संयुक्त राष्ट्र  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

snyukt rashtr
snyukt rashtr ka pratik
vivaran 'snyukt rashtr' ek antararashtriy sngathan hai. isake chartar par 26 joon, 1945 ko sen phransisko men hastakshar hue, jo 24 aktoobar, 1945 ko lagoo hua. snyukt rashtr ke pratik chinh men jaitoon ki do shakhaen oopar ki or khuli hain aur unake bich halki nili prishtabhoomi men vishv ka manachitr hai.
sthapana 24 aktoobar, 1945
mukhyalay nyooyaaurk
adhikari bhashaen arabi, chini, angrezi, fransisi, roosi, speni.
sadasy desh 193
adhyaksh mahasachiv ban ki moon
mukhy uddeshy snyukt rashtr ka mukhy uddeshy vishv men yuddh rokana, manav adhikaron ki raksha karana, antararashtriy kanoon ko nibhane ki prakriya jutana, samajik aur arthik vikas ubharana, jivan star sudharana aur bimariyon se ladana hai.
snbndhit lekh snyukt rashtr mahasabha, snyukt rashtr suraksha parishad
any janakari dvitiy vishvayuddh ke vijeta deshon ne milakar snyukt rashtr ko antarrashtriy sngharsh men hastakshep karane ke uddeshy se sthapit kiya tha. ve chahate the ki bhavishy me phir kabhi dvitiy vishvayuddh ki tarah ke yuddh n ubhar ae.

snyukt rashtr (angrezi: United Nations) ek antararashtriy sngathan hai, jisake uddeshy men ullekh hai ki yah antararashtriy qanoon ko suvidhajanak banane ke sahayog, antarrashtriy suraksha, arthik vikas, samajik pragati, manav adhikar aur vishv shanti ke lie karyarat hai. snyukt rashtr ki sthapana 24 aktoobar, 1945 ko snyukt rashtr adhikar patr par 50 deshon ke hastakshar hone ke sath huee. aj vishv ke har desh ek-doosare par adhikar jamane ke lie khade rahate hain. kee deshon men antarik kalah itana adhik ho chuka hai ki vahan manaviy moolyon ki ahuti di ja rahi hai. kee deshon men tanashahon ka atnk hai to atnkavadi ae din logon ki jindagi se khel rahe hain. in sabako niyntran men karane ke lie har desh apane star par to kam karate hi hain sath hi in sabake oopar najar rahati hain duniya ke sabase badi sngh ki. snyukt rashtr sngh ke nam se mashahoor yah antararashtriy snsthan jati, dharm aur desh se oopar uthakar poore snsar ke kalyan ke lie kam karata hai.

sthapana

pratham vishvayuddh ke bad 1929 men rashtr sngh ka gathan kiya gaya tha. rashtr sngh kafi had tak prabhavahin tha aur snyukt rashtr ka usaki jagah hone ka yah bahut bada phayada hai ki snyukt rashtr apane sadasy deshon ki senaon ko shanti ke lie tainat kar sakata hai. snyukt rashtr sngh se poorv, pahale vishv yuddh ke bad rashtr sngh (lig aauf neshns) ki sthapana ki gee thi. isaka uddeshy kisi snbhavit doosare vishv yudd ko rokana tha, lekin rashtr sngh 1930 ke dashak men duniya ke yuddh ki taraf badhav ko rokane men viphal raha aur 1946 men ise bhng kar diya gaya. rashtr sngh ke dhanche aur uddeshyon ko 'snyukt rashtr sngh' ne apanaya. 1944 men amarika, briten, roos aur chin ne vashingatan men baithak ki aur ek vishv snstha banane ki rooparekha par sahamat ho ge. is rooparekha ko adhar bana kar 1945 men pachas deshon ke pratinidhiyon ke bich batachit huee. phir 24 aktoobar, 1945 ko ghoshana-patr ki sharton ke anusar 'snyukt rashtr sngh' ki sthapana huee. snyukt rashtr sngh men 193 sadasy hain. rashtron ke svatntr hone ke sath hi poorv soviyat sngh ke vighatan ke bad isake sadasyon ki snkhya men lagatar badhottari huee. snyukt rashtr sngh ko chalane ke lie sadasy desh yogadan karate hain. kisi desh ki kshamata ke adhar par yogadan tay kiya jata hai. snyukt rashtr sngh men amarika ka yogadan sabase adhik hai. snyukt rashtr ki kee svatntr snsthaen bhi hain jo har mudde ko alag alag star par sulajhati hain- jaise khady evn krishi sngathan, antararashtriy shram sngh, vishv baink, yoonesko, vishv svasthy sngathan, adi.[1]

uddeshy

snyukt rashtr ka mukhy uddeshy vishv men yuddh rokana, manav adhikaron ki raksha karana, antararashtriy kanoon ko nibhane ki prakriya jutana, samajik aur arthik vikas ubharana, jivan star sudharana aur bimariyon se ladana hai. is sngathan ne duniya bhar men kee aham maukon par manav jivan ki seva kar ek adarsh prastut kiya hai. vartaman vishv men kee desh hain jo doosare deshon par prabhutv jatane aur unhen hadapane ko taiyar rahate hain par snyukt rashtr ki kadi najar ki vajah se vah kuchh bhi nahin kar pate. chahe vishv men shiksha ko badhava dena ho ya phir eds jaisi bimari ke prati jagarukata phailani ho ya takanik ko age badhana ho yah hamesha age rahata hai.[1]

snyukt rashtr sngh ke vishisht abhikaran[2]
kr.sn. abhikaran
1. khady aur krishi sngathan
2. antarashtriy shram sngathan
3. vishv svasthy sngathan
4. shiksha, vigyan aur snskriti snbndhi sngathan -yoonesko
5. punarnirman aur vikas ke lie antarashtriy baink-vishv baink
6. antarashtriy mudra kosh
7. antarashtriy vitt nigam
8. antarashtriy doorasnchar sngh
9. antarashtriy doorasnchar uddayan sngathan
10. vishv mausam vigyan sngh
11. antarashtriy bal snkat kosh
12. antarashtriy samudr-paramarsh sngathan
13. antarashtriy paramanu oorja abhikaran
14. vishv dak sngh
15. snyukt rashtr sharanarthi-uchchayukt

pramukh ang

  1. mahasabha
  2. suraksha parishad
  3. arthik aur samajik parishad
  4. pranyas parishad
  5. antarashtriy nyayalay
  6. sachivalay

snyukt rashtr mahasabha

mahasabha snyukt rashtr ka sabase aham hissa hai. mahasabha kisi bhi mudde par bahas ke lie snyukt rashtr sngh ka pramukh mnch hai. snyukt rashtr sngh men yah ek akeli snstha hai jisamen sabhi deshon ke pratinidhi shamil hote hain. pratyek sadasy ka ek vot hota hai. snyukt rashtr sngh men sadasy desh antararashtriy suraksha se lekar snyukt rashtr sngh ke bajat tak kisi bhi mudde par vichar vimarsh kar sakate hain. mahasabha vichar-vimarsh ke bad apani sifarishen jari kar sakati hai lekin vo kisi desh ko in sifarishon ko manane ke lie badhy nahin kar sakati. mahasabha, sadasy deshon ke bich badi chintaon ko ghoshana ke roop apana sakati hai.

snyukt rashtr suraksha parishad

suraksha parishad ko vishv shanti aur suraksha banae rakhane ki zimmedari saunpi gee hai. amarika, roos, chin, frans aur briten isake panch sthaee sadasy hai. suraksha parishad ke panchon sthaee sadasyon ke pas kee aham adhikar hote hain isalie isako lekar kee bar vivad paida hote hain. 1945 men snyukt rashtr ki sthapana ke vakt usake sadasyon ki snkhya 50 thi, jo aj badhakar 193 ho gee hai. in painsath salon ke dauran duniya bhi har lihaj se badal gee hai, lekin suraksha parishad men duniya ke rashtron ka pratinidhitv jas ka tas bana hua hai.[1]

yoonesko

yadi snyukt rashtr ki koee aisi snstha hai jisaki karyapranali par sabako yakin hai aur jisane sabase achchha kam kiya hai to vah yoonesko hi hai. is snstha ka uddeshy shiksha, vigyan snskriti aur snchar ke madhyam se shanti aur vikas ka prasar karana hai.

snyukt rashtr sngh se snbndhit any snsthaen
kr.sn. snsthaen
1. antarashtriy vikas sngh
2. snyukt rashtr audyogik vikas snstha
3. vyapar tatha vikas hetoo snyukt rashtr sammalen
4. vyapar tatha sima shulk par samany samajhauta
5. antarashtriy krishi vikas kosh
6. vishv bauddhik snpatti snstha
7. snyukt rashtr paryavaran karyakram
8. antarashtriy doorasnchar upagrah sngh
9. snyukt rashtr janasnkhya gatividhiyon se sambaddh kosh

rochak tathy

  1. 73 deshon ke 90 miliyan logon ko snyukt rashtr bhojan (khady padarth) muhaiya karata hai.
  2. snyukt rashtr 100 se jyada deshon men jalavayu parivartan v oorja bachat ke lie karyakram chala raha hai.
  3. 36 miliyan sharanarthiyon ko sahayata upalabdh kara raha hai.
  4. vishv ke 58 pratishat bhag men tikakaran karyakram chala raha hai, jisase prativarsh 2.5 miliyan bachchon ki jan bachaee ja rahi hai.
  5. 1,20,000 shantidooton aur 16 aaupareshan ke madhyam se snyukt rashtr 4 mahadvipon men shanti kayam rakhane ke lie karyakram chala raha hai.
  6. pichhale 30 salon men 370 miliyan gramin garibon ki sthiti ko snyukt rashtr ne behatar banaya hai.
  7. prativarsh 30 miliyan garbhavati mahilaon ki jan bachane ka kary karata hai.
  8. snyukt rashtr ne 80 se jyada deshon ko svatntr karane men mahatvapoorn bhoomika ada ki hai.[3]

snyukt rashtr ki viphalataen

jab bhi ham snyukt rashtr ki viphalataon ke bare men sochate hain ki akhir kyoon ek snstha jo sabhi deshon aur sabhi sarakaron se oonchi hai vah viphal ho jati hai. kahin isaka karan amerika to nahin? yah sab janate hain aj agar kisi ka snyukt rashtr par sabase adhik asar hai to vah hai amerika. irak aur afaganistan men jo kuchh hua kya use snyukt rashtr dekh nahin paya. akhir kyoon kango aur libiya jaise deshon men narasnhar hone diya gaya. aj irak, eeran aur afaganistan matr qabristan banakar rah ge hain jahan log apane gharon se nikalane men bhi darate hain. akhir kyoon bnd hain is snstha ki ankhen. afaganistan ko to khndahar bana diya gaya hai aur eeran men aj bhi am janata samany jivan nahin ji pa rahi hai. amerika ka is snstha par saph dabav dekha ja sakata hai. aisa nahin hai ki is snstha ke sath sirph viphalataen hi judi hain balki kee bar sathi deshon ki jasoosi aur uchch adhikariyon par yaun shoshan jaise arop bhi lage hain. viphalataon ke bad agar saphalataon par najar dalen to pata chalata hai ki snyukt rashtr ne kee kshetron men achchha kam bhi kiya hai. yoonesko, yoonisef jaise sngathanon ne am adami ke jivan ko asan banane men khas yogadan diya hai. snyukt rashtr sngh ne kuchh aise vishayon par sarakaron aur janata ka dhyan akarshit kiya hai, jo isake abhav men achhoote v upekshit hi rah jate.[1]

snyukt rashtr aur bharat

bharat ke sath snyukt rashtr ka vyavahar hamesha samany hi raha. halanki kuchhek maukon par bharat ko is snstha se nirasha hath lagi. varsh 1948 men jammoo-kashmir samasya, varsh 1971 ka poorvi pakistan ka snkat aur vartaman atnkavad ke mudde par jis tarah se snyukt rashtr ne bharat ke sath vyavahar kiya usase am janata ka is par se thoda bharosa kam hua hai. snyukt rashtr suraksha parishad men bharat sthayi sadasyata ki davedari kar raha hai par use abhi tak yah darja hasil nahin hua hai.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 snyukt rashtr sngh: saphalata ke 66 sal (hindi) (html) jagaran jnkshan. abhigaman tithi: 14 joon, 2016.
  2. snyukt rashtr sngh (hindi) sanyukt-rashtra-sangh.blogspot.in. abhigaman tithi: 04 aktoobar, 2016.
  3. duniya ka sabase bada sngathan snyukt rashtr (hindi) livehindustan.com. abhigaman tithi: 04 aktoobar, 2016.

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