कौशल महाजनपद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(कोसल se punarnirdeshit)

kaushal / kosal / koshal mahajanapad

kosal mahajanapad
Kaushal Great Realm

uttari bharat ka prasiddh janapad jisaki rajadhani vishvavishrut nagari ayodhya thi. uttar pradesh ke phaijabad zila, gonda aur baharaich ke kshetr shamil the. valmiki ramayan [1]men isaka ullekh hai:
kosalo nam mudit: sphito janapado mahan.
nivisht: sarayootire prabhoot dhanadhanyavanh ॥

rigved men varnan

yah janapad sarayoo (gnga nadi ki sahayak nadi) ke tatavarti pradesh men basa hua tha. sarayoo ke kinare basi huee basti ka sarvapratham ullekh rigved men [2] ho sakata hai yahi basti age chalakar ayodhya ke roop men vikasit ho gayi. is uddharan men chitrarath ko is basti ka pramukh bataya gaya hai. shayad isi vyakti ka ullekh valmiki ramayan men bhi hai[3].

ramayan kal

ramayan-kal men kosal rajy ki dakshini sima par vedashruti nadi bahati thi. shri ramachndraji ne ayodhya se van ke lie jate samay gomati nadi ko par karane ke pahale hi kosal ki sima ko par kar liya tha[4]. vedashruti tatha gomati par karane ka ullekh ayodhyakand [5]men hai aur tatpashchath syndika ya see nadi ko par karane ke pashchat[6] shri ram ne pichhe chhoote hue anek janapadon vale tatha manu dvara ikshvaku ko die ge samriddhishali (kosal) rajy ki bhoomi sita ko dikhaee. jan padata hai ki ramayan-kal men hi yah desh do janapadon men vibhakt tha-

  • uttar kosal aur
  • dakshin kosal

raja dasharath ki rani kaushalya snbhavat: dakshin kosal (rayapur-bilasapur ke zile, madhy pradesh) ki rajakanya thi. kalidas ne raghuvnsh[7]men ayodhya ko uttar kosal ki rajadhani kaha hai[8]. ramayan-kal men ayodhya bahut hi samriddhishali nagari thi.

digvijay-yatra

mahabharat [9]men bhimasen ki digvijay-yatra men kosal-naresh brihadbal ki parajay ka ullekh hai[10]. anguttaranikay ke anusar buddhakal se pahale kosal ki ganana uttar bharat ke solah janapadon men thi. is samay videh aur kosal ki sima par sadanira (gndaki) nadi bahati thi. buddh ke samay kosal ka raja prasenajit tha, jisane apani putri kosala ka vivah magadh-naresh binbisar ke sath kiya tha. kashi ka rajy jo is samay kosal ke antargat tha, rajakumari ko dahej men usaki prasadhan samagri ke vyay ke lie diya gaya tha. is samay kosal ki rajadhani shravasti men thi. ayodhya ka nikatavarti upanagar saket bauddhakal ka prasiddh nagar tha.

magadh-samrajy men vilin

jatakon men kosal ke ek any nagar setavya ka bhi ullekh hai. chhathi aur panchavi shati ee. poo. men kosal magadh ke saman hi shaktishali rajy tha kintu dhire-dhire magadh ka mahattv badhata gaya aur maury-samrajy ki sthapana ke sath kosal magadh-samrajy hi ka ek bhag ban gaya. isake pashchath itihas men kosal ki janapad ke roop men adhik mahatta nahin dikhaee deti yadyapi isaka nam guptakal tak sahity men prachalit tha.


vishnu puran [11]ke is uddharan men sambhavat: guptakal ke poorvavarti kal men kosal ka any janapadon ke sath hi devarakshit namak raja dvara shasit hone ka varnan hai. yah dakshin kosal bhi ho sakata hai. guptasamrat samudragupt ki prayag prashasti men ‘kosalak mahendr’ ya kosal (dakshin kosal) ke mahendr ka ullekh hai jis par samudragupt ne vijay prapt ki thi. kuchh videshi vidvanon (silaven levi, jin prejriluski) ke mat men kosal astrik bhasha ka shabd hai. astrik log bharat men dravidon se bhi poorv akar base the [12].


tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. valmiki ramayan (1.4.5
  2. ’utatya sady arya sarayorindraparat: arnachitraratha vadhi:’, rigved 4,30,18
  3. ‘sootashchitrathashchary: sachiv: suchiroshit: toshayainn maharhaishch ratnairvastrairdhanaistatha’, ayodhyakand 32,17
  4. ’etavacho manushyanan gramasnvasavastinamh, shrrinvannatiyayauvir: kosalankosaleshvar:’, ayodhyakand 49,8
  5. ayodhyakand 49,9 aur 49,10
  6. ’s mahin manuna raja dattamikshvakave pura, sphitan rashtravatan ramo vaidehimanvadarshayath’, ayodhyakand 49,12
  7. raghuvnsh 13,62
  8. ’samany dhatrimiv manasn me snbhavayatyuttarakosalanamh’, de. uttar kosal
  9. mahabharat sabhaparv 30,1
  10. tat: kumaravishaye shrenimantamathajayath kosaladhipatin chaiv brihadbalamarindam:
  11. ‘kosalandhrapundratamraliptasamudratatapurin ch devarakshito rakshita’, vishnu puran 4,24,64
  12. de. ayodhya, saket, shravasti, sarayoo

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