko dakshin bharat ke uttar-pashan kalin sabhyata ka mukhy sthal ghoshit kiya. isake atirikt is sabhyata ke mukhy kendr bindu hain - kashmir, sindh pradesh, bihar, jharakhnd, bngal, uttar pradesh, andhr pradesh, chhattisagadh, asam adi.

tamr-pashanik kal

jis kal men manushy ne patthar aur tanbe ke auzaron ka sath-sath prayog kiya, us kal ko 'tamr-pashanik kal' kahate hain. sarvapratham jis dhatu ko auzaron men prayukt kiya gaya vah thi - 'tanba'. aisa mana jata hai ki tanbe ka sarvapratham prayog qarib 5000 ee.poo. men kiya gaya. bharat men tamr pashan avastha ke mukhy kshetr dakshin-poorvi rajasthan, madhy pradesh ke pashchimi bhag, pashchimi maharashtr tatha dakshin-poorvi bharat men hain. dakshin-poorvi rajasthan men sthit 'banas ghati' ke sookhe kshetron men 'ahada' evn 'gilund' namak sthanon ki khudaee ki gayi. malava, evn 'eran' sthanon par bhi khudaee ka kary sampann hua jo pashchimi madhy pradesh men sthit hai. khudaee men malava se prapt hone vale 'mridbhand' tamrapashan kal ki khudaee se prapt any mridbhandon men sarvattam mane gaye hain.

pashchimi maharashtr men hue vyapak utkhanan kshetron men ahamadanagar ke jorve, nevasa evn dayamabad, pune zile men sonaganv, inamaganv adi kshetr sammilit hain. ye sabhi kshetr ‘jorve snskriti‘ ke antargat ate hain. is snskriti ka samay 1,400-700 ee.poo. ke qarib mana jata hai. vaise to yah sabhyata gramin bhi par kuchh bhagon jaise 'dayamabad' evn 'inamaganv' men nagarikaran ki prakriya prarambh ho gayi thi. 'banasaghati' men sthit 'ahad' men sapat kulhadiyan, choodiyan aur kee tarah ki chadaren prapt huee hain. ye sab tanbe se nirmit upakaran the. 'ahad' athava 'tambavali' ke log pahale se hi dhatuon ke vishay men janakari rakhate the. ahad snskriti ki samay sima 2,100 se 1,500 ee.poo. ke madhy mani jati hai. 'gilundu', jahan par ek prastar phalak udyog ke avashesh mile hain, 'ahad snskriti' ka kendr bindu mana jata hai.

is kal men log gehoon, dhan aur dal ki kheti karate the. pashuon men ye gay, bhains, bhed, bakari, sooar aur oont palate the. 'jorve snskriti' ke antargat ek panch kamaron vale makan ka avashesh mila hai. jivan samanyatah gramin tha. chak nirmit lal aur kale rng ke 'mridh‌bhand' paye gaye hain. kuchh bartan, jaise 'sadharan tashtariyan' evn 'sadharan katore' maharashtr aur madhy pradesh men 'soot evn resham ke dhage' tatha 'kayatha' men mile 'manake ke har' ke adhar par kaha ja ekata hai ki 'tamr-pashan kal' men log kataee-bunaee evn sonari vyavasay se parichit the. is samay shavon ke snskar men ghar ke bhitar hi shavon ka dafana diya jata tha. dakshin bharat men prapt shavon ke shish poorv aur pair pashchim ki or evn maharashtr men prapt shavon ke shish uttar ki or evn pair dakshin ki or mile hain. pashchimi bharat men lagabhag sampoorn shavadhan evn poorvi bharat men anshik shavadhan ka prachalan tha.

is kal ke log lekhan kala se anabhigy the. rajasthan aur malava men prapt mitti nirmit vrishabh ki moorti evn 'inam ganv se prapt 'matridevi ki moorti' se lagata hai ki log vrishabh evn matridevi ki pooja karate the. tithi kram ke anusar bharat men tamr-pashan bastiyon ki anek shakhayen hain. kuchh to 'prakh hadappayi' hain, kuchh hadappa snskriti ke samakalin hain, kuchh aur hadappottar kal ki hain. 'prakh hadappa kalin snskriti' ke antargat rajasthan ke 'kalibnga' evn hariyana ke 'banavali' spashtatah tamr-pashanik avastha ke hain. 1,200 ee.poo. ke lagabhag 'tamr-pashanik snskriti' ka lop ho gaya. keval ‘jorve snskriti‘ hi 700 ee.poo. tak bachi rah saki. sarvapratham chitrit bhandon ke avashesh 'tamr-pashanik kal' men hi milate hain. isi kal ke logon ne sarvapratham bharatiy pray:dvip men bade bade ganvon ki sthapana ki.

tamr pashanik snskritiyan
snskriti kal
1- ahad snskriti lagabhag 1700-1500 ee.poo.
2- kayath snskriti

lagabhag 2000-1800 ee.poo.

3- malava snskriti

lagabhag 1500-1200 ee.poo.

4- savalada snskriti .

lagabhag 2300-2200 ee.poo

5- jorve snskriti

lagabhag 1400-700 ee.poo.

6- prabhas snskriti

lagabhag 1800-1200 ee.poo.

7- rngapur snskriti

lagabhag 1500-1200 ee.poo.



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh


tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. dekhen: shodh grnth vels, spensar (2002) a jenetik odisi (angrezi). prinsatan yoonivarsiti pras, nyoo jarsi, sn.ra.amarika. ISBN 0-691-11532-X.

snbndhit lekh


bahamani vnsh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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