कालिदास की अलंकार-योजना  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kalidas vishay soochi
kalidas ki alnkar-yojana
Poet-Kalidasa.jpg
poora nam mahakavi kalidas
janm 150 varsh eesa poorv se 450 eesavi ke madhy
janm bhoomi uttar pradesh
pati/patni vidyottama
karm bhoomi bharat
karm-kshetr snskrit kavi
mukhy rachanaen natak- abhigyan shakuntalamh, vikramorvashiyamh aur malavikagnimitramh; mahakavy- raghuvnshamh aur kumarasnbhavamh, khandakavy- meghadootamh aur ritusnhar
bhasha snskrit
puraskar-upadhi mahakavi
snbndhit lekh kalidas ke kavy men prakriti chitran, kalidas ke charitr-chitran, kalidas ka chhand vidhan, kalidas ki ras snyojana, kalidas ka saundary aur prem, kalidas lokachar aur lokatattv
any janakari kalidas shaklo-soorat se sundar the aur vikramadity ke darabar ke navaratnon men ek the. lekin kaha jata hai ki prarnbhik jivan men kalidas anapadh aur moorkh the.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi
kalidas ke kavyon men shabdalnkaron ka prayog apekshakrit kam milata hai. yadyapi yatr - tatr sanuprasik padavali dikhayi deti hai, kintu utani hi matra men jitani ki kavyapravah men atynt svabhavik roop se upanibaddh ho gayi hai. yatha-
jivnpun: shashvadupaplavebhy: praja: prajanath pitev pasi[1]
  • any shabdalnkaron men buddhi vilas hone ke karan mahakavi ki ruchi nahin dikhaee deti. yahi karan hai ki unake kavyon men yamak, shlesh adi ke prayog nagany hain.
  • kavi ne arthalnkaron ka paryapt prayog kiya hai. arthalnkaron men bhi upama, roopak, utpreksha, arthantaranyas adi alnkaron ka bahuly hai. inamen bhi samikshakon ne kavi ki upama ko sarvashreshth kaha hai- 'upama kalidasasy'. kuchh log upama se upamalnkar ka to kuchh log sadrishyamoolak alnkar ka arth grahan karate hain. vastut: kavi ki upama ka vinyas jitana sundar hota hai, roopak, utpreksha drishtant, arthantaranyas adi ka usase kam nahin. at: 'upama' se sadrishmoolak arthalnkar arth grahan karana hi uchit hai. kavi ke anek arthantaranyas sookti ke roop men prasiddh hain. arthantaranyason ki isi lokapriyata se prabhavit kisi samikshak ka kathan hai-

upama kalidasasy notkrishteti matn mam.
arthantaranyasavinyase kalidason vishishyate॥

  • chahe upama ka prayog ho ya arthantaranyas ka athava kisi any alnkar ka, sabhi kavy men vishesh chamatkar utpann karate hain. vishesh roop se upama ka prayog to advitiy hai. unaki upamayen kahin-kahin yatharth hain to kahin shastriy aur kahin adhyatmik. ve upamaon ke kushal shilpi hain. raghuvnsh ke pratham pady men kavi ne shiv aur parvati ke sambandh ki upama shabd aur arth ke sambandh se di hai-

vagarthaviv sampriktau vagarthapratipattaye.
jagat: pitarau vande parvatiparameshvari॥

  • sambhav hai, 'shabdarthau sahitau kavyamh' is kavyalakshan ki prerana acharyon ko isi upama se mili ho. maharaja dilip nandini ke sath saynkal jab lautate hain to svagatarth sudakshina age ati hai tab sudakshina evn dilip ke madhy nandini aise shobhit hoti hai jaise din aur ratri ke bich sandhya sushobhit hoti hai.[2]
  • tejasvi raja dilip ki din se, nandini ki lalimayukt sandhya se tatha shyamavarna sudakshina ki ratri se upama satik tatha manohar hai. raghuvnsh ke indumati svaynvar men indumati ki dipashikha se di gayi upama itani prasiddh ho gayi ki kavi ka nam hi 'dipashikha-kalidas' pad gaya. indumati jin-jin rajaon ko chhodakar age badhati jati thi, unaka munh udas padata jata tha jaise rajamarg ke ve- ve bhavan jo dipak ke age badh jane par dhundhale padate jate hain-

sancharini dipashikhev ratrau yn yn vyatitay patinvara sa.
narendramargatth iv prapede, vivarnabhavn s s bhoomipal:॥[3]

meghadoot mahakavy

meghadoot men upama ka prayog to shladhy hai hi, kintu vahan utpreksha ka bahulyen prayog hai. megh ke ramagiri se alakanagari ki or prasthan karane par marg men padane vale nagaron, parvaton evn nadiyon me megh ke sampark se kaisi apoorv shobhavriddhi hoti hai, kavi ne utpreksha ke madhyam se chitrit kiya hai. krishnavarn megh jab vishram karane ke liye pake amravrikshon se ghire hue amrakoot parvat par baithega to prithivi ke stan jaisi dikhayi dene vali yah shobha devataon ke dvara dekhane yogy hogi- chhannopant: parinataphaladyotibhi: kananamrai-

stvayyaroodhe shikharamachal: snigdhaveni savarne.
noonn yasyatyamaramithunaprekshaniyamavasthan
madhye shyam: stan iv bhuv: sheshavistarapandu:॥[4]

  • isi prakar megh jab charmanvati nadi se jalagrahan karane ke liye jhukega to akashasth devataon ko door se aisa pratit hoga manon prithivi ke muktahar ke mdhy men indranilamani piron diya gaya ho-

prekshishynte gaganagatayo noonamavarjy drishti-
rekn muktagunamiv bhuv: sthoolamadhyendranilamh॥[5]

  • ukt donon hi upamaon men kavi ne oonchaee se prithvi ke kisi drishy ko dekhane par usaki jo chhavi pratibhasit hoti hai, use adbhut kalpanashilata se prastut kiya hai.
kumarasambhav

kumarasambhav men kavi ne kamadev ke prabhav se shnkar ke man men uthe vikar ki badi hi satik upama di hai. jis tarah chandrama ke udit hone par samudr men jvar a jata hai, usi prakar parvati ko dekh lene par shnkar ke man men halachal hone lagi aur unhonne apane netr parvati ke bimbaphal sadrish adharoshthon par gada diye-

harastu kinchith pariluptadhairyashchandrodayarambh ivamburashi:.
umamukhe bimbaphaladharoshthe vyaparayamas vilochanani॥[6]

  • upama ke sandarbh men yah ullekhaniy hai ki kalidas ki upama banabhatt prabhriti kaviyon ki bhanti shleshanupranit nahin hai phalat: pathakon ko arthavabodh men klishtama ka samana nahin karana padata.
  • mahakavi ke kavyon men arthantaranyas ka bhi paryapt prayog hua hai. aise sthal sooktiyon ke nidarshan hain, jahan kavi ne sararoop men apana laukik anubhav vyakt kiya hai. megh to dhool, agni, jal aur vayu ka sammishran hai, achetan hai aur sandesh to kushal indriyon vale log hi le ja sakate hain phir bhi utsukatavash yaksh ne megh se prarthana ki, kyonki kamapidit logon ko chetan-achetan ka dhyan nahin rahata-

ityautsukyadapariganayanh guhyakastn yayache.
kamartta hi prakritikripanashchetanachetananeshu॥[7]

  • yahan vishesh ka ek lokasamany tathy se samarthan kiya gaya hai. isi prakar kumarasambhav ka prasiddh shlok-

anntaratnaprabhavasy yastr himn n saubhagyavilopi jatamh.
eko hi doshon gunasannitindo: kiraneshvivank:॥[8]

  • asnkhy ratn utpann karane vale himalay ki shobha him ke karan kam nahin huee, kyonki jahan bahut se gun hon vahan ek dosh usi tarah se nahin dikhaee deta jaise chandrama ke kiranon men kalnk.
  • mahakavi ne uparyukt alnkaron ke atirikt atishayokti, sahokti, sandeh, vibhavana, arthapatti, parinam, samasokti, parikar, udatt, kavyaling, nidarshana, visheshokti adi ka bhi sundar prayog kiya hai. kahin-kahin ek pady men anek alankaron ka sankar athava snsrishti bhi dikhayi deti hai.
  • kalidas ne apani virat kalpana aur saundaryadrishti ke dvara sare bharat ki apar sushama tatha is desh ki vasundhara ke pratikshan parivartaman apoorv roop se poori gatyatmakata ke sath sakshatkar karaya hai. unake aprastut vidhan men rngon ki parakh ke sath rngon ke mishran se utpann chhataon ko shabdachitron men sakar kar diya gaya hai. raghuvnsh ke terahaven sarg men pushpak viman se lautate hue ram ke dvara lnka se ayodhya tak ke tirthasthalon, nadiyon, parvaton aur ramaniy pradeshon ka varnan is drishti se bada manoram hai. prayag men gnga - yamuna ke sngam ka chitr hai-

kvachith prabhalepibhirindranilairmuktamayi yashtirivanuviddha.
anyatr mala sitapankajanamindivarairutkhachitantarev..
kvachith khagana priyamanasanan kadambasnsargavatit panakti:.
anyatr kalagurudattapanna bhaktirbhuvashchandanakalpitev॥
kvachith prabha chandramasi tamobhishchhayavilinai: shabalikritev.
anyatr shubhro sharadabhralekha randhreshshivalakshyanabh: pradesha॥
kvachichch krishnoragabhooshanev bhasmangaraga tanurishvarasy.
pashyanavadyanagi vibhati ganga bhinnapravaha yamunatarangai:॥[9]

  • kahi to prabhaon men lipate indranilamaniyon men gunthi saphed motiyon ki ladi si, kahin saphed kamalon ki us mala ke jaisi jisamen bich-bich men nilakamal gunthe hon, kahin kadamb pakshi ke sath udate rajahnson ki katar ke saman, to kahin dharati par chandan se bani bhakti-rekha ke saman jisamen kale agaru ki thap di gayi ho, kahin chandrama ki prabha ke saman, jisamen chhaya men dubaka andhera mila hua ho, to kahin sharad ke svachchh meghon ki katar sarp ke abhooshan se yukt shiv ki deh ke saman-is prakar yamuna ke tarngon se bhinn pravah vali yah gnga sushobhit ho rahi hai. yahan kavi ne gnga ki shubhrata aur yamuna ke nil varn ke sammishran ke liye upamanon ki jo mala goonthi hai, vah sngam ke drishy ke sarvatha anuroop hai.
  • isi prakar kalidas apane varnyavishay ki apoorvata ka anubhav dene ke liye kahin upamanon ko ek doosare se jod dete hain, to kahin kisi prachalit upaman men apani or se koee visheshata jod kar use prastut karate hain. parvati ke othon par thirakati muskan ki tulana kis vastu se ho sakati hai? yadi phool ko pravah (moonge) par rakha jay, ya saphed moti ko vidrum mani par to usamen shubhr smit ka ve anukaran kar sakate hain-

pushpn pravalopahitn yadi syanmuktaphaln va sphutavidrumasthamh.
tatosnukuryadh vishadasy tasyastamraushthaparyastaruch: smitasy॥ [10]

  • kahin kalidas naisargik padarthon ko manushy jagath ke upadanon ya alnkaranon se upamit karate hain, to kahin manushy ke liye ve naisargik upaman late hain. yaksh ke bhavan ke bahar pakshiyon ke baithane ke liye sone ki vasayashti hai, jo nilam maniyon se judi huee hai. kavi ne yahan mani ke liye upaman diya hai- 'anatipraudhavnshaprakashai:'- hare bans ki kanti vale. kahin kalidas varny ki cheshta, gati aur akriti ko sakar karate hue upaman men bhi tadanuroop cheshta, gati adi ka apani kalpana se adhan kar dete hain. parvati lata matr n hokar 'sancharini pallavini lata' hai. indumati bhi sncharini dipashikha hai. yauvan ke agaman par parvati ka deh chaturastr shobha se yukt ho jata hai, jaise chitr ke khake men toolika se rng bhar diye gaye hon, ya kamal soory ki kiranon ka sparsh pakar khil utha ho- aise navayauvan ne unake deh men bankapan la diya-

unmilitn toolikayev chitrn sooryanshubhirbhinnamivaravindamh.
babhoov tasyashchaturastrashobhi vapurvibhaktn navayauvan॥[11]

  • kalidas kavyarachana men samadhigun ki abhivyakti ke sath pray: achhoote upaman utha kar late hain. ye upaman unaki maulikata aur pratibha ke navonmesh ka anubhav karate hain. indumati ke divngat hone par aj ka hriday shok se aise hi vidirn ho gaya, jaise chhat par phoot aye plaksh ke ped se chhat darak jati hai.[12] kaikeyi ke mukh se do varadanon ki bat aise hi nikali, jaise varsha hone par dharati men bil se do sanp bahar aye hon.[13]
  • kalidas ke aprastut vidhan men manav svabhav tatha prakriti ka sookshm paryavekshan, navin parikalpanaen, saundary-drishti tatha gahan snvedanashilata ne unaki kavita ko atishay sampann bana diya- isamen koee sandeh nahin.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. raghuvnsh mahakavy 2.48
  2. dinakshapamadhyagatev sandhya॥ raghuvnsh mahakavy 2.20
  3. 6.67, raghuvnsh mahakavy
  4. 1.18, meghadoot mahakavy
  5. 1.50, meghadoot mahakavy
  6. 3.67, kumarasambhav
  7. 1.5
  8. 11.3
  9. raghuvnsh, 13.54-57
  10. kumarasambhav 1.44
  11. kumarasambhav, 1.32
  12. raghuvnsh 8.93
  13. raghuvnsh,12.5

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh


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