शक साम्राज्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

shak raj purush
Saka King (Mastan)
rajakiy sngrahalay, mathura

shakon ka bharat men pravesh

magadh ke vishal samrajy ki shakti ke kshin hone par jin videshi akrantaon ke akraman bharat par shuroo hue, unamen se demetriyas aur minandar sadrish yavan vijetaon ne bharat ke uttar-pashchimi pradeshon men apane anek rajy sthapit kie, aur unake vnshadharon ne unaka shasan kiya. par is yug men (doosari sadi ee. poo. aur usake bad) yavanon (baiktriya ke grik) ke atirikt parthiyan aur shak logon ne bhi is desh par anek akraman kie. vishal siriyan samrajy ki adhinata se mukt hokar jin rajyon ne apani svatntr satta sthapit ki thi, unamen se ek baiktriya tha aur doosara parthiya. parthiya rajy men vah desh antargat tha, jise ab eeran kaha jata hai.

shak jati

baiktriya ke yavan rajy ka ant shak jati ke akraman dvara hua tha. in shak logon ka mool nivas sthan sir nadi ki ghati men tha. doosari sadi ee. poo. men un par uttar-poorv ki or se 'yuishi jati' ne akraman kiya. yuishi log tibbat ke uttar-pashchim men takala-makan ki marubhoomi ke simant par nivas karate the. ye bade hi vir aur yoddha the. hoonon ke akraman ke karan ye apane prachin abhijan ko chhodakar age badh jane ke lie vivash hue the. prachin kal men hoon jati uttari chin men nivas karati thi, aur chin ke sabhy rajyon par akraman karati rahati thi. unhin ke hamalon se apane desh ki raksha karane ke lie chin ke shaktishali samrat shi-huang-ti (246-210 ee. poo.) ne us vishal divar ka nirman karaya tha, jo ab tak bhi uttari chin men vidyaman hai. is divar ke karan hoon logon ke lie chin par akraman karana sambhav nahin raha, aur unhonne pashchim ki or badhana shuroo kiya. hoon log asabhy aur barbar the, aur loot-mar ke dvara hi apana nirvah karate the. hoonon ne prachand andhi ke saman pashchim ki or badhana shuroo kiya, aur yuishi logon ko jit liya. unaki raja ki yuddh kshetr men mrityu huee. vidhava rani ke netritv men yuishi log apane prachin abhijan ko chhodakar age badhane ke lie vivash ho ge. sir nadi ki ghati men us samay shakon ka nivas tha. yuishi jati ne un par hamala kar diya, aur shak unase parast ho ge. vivash hokar shakon ko apana pradesh chhodana pada, aur unake vividh jan (qabile) vividh men age badhe. hoonon ne yuishiyon ko dhakela, aur yuishiyon ne shakon ko. hoonon ki badh ne yuishi jati ke pradesh ko akrant kar diya, aur shakon ke pradesh par yuishi chha ge. yahi samay tha, jab shakon ki ek shakha ne baiktriya par akraman kiya aur vahan ke yavan raja heliokliz ko parast kiya. shak logon ki jis shakha ne baiktriya ki vijay ki thi, vah hindukush parvat ko par kar bharat men pravisht nahin huee. isilie heliokliz ka shasan uttar-pashchimi bharat men qayam raha.

shakon ka parthiya par akraman

baiktriya ko jit kar shak log dakshin-pashchim ki or mude. vnkshu nadi ke par us samay parthiya ka rajy tha. vahan ke rajaon ke lie yah sugam nahin tha, ki ve shak akraman ka bhali-bhanti muqabala kar sakate. 128 ee. poo. ke lagabhag parthiyan raja fravat dvitiy ne shakon ki badh ko rokane ka prayatn kiya. par vah saphal nahin ho saka. shakon ke sath yuddh karate hue ranakshetr men hi usaki mrityu huee. usake uttaradhikari raja artebanas ke samay men shak log parthiyan rajy men ghus ge aur use unhonne buri tarah se loota. artebanas bhi shakon se ladate hue mara gaya. artebanas ke bad mithidatas dvitiy (123-88 ee. poo.) parthiya ka raja bana. usane shakon ke akramanon se apane rajy ki raksha karane ke lie ghor prayatn kiya aur use is kam men saphalata bhi prapt huee. mithidatas ki shakti se vivash hokar shakon ka pravah pashchim ki taraf se hatakar dakshin-poorv ki or ho gaya. parinam yah hua, ki ab shakon ne bharat par akraman shuroo kiya. unake bharat akraman ka samay 123 ee. poo. ke lagabhag hai.

shak raj purush
Saka King (Mastan)

bharat men pravesh

parthiya ko jit sakane men asamarth hokar shakon ne sistan aur sindh marg se bharat men pravesh kiya. bharat ke jis pradesh ko shakon ne pahale-pahal apane adhin kiya, vah magadh samrajy ke adhin nahin tha. sambhavatah vahan bhi yavanon ke chhote-chhote rajy sthapit the. sindh nadi ke tat par sthit minanagar ko unhonne apani rajadhani banaya. bharat ka yah pahala shak rajy tha. yahin se unhonne bharat ke any pradeshon men apana prasar kiya. ek jain anushruti ke anusar bharat men shakon ko amntrit karane ka shrey achary kalak ko hai. yah jain achary ujjain ke nivasi the, aur vahan ke raja gardabhill ke atyacharon se tng akar sudoor pashchim ke parthiyan rajy (paras kul) men chale ge the. jab parthiya ke shaktishali raja mithidatas dvitiy ki shakti ke karan shak log pareshani ka anubhav kar rahe the, to kalakachary ne unhen bharat ane ke lie prerit kiya. kalak ke sath shak log sindh men pravisht hue, aur vahan par unhonne apana rajy sthapit kiya. isake bad unhonne saurashtr ko jitakar ujjayini par bhi akraman kiya, aur vahan ke raja gardabhill ko parast kiya. yadyapi shakon ki mukhy rajadhani minanagar thi, par bharat ke vividh pradeshon men unhonne apane svatntr rajy sthapit kie, jo sambhavatah minanagar ke shakaraj ki adhinata svikar karate the. ye vividh shakarajy tha. shakakshatrapon ke kul nimnalikhit the -

  1. sindh aur pashchimi bharat ka shak kul
  2. maharashtr ka shak-kshatrap kul
  3. mathura ka shak-kshatrap kul
  4. gandhar ka shak kul.

lagabhag ee. poo. 165 men yah qabila 'yoochi' namak ek any qabile ke dvara madhy eshiya se khaded diya gaya tha. isane age badhate hue baiktriya, parthiya adi par akraman kiya, phir aur age badhakar hind parthiyan rajaon se yuddh kiya. bharat men shak raja apane ap ko 'kshatrap' kahate the. shak shasakon ki bharat men do shakhaen ho gee thin. ek uttari kshatrap kahalate the jo takshashila evn mathura men the aur doosare 'pashchimi kshatrap' kahalate the jo nasik evn ujjain ke the. pashchimi kshatrap adhik prasiddh the. yoochi akramanon ke bhay se kee kshatrap ee. poo. pahali shati se eesvi ki pahali shati ke bich uttar pashchim se dakshin ki or badh ae the aur nasik ke kshatrapon tatha ujjain ke kshatrapon ki do shakhaon men bnt ge the. nasik ke kshatrapon men do prasiddh shasak bhoomak aur nahapan the. ve apane ko 'kshayarat kshatrap' kahate the.

  • tanbe ke sikkon men bhoomak ne apane apakon kshatrap likha hai.
  • nahapan ke abhilekh men 41 se 46 tak tithiyan hain, jo sambhvatah 78 ee. men prarambh hone vale snvat men hai. isalie nahapan ka rajyakal 119 se 124 ee. tak sthir hota hai. nahapan ne apane sikkon men apane ap ko 'raja' likha hai. prarambhik abhilekhon men apane ko kshatrap likhata hai kintu varsh 46 ke abhilekh men mahakshatrap. abhilekhon ke adhar par pratit hota hai ki nahapan ka rajy uttar men rajapootana tak tha. usake rajy men kathiyavad, dakshini gujarat, pashchimi malava, uttari konkan, poona adi shamil the. usane maharashtr ke ek bade bhoo bhag ko satavahan rajaon se chhina tha. nahapan ke samay bhadauch ek bndaragah tha. ujjain, pratishthan adi se bahut sa vyaparik saman lakar vahan par ekatr kiya jata tha. vahan se yah saman pashchimi deshon ko bheja jata tha.
  • ujjayini ka pahala svatntr shak shasak chashtan tha. isane apane abhilekhon men shak snvat ka prayog kiya hai. isake anusar is vnsh ka rajy 130 ee. se 388 ee. tak chala, jab sambhavatah chndragupt vikramadity ne is kul ko samapt kiya. ye shak 'karddhamak kshatrap' kahalate the. ujjain ke kshatrapon men sabase prasiddh rudradama (130 ee. se 150 ee.) tha.
  • isake joonagadh abhilekh se pratit hota hai ki poorvi pashchimi malava, dvaraka ke asapas ke pradesh, saurashtr, kachchh, sindhu nadi ka muhana, uttari konkan, maravad, adi pradesh unake rajy men sammilit the.
  • aisa pratit hota hai ki rudradama ya poorvajon ne malava, saurashtr, konkan adi pradeshon ko satavahanon se jita. rudradama ne dubara apane samakalin shatavarni raja ko haraya, parantu nikat sambandhi hone ke karan use nasht kiya. yah shatakarni sambhavatah vashishthiputr pulumavi tha. sambhavatah sindhu nadi ki ghati rudradama ne kushan raja se jiti thi. vah sudarshan jhil, jise chndragupt maury ne banavaya tha aur jisaki marammat ashok ne karavaee thi, rudradama ke samay phir toot gee. tab usane niji ay se isaki marammat karaee aur praja se isake lie koee kar nahin liya.
  • rudradama vyakaran, rajaniti, sngit evn tarkashastr ka pndit tha. joonagadh abhilekh snskrit men hai aur isase us samay ke snskrit ke sahity ke vikas ka anuman hota hai.
  • yadyapi shak samrajy chauthi shatabdi eesvi tak chalata raha kintu rudradama ke pashchath shak samrajy ki shakti ka hras prarambh ho gaya tha. is vnsh ka antim raja rudrasinh tritiy tha. chndragupt vikramadity ne use marakar pashchimi kshatrapon ke rajy ko gupt samrajy men mila liya.

sindh aur pashchimi bharat ka shak rajy

shak raj purush
Saka King (Mastan)

minanagar ko rajadhani banakar shak akrantaon ne sindh men apana jo rajy sthapit kiya tha, vah bharat ke shak rajyon men sarvapradhan tha. any shak rajyon ke shasak kshatrap ya mahakshatrap kahate the, jisase yah parinam nikalata hai ki ve svatntr raja n hokar kisi shaktishali maharaja ki adhinata svikar karate the. shakon ke is maharaja ki rajadhani minanagar hi thi. vahan ke ek raja ka nam moa tha. pnjab ke jelaham zile men maira namak ganv ke ek kuen se ek shila prapt huee hai, jis par utkirn lekh se moa nam ke shak raja ka parichay milata hai. isi prakar takshashila ke bhagnavasheshon men ek tamr-patr par mog nam ke ek shak raja ka ullekh hai, jisake nam ke sath 'maharaj' aur 'mahan' visheshan die ge hain. sambhavatah moa aur mog ek hi vyakti ke soochak hain. is mog ke bahut se sikke pashchimi pnjab men prapt hue hain, jo ki yavan sikkon ke namoone par bane hue hain. in sikkon ka lekh is prakar hai - rajadhirajas mahatas moas. is lekh se is bat men koee sandeh nahin rah jata ki shak raja moa ya mog ki sthiti kshatrap ya mahakshatrap se adhik oonchi thi. vah rajadhiraj aur mahanh tha, aur shakon ke any rajakul usaki adhinata svikar karate the. is shak rajadhiraj ka shasan pashchim men pushkalavati se lagakar poorv men takshashila aur dakshin men sindh tak vistrit tha.

maharashtr ka shak kshatrap kul

minanagar ke shak maharaj ki adhinata men jo sabase adhik shaktishali shak kshatrap the, unaka shasan kathiyavad, gujarat, konkan, pashchimi maharashtr aur malava tak ke pradeshon men vidyaman tha. is vishal rajy par shasan karane vale shak kul ko 'kshaharaj' kahate hain. isaki rajadhani sambhavatah bharukachchh (saurashtr) men thi. par inake bahut se utkirn lekh maharashtr men upalabdh hue hain. isi karan se inhen 'shak kul' bhi kaha jata hai. shakon ke kshaharat kul ka pahala kshatrap bhoomak tha. usake anek sikke upalabdh hue hain. jo maharashtr aur kathiyavad se mile hain. isase anuman kiya jata hai ki maharashtr aur kathiyavad donon usake shasan men the.

par kshaharat kul ka sabase prasiddh shak kshatrap nahapan tha. isake sat utkirn lekh aur hazaron sikke upalabdh hue hain. sambhavatah yah bhoomak ka hi uttaradhikari tha, par isaka bhoomak ke sath kya sambandh tha, yah nishchit roop se nahin kaha ja sakata. nahapan ka rajy bahut hi vistrit tha. yah bat usake jamata ushavadat ke ek lekh se gyat hoti hai. is lekh ke kuchh ansh nimnalikhit hain -

'"siddh ho. raja kshaharat kshatrap nahapan ke jamata, dinak ke putr, tin lakh gauon ka dan karane vale, barnasa (nadi) par suvarnadan karane vale, devataon aur brahmanon ko solah gram dene vale, sampoorn varsh brahmanon ko bhojan karane vale, punyatirth prabhas men brahmanon ko ath bharyaen dene vale, bharukachchh dashapur govardhan aur shorparan men chatuahshal varudh aur pratishray dene vale, aram, tadag, udapan banavane vale, iva paratapi karavena dahanuka (nadiyon par) navon aur .....dharmatma upavadat ne govardhan men trirashim parvat par yah len banavaee........"'

ushavadat ka yah lekh nasik ke pas ek guha ki divar par utkirn hai. isi guha par ek any lekh men ushavadat ne likha hai, ki "main pokshar ko gaya hoon, aur vahan par mainne abhishek (snan) kiya, tin hazar gauen aur ganv diya." nasik guha ke in lekhon se kshatrap nahapan ke rajy ki sima ke sambandh men achchhe nirdesh prapt hote hain. ushavadat ne pokshar (pushkar) men abhishek snan kiya tha. atah sambhavatah ajamer ke samipavarti pradesh nahapan ke rajy ke antargat the. is lekh men ullikhit prabhas (somanath patan) saurashtr (kathiyavad) men hai. bharukachchh ki sthiti bhi isi pradesh men hai. govardhan nasik ka nam hai. shorparan (sopara) konkan men hai. is prakar is lekh se yah spasht ho jata hai ki kathiyavad, maharashtr aur konkan avashy hi kshatrap nahapan ke rajy ke antargat the. nasik ke lekh men jin nadiyon ka ullekh hai, unaka sambandh gujarat men hai. atah is pradesh ko bhi nahapan ke rajy ke antargat mana jata hai.

nasik ke is guhalekh ke samip hi ushavadat ka ek any lekh bhi upalabdh hua hai. jisamen dahoonak nagar aur knkapur ke sath ujeni (ujjayini) ka bhi ullekh hai. in nagaron men bhi ushavadat ne brahmanon ko bahut kuchh dan-puny kiya tha. isase bhi yah anuman kiya jata hai ki ujjayini bhi nahapan ke antargat thi. ujjayini ke nahapan ke adhin hone ki bat jain aur pauranik anushrutiyon dvara bhi pusht hoti hai. jain anushruti men ujjayini ke rajaon ka ullekh karate hue gardabhill ke bad nahavan nam diya gaya hai. isi prakar puranon men antim shung rajaon ke samakalin vidisha ke raja ko nakhavanajah (nakhavan ka putr) kaha gaya hai. sambhavatah ye nahavan v nakhavan kshaharat vnshi kshatrap nahapan ke hi roopantar hain. isamen sandeh nahin ki nahapan bahut hi shaktishali kshatrap tha, aur usaka rajy kathiyavad se malava tak vistrit tha. sambhavatah nahapan ne apani shakti ka vistar karane ke lie bahut se yuddh kie the, aur inhin ke karan usaki sthiti 'kshatrap' se badhakar mahakshatrap ki ho gee thi. ushavadat ke nasikavale lekh men use keval 'kshatrap' kaha gaya hai. par poona ke samip upalabdh hue ek any guhalekh men usake nam ke sath 'mahakshatrap' visheshan ata hai.

mahakshatrap nahapan ke uttaradhikariyon ke sambandh men kuchh vishesh gyan nahin hota. satavahan vnsh ke pratapi raja gautamiputr satakarni ne kshaharat kul ke dvara shasit pradeshon ko shakon ke shasan se svatntr kiya tha.

shak raj purush
Saka King (Mastan)

mathura ke shak kshatrap

sindh se shakon ki shakti ka vistar kathiyavad, gujarat, konkan, maharashtr aur malava men hua, aur vahan se uttar ki or mathura men. sambhavatah ujjayini ki vijay ke bad hi shakon ne mathura par apana adhipaty sthapit kiya tha. mathura ke shak kshatrap bhi kshaharat kul ke the. in kshatrapon ke bahut se sikke mathura v usake samipavarti pradeshon se upalabdh hue hain. mathura ke pratham shak kshatrap hagamash aur hagan the. unake bad ranjubul aur usaka putr shodas kshatrap ya mahakshatrap pad par adhishthit hue. shodas ke bad mevaki mathura ka mahakshatrap bana. mathura ke shak kshatrapon ne poorvi pnjab ko jitakar apane adhin kiya tha. vahan par anek yavan rajy vidyaman the, jinaki svatntr satta in shakon ke dvara nasht ki gee. sath hi kunind gan ko bhi inhonne vijay kiya. gargisnhita se yug puran men shakon dvara kunind gan ke vinash ka ullekh hai. shodas ne jo 'mahakshatrap' ka pad grahan kiya tha, vah sambhavatah inhin vijayon ka parinam tha. mathura ke in shak kshatrapon ki bauddh-dharm men bahut bhakti thi. mathura ke ek mandir ki sidhiyon ke nich daba hua, ek sinhadhvaj mila hai, jisaki sinhamoortiyon ke age-pichhe tatha niche kharoshthi lipi men ek lekh utkirn hai. is lekh men mahakshatrap ranjubul ya rajul ki agramahishi dvara shaky muni buddh ke sharir-dhatu ko pratishthapit karane aur bauddh vihar ko ek zagir dan dene ka ullekh hai. mathura se prapt hue ek any lekh men mahakshatrap shodas ke shasan kal men 'hariti ke putr pal ki bharya' mohini dvara arhath ki pooja ke lie ek moorti ki pratishtha ka ullekh kiya gaya hai. isamen sandeh nahin ki maharashtr ke kshaharat shak kshatrapon ke saman mathura ke shakon ne bhi is desh ke dharmon ko angikar kar liya tha.

gandhar ka shak kul

shak logon ki shakti keval kathiyavad, gujarat, konkan, maharashtr, malava, mathura aur poorvi pnjab tak hi simit nahin rahi, unhonne gandhar tatha pashchimi pnjab par bhi apana adhipaty sthapit kar liya. in pradeshon men shakon ke bahut se sikke upalabdh hue hain, aur sath hi anek utkirn lekh bhi. inamen sabase adhik mahattvapoorn lekh takshashila se prapt hua hai, jo ek tamrapatr par utkirn hai. is lekh ke anusar maharaj mahanh mog ke rajy men kshaharat chuksh ke kshatrap liak kusulak ke putr patik ne takshashila men bhagavan shaky muni ke apratishthapit sharir dhatu ko pratishthapit kiya tha. is lekh se yah spasht hai ki takshashila ke shak kshatrap bhi kshaharat vnsh ke the, aur unake anyatam kshatrap ka nam 'liak kusulak' tha, jisake putr patik ne shaky muni ke sharir dhatu ki pratishtha karane ki smriti men yah lekh utkirn karaya tha. takshashila ya gandhar ke kshatrap svatntr raja nahin the, apitu maharaj mog ki adhinata svikrit karate the. kshatrap liak kusulak ke anek sikke bhi upalabdh hue hain.

ujjain ke kshatrap

shak raj purush
Saka King (Mastan)

malava ke shak kshatrapon ka ek any kul bhi shasan karata tha, jisaka pratham shasak yasamotik ka putr chashtan tha. isi ke vnsh men age chalakar rudradaman hua, jisane door-door tak apani shakti ka vistar kiya.

shak shasan ka kal

bharat ke shak kshatrapon aur shak maharajaon ka jo vrittant hamane oopar likha hai, usamen kahin kal ya tithi ka nirdesh nahin kiya gaya. isaka karan yah hai, ki in shak shasakon ke kal ke sambandh men bahut vivad hai. inake lekhon v sikkon par bahudha kisi snvath ka ullekh milata hai. takshashila men upalabdh jis tamrapatr ka ziqr hamane abhi oopar kiya hai, us par snvath 78 likha hai. par shakon ke lekhon v sikkon par ullikhit ye varsh kis snvasoo ka nirdesh karate hain, yah abhi nishchit nahin ho saka hai. koee bhi do aitihasik in shak rajaon v kshatrapon ke kal ke sambandh men avikal roop se ekamat nahin ho sake hain. is dasha men inake kal ko nirdharit karane ka prayatn vyarth sa hi hai. par sthool roop se yah kaha ja sakata hai ki doosari sadi ee. poo. ke ant aur pahali sadi ee. poo. ke prarambhik bhag men shakon ne bharat men apani shakti ka vistar kiya, aur apane vividh rajy qayam kie. pahali sadi men ee. poo. ke madhyabhag men satavahan vnshi raja gautamiputr satakarni aur malavagan ke prayatn se shakon ki shakti kshin honi shuroo ho gee, aur dhire-dhire unake svatntr v prithakh rajyon ka ant ho gaya.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah