मंगल  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Disamb2.jpg mngal ek bahuvikalpi shabd hai any arthon ke lie dekhen:- mngal (bahuvikalpi)
mngal grah
Mars
  • saur mndal men mngal grah ( Mars ) soory se chauthe sthan par hai aur akar men sataven kramank ka bada grah hai. mngal ko rat men nngi ankhon se dekha ja sakata hai. mngal grah ko yuddh ka bhagavan bhi kahate hain. ise ye nam apane lal rng ke karan mila. prithvi se dekhane par, isako isaki raktim abha ke karan lal grah ke roop men bhi jana jata hai. isaka rng lal, ayaran aksaid ki adhikata ke karan hai. mngal ko pragaitihasik kal se jana jata raha hai. mngal ka nirikshan prithvi ki aneko vedhashalao se hota raha hai lekin badi badi doorabin bhi mngal ko ek kathin lakshy manati hai, yah grah bahut chhota hai. yah grah vigyan phatansi ke lekhako ka prithvi se bahar jivan ke liye chaheta grah hai. lekin lavel dvara dekhi gayi prasiddh nahare aur mngal par jivan parikathao jaisa kalpana men hi raha hai.
  • dharm grntho aur puranon men -- mngal grah prachinakal se hi manav ka dhyan akarshit karata raha hai. hamari pauranik kathaon men ise prithvi ka putr mana gaya hai. shiv puran men kaha gaya hai ki yah shiv ke pasine ki boond se paida hua aur devata ban kar akash men sthapit ho gaya. rom aur yoonan ke prachin nivasi lal rng ke karan ise yudd ka devata ( yoonani: Ares ) manate the. roman devata mars krishi devata ka devata tha. isalie march mahine ka nam bhi mngal grah se liya gaya hai.[1]
  • yah soory se lagabhag 22.80 karod kilomitar door hai ( kaksha :1.52: 227,940,000 kimi = e.yoo. soory se ). yah soory ki parikrama bilkul gol nahin balki andakar path par karata hai . isalie kabhi to soory se lagabhag 24.90 karod kilomitar door ho jata hai aur kabhi soory se usaki doori keval qarib 20.70 karod kilomitar rah jati hai. mngal ke gole ka vyas 6794 kilomitar hai aur dravyaman 6.4219e23 kilo hai. vah apani dhuri par 24 ghnte, 37 minat aur 22.1 sekend men ghoom jata hai. usaka ek din hamari prithvi ke 1.026 din ke barabar hota hai. vah soory ki parikrama hamari prithvi ke dinon ke hisab se 686.98 din men karata hai. yani, usaka ek varsh hamare 2 varshon se bhi bada hota hai. mngal ki kaksha dirghavritt men hai jisake karan isake tapaman men soory se doorasth bindoo aur nikatasth bindoo ke madhy 30 digri selsiyas ka antar ata hai. isase mngal ke mausam par asar hota hai. mngal par ausat tapaman 218 digri kelvin ( - 55 digri selsiyas ) hai. isalie mngal grah ka din men adhikatam ausat tapaman 27 digri selsiyas aur nyoonatam ausat tapaman shoony se 133 digri selsiyas tak niche hota hai. mngal prithvi se bahut chhota hai lekin usaki satah ka kshetraphal prithvi ki satah ke kshetraphal ke barabar hi hai, kyonki mngal par sagar nahin hai . [1]
  • vaigyanik adhyayanon ne sabit kar diya ki mngal bhi hamari prithvi ki tarah ek thos grah hai aur yahan ki satah rookhi aur patharili hain. mngal ki satah par maidan, pahad aur ghatiyan hain. vahan dhool ke bhaynkar toofan uthate rahate hain. chand ki tarah mngal grah ke dakshini golardh men uchchabhoomi hai aur uttari golardh men maidan hain. is grah ke bhitari bhag men 1700 kilomitar rediyas ka kor ( trijya ka kendrak ) hai, usake charo pighali chattano ka pighala maintal hai jo prithvi se maintal se zyada ghana hai, inake bahar ek patala bhooprishth hai. mars global sarveyar ke ankado se bhooprishth ki motaee dakshini golardh men 80 kilomitar mota hai lekin uttari golardh men keval 35 kilomitar mota hai. chattani grahon men mngal ka kam ghanatv yah darshata hai ki isake kendrak men salphar ki matra lohe ki matra se zyada hai. mngal ka dakshini golardh chandrama ke jaise kretaron se bhara hua utha hua aur prachin hai. isake viparit uttari golardh naye patharo ka bana aur nichala hai. in dono ki sima par unchaee men ek akasmik unchaee men badalav dikhayi deta hai. is akasmik unchaee men badalav ke karan agyat hai. marsh global sarveyar yan ne jo 3 ayami mngal ka naksha banay hai in sabhi rachanao ko dikhata hai. mngal ke donon dhruvo par barf ki parat hai. yah barf ki parat pani aur karban day aksaeed ki barf hai. uttari golardh ki garmiyo men karaban dayaaksaeed ki barf pighal jati hai aur pani ki barf ki tah rah jati hai. mars eksapres ne yah ab dakshini golardh men bhi dekha hai. any sthano par bhi pani ki barf ke hone ki asha hai.
  • mngal par zamin khisakane ki ghatanaen bhi am taur par hoti hain, mngal grah par gurutvakarshan bhi prithvi ke muqabale kafi kam hai. budh aur chandrama ki tarah mngal men bhi kriyashil plet tektoniks nahin hai kyonki mngal men modadar parvat (prithvi par himalay) nahin hai. plet ki gatividhi na hone se satah ke niche ke garm sthan apani jagah rahate hain, tatha kam gurutv ke karan tharasis ubhar jaise ubharo tatha jvalamukhi ki snbhavana zyada rahati hai. haliya jvalamukhiy gatividhi ke koee praman nahin mile hai. mars global sarveyar ke anumano se mngal men kisi samay tektanik gatividhi rahi hongi. itihas men mngal prithvi jaisa raha hoga.
  • prithvi par sari karban day aksaeed karbonet chattan men upayog men a gayi thi, lekin mngal par plet tektaniks nahin hone se mngal par karban day aksaeed ke upayog aur utsarjan ka chakr poora nahin ho pata hai. in karanon se mngal par tapaman badhane layaq grin haus prabhav nahin ban pata hai (yah tapaman ko 5 digri kelvin tak hi badha़ pata hai jo prithvi aur shukr ki tulana men kafi kam hai). is karan mngal ki satah prithvi ki tulana men thndi hai. mngal ka vayumndal bahut hi viral ( prithvi ki tulana men patala ) hai. usamen 95.3 pratishat karban daiaauksaid (sabase bada hissa), 2.7 pratishat naitrojan, 1.6 pratishat argan, sookshm matra men ( 0.15 pratishat ) aauksijan tatha jal ( 0.03 pratishat ) paya jata hai. ausat vayumndaliy dabav 7 milibar hai, jo prithvi ke 1% ke barabar hai lekin yah gaharaeeyo men 9 milibar se olampas mans par 1 milibar tak rahata hai. lekin yah vatavaran tez havao aur mahino tak chalane vale dhool ke andhad paida karane men saksham hai.[1]
  • mngal ki satah (path phaeendar dvara li gayi tasvir) : -- mngal ki satah par ksharan ke saf praman mile hai jisame badh dvara ksharan ya chhoti nadiyo dvara ksharan ka samavesh hai. kisi samay mngal par koee drav padarth zaroor raha hoga. drav jal ki snbhavana zyada hai lekin any snbhavana bhi hai. yano dvara bheje gaye ankade batate hai ki mngal par badi jhile ya sagar bhi rahe honge. ye ankade ksharan ki in naharo ki umr 5 arab varsh batate hain. mars ekspres dvara bheji gayi ek tasvir men jama hua samudr dikhayi deta hai ho 50 lakh varsh pahale drav raha hoga. vailes marineris ghati drav ke bahane se nahin bani hai. yah tharasis ubhar dvara bhoopatal men ayi dararo se bani hai.
mngal par sauramandal ka sabase bada jvalamukhi olipas mesi
  • mngal par bhoodrishy kafi rochak aur vividhatao se bhara hai. mngal par sauramandal ka sabase bada jvalamukhi olipas mesi evn sauramandal ka sabase ooncha parvat niks olapiya ( Nix Olympia ) jo ki maunt aivarest se tin guna adhik ooncha hai jisaki oonchaee 24 kimi ( 78,000 phit ) hai, adhar par vyas men 500 kilomitar se adhik hai. us par ek 4000 kilomitar chauda aur 10 kilomitar ooncha ek vishal tharasis ubhar (pathar) hai. usaki velij merineris (Valles Marineris) ghati 4000 kilomitar lnbaee aur 2 - 7 kilomitar gahari ghatiyo ki ek pranali hai. dakshini golardh men helaj plenitiya namak vishal kretar hai jisaki chaudaee 2000 kilomitar aur gaharaee lagabhag 6 kilomitar hai. aur yahan ghatiyan itani badi hain ki agar yah prithvi par hoti, to yah nyooyaaurk se laaus enjils tak phaila hota. mngal ki satah kafi poorani hai aur kretaro se bhari huee hai, lekin vahan par kuchh nayi ghatiya, pahadiyan aur pathar bhi hai. yah sab janakariyan magnl bheje gaye yano ne di hai. prithvi ki doorabine ( habbal sahit ) yah sab dekh nahin pate hain.
  • mngal grah ke do upagrah (chand) hai :-- phobos aur dimos. phobos mngal grah ke madhyabindu se 9000 kilomitar ke phasale par hai aur dimos 23000 kilomitar ki doori par. phobos ka rediyas 11 kilomitar hai aur dimos ka 6 kilomitar. phobas pashchim se ugata hai aur din men do bar poorv men dhalata hai. dimos bahut chhota - sa chand hai. phobos ka dravyaman ( kilo ) 1.08e1611 hai aur dimos ka 1.80e156 hai. in dono upagraho ko 1877 men haaul ne khoja tha. [1]
  • mngal yani lal grah knpaknpa dene vali thnd, dhool bhari andhi ka gubar aur phir bavndar, prithvi ke muqabale ye sab mngal par kahin zyada hai, halanki yah prithvi ki tarah jivan se bhara poora nahin hai, lekin mngal ki bhaugolik sthiti kafi achchhi hai. lekin in sabhi antaron ke bavajood mngal saur parivar men kisi any grah ki tulana men kafi kuchh prithvi jaisa hi hai, yahi karan hai ki prithvi ke bad mngal men jivan ki sambhavana dekhi jati hai kyoki yahan vayumndal hai aur prithvi ke saman do dhruv pae jate hai tatha isaka kakshatali 25º ke kon par jhuka hua hai, jisake karan yahan prithvi ke saman ritu parivartan hota hai. isake din ka man evn aksh ka jhukav prithvi ke saman hi hai. yahi karan hai ki mngal grah par abhiyan tez hone lage hain aur yahan jivan ki talash ki ja rahi hai, abhi bhi mngal grah ke bare men janakari hasil karane ki koshish ki ja rahi hai, kyonki jitani bhi janakari abhi hai, vo kam hai. kya mngal par prithvi jaisa hi bada mahasagar hai, kya vahan kisi roop men jivan hai aur kya manushy kabhi mngal par jakar sthayi roop se rah sakenge, in sab savalon ka javab abhi milana baki hai.
  • chandrama ke alava mngal akela grah hai jis par manav nirmit yan pahuncha hai. 1960 ke dashak men pahali bar antariksh yan yahan utara tha, 1990 ke akhir tak mngal ke satah ki poori tasvir khinchi ja chuki thi. sabase pahale mngal par 1965 men mairinar - 4 yan bheja gaya tha. usake bad is grah par mars 2 ( Mars 2 ) jo mngal par utara bhi tha, ke alava bahut sare yan bheje gaye hai. 1976 men do vaiking yan bhi mngal par utare the. isake 20 varsh pashchath 4 julaee 1997 ko marsh pathaphaeendar mngal par utara tha. 2004 men mars ekspedisan rovar projekt ke do vahan sprit tatha oparachyuniti mngal par bhaugolik ankade aur tasvire bhejane utare the. 2008 men phiniks yan mngal ke uttari patharo men pani ki khoj ke liye utara tha. mngal ki kaksha men mars rikanaisens orbitar mars odisi tatha mars eksapres yan hai. bharatiy vaigyanik bhavishy men mngal abhiyan ki yojana bana rahe hain.[2]
  • vaiking yano ne mngal par jivan ki talash ki thi lekin vaigyaniko ka manana hai ki mngal par jivan nahin hai. bhavishy men kuchh prayog aur kiye jayenge. 6 agast, 1996 ko, devid maike et al ki ghoshana ki hai ki ulka ALH84001 men ke sookshmajiv mngal grah par jivan ke saboot ho sakate hain. halanki abhi bhi kuchh vivad hai, vaigyanik samuday ke bahumat ne is nishkarsh ko svikar nahin kiya. agar mngal grah par jivan tha, vah ham abhi yah nahin mila hai. mngal par kamazor chunbakiy kshetr kuchh hisson men maujood hai. yah khoj marsh global sarveyar ne ki thi. mngal par bhi (prithvi ki tarah hi sarvatr nahi) chunbakiy kshetr paye jate hain. shayad yah kshetr kisi samay mngal par rahe sarvanik chunbakiy kshetr ke avashesh hain. yah bhi yah mngal par kisi prachin kal men jivan ki snbhavana ka snket hai.[3]
  • mngal grah 27, 28, 29 janavari 2010 ko hamari prithvi ke kafi qarib tha. prithvi se usaki doori in dinon keval 9.8 kilomitar rah gee thi. sooryast ke bad poorv se asaman men age badhate narngi - lal rng ke mngal grah ko asani se pahachana ja sakata tha. balki, vaigyanikon ka kahana hai ki 29 janavari, 2010 ko mngal sarvadhik chamakadar dikhaee tha. usaki chamak asaman ke sabase chamakadar tare ‘siriyas’ yani vyadh (lubdhak) se bas namamatr ko hi kam tha. nili abha lie lubdhak, narngi - lal mngal aur shvet chndrama ko ek sath dekhana ek apoorv anubhav tha.
maunt evarest ka vihngam drishy
mngal grah ka vihngam drishy
Panoramic View of Mars

mngal devata

mngal devata ki char bhujaen hain. inake sharir ke royen lal hain inake hathon men kram se abhayamudra, trishool, gada aur varamudra hai. inhonne lal malaen aur lal vastr dharan kar rakhe hain. inake sir par svarnamukut hai tatha ye mekh (bheda) ke vahan par savar hain.

mngalavar

  • mngalavar saptah ka ek din hai.
  • mngal ko 'bhaum' bhi kaha jata hai.
  • mngalavar saptah ka tisara din hai .
  • mngalavar somavar ke bad aur budhavar se pahala din hai.
  • mngalavar ka nam 'mngal' se pada hai jisaka arth kushal hota hai, mngal ka arth bhagavan hanuman se bhi mana jata hai .
  • hindoo dharm men mngal ka arth 'pavitr aur shubh' hota hai, at: hindoo mngalavar ko kisi kary ka prarambh karane ke lie shubh manate hain .
  • yoonan aur spen men mngalavar kisi bhi kary ke lie ashubh mana jata hai . unaki paramparik kahavaton ke anusar mngalavar ko yatra ya vivah nahin karana chahie .


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 mevadi, devend. mngal grah (hindi) (pi.ech.pi) meri kalam. abhigaman tithi: 21 janavari, 2011.
  2. yuddh ka devata (hindi) (pi.ech.pi.) antariksh. abhigaman tithi: 29 janavari, 2011.
  3. yuddh ka devata : mngal (hindi) (pi.ech.pi.) sauramndal. abhigaman tithi: 29 janavari, 2011.

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