अवंती महाजनपद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(अवंति se punarnirdeshit)
avnti mahajanapad
Avanti Great Realm

avnti, pauranik 16 mahajanapadon men se ek tha. adhunik malava ka pradesh jisaki rajadhani ujjayini aur mahishmati thi. ujjayini (ujjain) madhy pradesh rajy ka ek pramukh shahar hai. prachin snskrit tatha pali sahity men avnti ya ujjayini ka sainkadon bar ullekh hua hai. mahabharat[1] men sahadev dvara avnti ko vijit karane ka varnan hai. bauddh kal men avnti uttarabharat ke shodash mahajanapadon men se thi jinaki soochi anguttaranikay men hain. jain grnth bhagavati sootr men isi janapad ko malav kaha gaya hai. is janapad men sthool roop se vartaman malava, nimad aur madhy pradesh ka bich ka bhag sammilit tha. puranon ke anusar avnti ki sthapana yaduvnshi kshatriyon dvara ki gee thi. buddh ke samay avnti ka raja chndapradyot tha. isaki putri vasavadatta se vatsanaresh udayan ne vivah kiya tha jisaka ullekh bhas rachit 'svapnavasavadatta' namak natak men hai. vasavadatta ko avanti se sambndhit manate hue ek sthan par is natak men kaha gaya hai-'ham! atisaddashi khalviyamaryay avntikaya:[2] chaturth shati ee. poo. men avanti ka janapad maury-samrajy men sammilit tha aur ujjayini magadh-samrajy ke pashchim prant ki rajadhani thi. isase poorv magadh aur avanti ka sngharsh paryapt samay tak chalata raha tha jisaki soochana hamen parishishtaparvan[3] se milati hai. 'kathasaritsagar'[4] se yah gyat hota hai ki avantiraj chndapradyot ke putr palak ne kaushambi ko apane rajy men mila liya tha. vishnu puran[5] se vidit hota hai ki snbhavat: gupt kal se poorv avanti par abhir ityadi shoodron ya vijatiyon ka adhipaty tha-'saurashtravanti…vishayanshch--abhir shoodradya bhokshyante'. aitihasik parampara se hamen yah bhi vidit hota hai ki pratham shati ee. poo. men (57 ee. poo. ke lagabhag) vikram snvat ke snsthapak kisi agyat raja ne shakon ko harakar ujjayini ko apani rajadhani banaya tha. gupt kal men chndragupt vikramadity ne avnti ko pun: vijay kiya aur vahan se videshi satta ko ukhad phainka. kuchh vidvanon ke mat men 57 ee. poo. men vikramadity nam ka koee raja nahin tha aur chandragupt dvitiy ne hi avnti-vijay ke pashchath malav snvat ko jo 57 ee. poo. men prarambh hua tha, vikram snvat ka nam de diya.

yuvanachvang ka varnan

chini yatri yuvanachvang ke yatravrit se gyat hota hai ki avanti ya ujjayini ka rajy us samay (615-630 ee.) malav rajy se alag tha aur vahan ek svatantr raja ka shasan tha. kaha jata hai shnkarachary ke samakalin avanti-naresh sudhanva ne jain dharm ka utkarsh soochit karane ke lie prachin avantika ka nam ujjayini (vijayakarini) kar diya tha kintu yah keval kapol kalpana matr hai kyonki guptakalin kalidas ko bhi ujjayini nam gyat tha, 'vakr: pntha yadapi bhavat: prasthisyottarashan, saudhotsngapranayavimukhomasm bhoorujjayinya:'[6] isake sath hi kavi ne avanti ka bhi ullekh kiya hai-'prapyavantimudayanakathakovidagramavriddhanh'[7] isase snbhavat: yah jan padata hai ki kalidas ke samay men avanti us janapad ka nam tha, jisaki mukhy nagari ujjayini thi. 9 vin v 10 vin shatiyon men ujjayini men paramar rajaon ka shasan raha. tatpashchath unhonne dhara nagari men apani rajadhani banaee. madhyakal men is nagari ko mukhyat: ujjain hi kaha jata tha aur isaka malava ke soobe ke ek mukhy sthan ke roop men varnan milata hai. dilli ke sultan iltutamish ne ujjain ko buri tarah se loota aur yahan ke mahakal ke ati prachin mandir ko nasht kar diya. [8] agale pray: panch sau varshon tak ujjain par musalamanon ka adhipaty raha. 1750 ee. men sindhiya nareshon ka shasan yahan sthapit hua aur 1810 ee. tak ujjain men unaki rajadhani rahi. is varsh sindhiya ne ujjain se hata kar rajadhani gvaliyar men banaee. marathon ke rajyakal men ujjain ke kuchh prachin mandiron ka jirnoddhar kiya gaya tha. inamen mahakal ka mandir bhi hai.

vividhatirth kalp men

jain granth vividhatirth kalp men malava pradesh ka hi nam avnti ya avnti hai. raja shnbar ke putr abhinndan dev ka chaity avanti ke med namak gram men sthit tha. is chaity ko musalaman sena ne nasht kar diya tha kintu is granth ke anusar vaij namak vyapari ki tapasya se khandit moorti phir se jud gee thi.

  • ujjayini ke vartaman smarakon men mukhy, mahakal ka mandir kshipra nadi ke tat par bhoomi ke niche bana hai. isaka nirman prachin mandir ke sthan par ranoji sindhiya ke mantri ramachandr baba ne 19 vin shati ke uttarardh men karavaya tha. mahakal ki shiv ke dvadash jyotirligon men ganana ki jati hai. isi karan is nagari ko shivapuri bhi kaha gaya hai.
  • harasiddhi ka mandir kaha jata hai, usi prachin mandir ka pratiroop hai jahan vikramadity is devi ki pooja kiya karate the.
  • raja bhatrihari ki gufa snbhavat: 11 vin shati ka avashesh hai.
  • chaubis khambha daravaza shayad prachin mahakal mandir ke prangan ka mukhy dvar tha.
  • kalidah-mahal 1500 ee. men bana tha. yahan ki prasiddh vedhashala jayapur-naresh jayasinh dvitiy ne 1733 ee. men banavaee thi. vedhashala ka jirnoddhar 1925 ee. men kiya gaya tha.

prachin avnti vartaman ujjain

prachin avnti vartaman ujjain ke sthan par hi basi thi, yah tathy is bat se siddh hota hai ki kshipra nadi jo ajakal bhi ujjain ke nikat bahati hai, prachin sahity men bhi avnti ke nikat hi varnit hai.[9] ujjain se ek mil uttar ki or bhairogadh men doosari-tisari shati ee. poo. ki ujjayini ke khndahar pae ge hain. yahan veshya-tekari aur kumhar-tekari nam ke tile hain jinaka sambandh prachin kinvadntiyon se hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. mahabharat, sabha 31, 10
  2. svapnavasavadatta ank 6
  3. parishishtaparvan pri. 42
  4. taauni ka anuvad jild 2, pri. 484
  5. vishnu puran 4,24,68
  6. poorvamegh. 29
  7. poorvamegh. 32
  8. yah mandir snbhavat: gupt kal se bhi poorv ka tha. meghadoot, poorvamegh 36 men isaka varnan hai--'apyanyasminh jaladhar mahakalamasadyakale'
  9. yatr strinan harati surataglanimnganukool: shipravat: priyatam iv prarthanachadukar:' poorvamegh 33

snbndhit lekh

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