नील  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

nil (angrezi: Indigo) ek prakar ka rnjak hai, jo sooti kapadon men pilepan se nizat pane ke lie prayog kiya jata hai. yah choorn tatha taral donon roopon men prayukt hota hai. yah padapon se taiyar kiya jata hai, kintu ise kritrim roop se bhi taiyar kar sakate hain. bharat men nil ki kheti bahut prachin kal se hoti aee hai. isake alava nil rnjak ka bhi sabase pahale bharat men hi nirman evn upayog kiya gaya.

parichay

nil ka paudha do-tin hath ooncha hota hai. pattiyan chameli ki tarah tahani ke donon or pnkti men lagati hain, par chhoti-chhoti hoti hain. phool mnjariyon men lagate hain. lnbi-lnbi babool ki tarah phaliyan lagati hain. nil ke paudhe ki 300 ke lagabhag jatiyan hoti hain, par jinase rng nikala jata hai, ve paudhe bharat kai hain aur arab, misr tatha amerika men bhi boe jate hain. bharatavarsh hi nil ka adisthan hai aur yahin sabase pahale rng nikala jata tha. 80 eesavi men sindh nadi ke kinare ke ek nagar se nil ka bahar bheja jana ek prachin yoonani lekhak ne likha hai. pichhe ke bahut-se videshiyon ne yahan nil ke boe jane ka ullekh kiya hai.

eesa ki padrahavin shatabdi men jab yahan se nil yoorop ke deshon men jane laga, tab se vahan ke nivasiyon ka dhyan nil ki aur gaya. sabase pahale halaind valon ne nil ka kam shuroo kiya aur kuchh dinon tak ve nil ki rngaee ke liye yoorop bhar men nipun samajhe jate the. nil ke karan jab vahan kee vastuon ke vanijy ko dhakka pahuchane laga, tab frans, jarmani adi desh kanoon dvara nil ki amad bnd karane par vivash hue. kuchh dinon tak inglaind men bhi log nil ko vish kahate rahe, jisase isaka vahan jana bnd raha. bad ke samay men belajiyam se nil ka rng banane vale bulae ge, jinhonne nil ka kam sikhaya. pahale pahal gujarat aur usake asapas ke deshon men se nil yoorop jata tha; bihar, bngal adi se nahin. eest indiya knpani ne jab nil ke kam ki aur dhyan diya, tab bngal, bihar men nil ki bahut-si kothiyan khul geen aur nil ki kheti men bahut unnati huee.

kheti

bhinn-bhinn sthanon men nil ki kheti bhinn-bhinn rituon men aur bhinn-bhinn riti se hoti hai. kahin to phasal tin hi mahine tak khet men rahati hain aur kahin atharah mahine tak. jahan paudhe bahut dinon tak khet men rahate hain, vahan unase kee bar katakar pattiyan adi li jati hain. par ab phasal ko bahut dinon tak khet men rakhane ki chal uthati jati hai. bihar men nil phalgun, chaitr ke mahine men boya jata hai. garami men to phasal ki badhat ruki rahati hai, par pani padate hi jor ke sath tahaniyan aur pattiyan nikalati aur badhati hain. atah ashadh men pahala kalam ho jata hai aur tahaniyan adi karakhane bhej di jati hain. khet men keval khoontiyan hi rah jati hain. kalam ke pichhe phir khet jot diya jata hai, jisase vah barasat ka pani achchhi tarah sokhata hai aur khoontiyan phir badhakar podhon ke roop men ho jati hain. doosari kataee phir kvar mah men hoti hai.

rng nikalana

nil se rng do prakar se nikal jata hai—hare paudhe se aur sookhe podhe se. kate hue hare paudhon ko gadi huee nandon men dabakar rakh dete hain aur oopar se pani bhar dete hain. barah chaudah ghnte pani men pade rahane se usaka ras pani men utar ata hai aur pani ka rng dhani ho jata hai. isake pichhe pani doosari nand men jata hai jahan dedh do ghnte tak lakadi se hilaya aur matha jata hai. mathane ka yah kam mashin ke chakkar se bhi hota hai. mathane ke pichhe pani thirane ke liye chhod diya jata hai jisase kuchh der men mal niche baith jata hai. phir niche baitha hua yah nil saph pani men milakar ubala jata hai. ubal jane par yah bans ki phattiyon ke sahare tanakar phailae hue mote kapade (ya kanavas) ki chandani par dhal diya jata hai. yah chandani chhanane ka kam karati hai. pani to nithar kar bah jata hai aur saph nil leee ke roop men laga rah jata hai. yah gila nil chhote chhote chhidron se yukt ek sndook men, jisamen gila kapada madha rahata he, rakhakar khoob dabaya jata hai jisase usake sat ath angul moti tah jamakar ho jati hai. isakai katare katakar ghore dhire sookhane ke liye rakh die jate hain. sookhane par in kataron par ek papadi si jam jati hai jise saph kar dete hain. ye hi katare nil ke nam se bikate hain.

nil ki kheti aur champaran satyagrah

chnparan bihar ke uttar-pashchim men sthit hain. dhan ki bhari upaj hone ke vajah se angrez shasan ke dauran kee bar ise "chaval ka katora" bhi kaha jata tha. chnparan ke kee ilakon men jal jamav ki samasya rahati thi. nil ki kheti ke lie is prakar ka khushk vatavaran varadan tha aur is vajah se yahan ke kisanon se jabaradasti nil ki kheti bhi karavaee jati thi. chnparan men nil ki kheti ke lie do alag alag vyavasthayen prachalit thin. jerait aur asamidar. jerait vibhagiy kheti hoti thi, niji dekh-rekh men. asamidar kisan kirayedar ki tarah hota tha, jahan use nil ki kheti hi karani hoti thi. bhoo-bhag ka ek chauthaee hissa jerait ke lie avntit tha tatha tin chauthaee asamidari ke lie. isi karan is vyayavastha ko 'tinahathiya' bhi kahate the. asamidar kisan jerait kheton men mazadoor ka kam bhi karate the ya yoon kahie begari karate the.[1]

19vin sadi ke uttarardh men 47000 ekad se jyada men nil ki kheti hoti thi. behatarin jarman nil se pratispardha ki vajah se 1914 tak nil-ropan takariban 8100 ekad tak hi simit rah gayi thi. pratham vishv yuddh ke vajah angrez hukoomat nen jarmani se nil ka ayat bnd kar diya tha. is vajah se nil ki mang phir badhane lagi aur champaran nil ki kheti ke lihaj se phir se prasangik hone laga. sarakar aur jaminadaron ne nil utpad kshetraphal vistrit karana arnbh kar diya. isake alava shashan vyavastha aur zamindaron ne ek 'tin kathia' sistam laga rakha tha, jisamen ek bighe men tin katthe nil ki kheti arakshit hote the. ek champarani bigha[2] ke andar 20 katthe hote the. phalasvaroop isaka nam 'tin kathia' pada. 1967 ke pahale in zaminon par panch katthe arakshit hote the nil kheti ke lie. phaiktriyon men phasal dene ke dauran bhi khetiharon par anek tarah ke kar lagate the, jisamen bapahi-putahi, maravach aur sagaura pramukh the. in sab karon ke bavajood phaiktriyan phasalon ka galat moolyankan karati thin aur kisanon ko phasal adayagi kabhi samay par nahin hota tha.in paristithiyon men bhi nil knpaniyon ke bahikhaton ko sudharane ke lie angrez hukoomat nen ne karon ko lagane aur purane karon ko badhane ki izazat de di. us vaqt ye kampaniyan kisanon se jabaran vasooli ke lie 'khalifa'[3] rakha karati thin. san 1914 ke dauran khalifaon ke sath-sath akal bhi kisanon ke daravaje par dastak dene lage the.

1914 men pipara men nil ki kheti karane valon kisanon ne anubndhit mazadooron ke sath milakar is nainsaphi ka virodh kiya. yah ahinsa par adharit ek asahayog tha. khalifaon ke chhitaput daman par bhi unaka asahayog hinsa se door raha. pet ki ag ne anan-phanan men is asahay asahayog andolan ko nibata zaroor diya, par kisanon-mazadooron ko ek rasta dikh chuka tha. san 1916 men punah turakauliya men ek ahinsak asahayog andolan arnbh hua. yah andolan ek bade paimane par tha aur kuchh lnba bhi khincha. sv-nirvah ke karan isaka tootana bhi lajimi tha aur vahi hua. itana avashy tha ki donon andolan ke dauran kisanon, mazadooron par daman hone ke bavajood hinsa nahin huee. shayad itihas ne kabhi in karunamay magar advitiy parasthitiyon ko mahatam ki nigah se nahin dekha, lekin yah ek badi ghatana thi jo mahatma gandhi ke ahinsa ke vicharon se pnktibaddh thi aur shayad isi ne mahatma gandhi ko chnparan ane ke lie prerit bhi kiya.[1]

disnbar, 1916 men lakhanoo men ayojit 31ven kangres adhiveshan men rajakumar shukl kee kangresi netaon se mile. unhonne sabhi bade netaon ko champaran ke nil kisanon-mazadooron ki badahali aur nil knpaniyon ki dalali ke bare men avagat karaya taki yah mudda kaaunstitooent asenbali men uthe. unhonne gandhiji ko bhi is masale par vistar se bataya. poori tanmayata se sunane ke bad bhi mahatma gandhi ne vishesh ruchi nahin dikhayi. bihar men kangres ki tulanatmak pakad aur phir chnparan jaise pichhade ilake men savinay andolan ki prishthabhoomi mahatma gandhi ke vishisht manasik patal par shayad jagah nahin bana pa rahi thi. rajakumar shukl svayn ek jamindar the aur unake mukh se kisanon, mazadooron ki badahali ke vivaran ne gandhiji ko prabhavit kiya tha. antatah jab shukl ji ne pipara aur turakauliya men kisanon, mazadooron dvara kiye ge ahinsak asahayog ke bare men bataya to mahatma gandhi turnt raji ho ge champaran chalane ke lie. shayad ahinsak asahayog ke udaharan ke prastuti ka vah adbhut snyog tha ki jisaki parikalpana mahatma gandhi apane zahan men kar rahe the.

san 1917 ke arambh men gandhiji kalakatta (kolakata) ge, par snvad ke abhav men unaka rajakumar shukl ji se snpark nahin ho paya. rajakumar shukl ne prayas zari rakha. aprail men mahatma gandhi phir kalakatta ae aur 10 aprail ko champaran ke zila mukhyalay motihari pahunche. unake avabhagat ke lie achary kripalani[4], mahadev desaee, din bndhu si. eph. endrayoo, ech. es. polaauk, daau. rajendr prasad, brijakishor prasad, anugrah narayan sinh, ramashri dev trivedi, dharanidhar prasad tatha bihar ke any ganamany vyakti bhi maujood the. mahatma gandhi ke chnparan ane ke bad ek ne itihas ki kayavat ka lekha taiyar hone lagi.[1]



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 nil ki kheti aur champaran satyagrah (hindi) naisadak.org. abhigaman tithi: 12 aktoobar, 2017.
  2. jo takariban 0.4 ekad ke saman hota hai
  3. aj bhi champaran ke kuchh ilakon me pahalavan ko khalifa hi bolate hai
  4. us vaqt muzzaffarapur men achary ke pad par sthapit the

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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