घनानन्द  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(घनानंद se punarnirdeshit)

hindi bhasha ke ritikal ke kavi ghananand [janm- 1689 eesvi - mrityu- 1739 eesvi (lagabhag)] ke sambndh men nishchit janakari nahin hai. kuchh log inaka janmasthan uttar pradesh ke janapad bulandashahar ko manate hain. janm 1658 se 1689 eesvi ke bich aur nidhan 1739 eesvi (lagabhag) mana jata hai. inaka nidhan abdali durrani dvara mathura men kiye gaye katleam men hua tha. ghananand shrringar dhara ke kavi the. ye sakhibhav se shrikrishn ki upasana karate the. virakt hone se pahale ye bahadurashah ke mir munshi the. vahin par sujan namak nartaki se inaka prem ho gaya tha. inhonne apani premika ko sambodhit karake hi apani kavy rachanayen ki hain. kuchh vidvanh inaki rachanaon men adhyatmikata bhi manate hain.

jivan parichay

janm

ghananand ke jivan ke lagabhag sabhi mahattvapoorn tathy vivadaspad hain . jaise nam, janm-sthan, rachanaen, janm-tithi ityadi . inaki janm-tithi ke snbndh men bhi vidvanon ki vibhinn manyataen hain . lala bhagavanadin ne ghananand ka janm snvath 1715 mana hai, parntu shukl ji ne is janm savnt ko n manakar sn, 1746 men inaka janm mana hai . isi prakar any alochakon ne inaki janm-tithi ke vishay men apane mat die hain, parntu inaki janm-tithi ka abhi tak kuchh pata nahin chala hai- keval savnt ke vishay men vivad hai . atah ham keval janm ke savnt ke vishay men hi likh sakate hain - janm-tithi atit ke andhakar men poornatah lupt ho chuki hai. vibhinn alochakon ke maton ki alochana karane ke pashchath daau. manoharalal gaud ne apani pustak ‘ghananand aur svachchhnd kavyadhara’ men likha hai- ‘samvath 1730 men inaka janm man lene par diksha ke samay ye 26 ya 29 varsh ke hote hain, jo inake jivan-vritt ko dekhakar thik pratit hota hai.’[1]

ghananand aur sujan

ghananand ke kavy men ‘sujan’ ka hi varnan milata hai- par yah sujan kaun thi, isaka vivechan bhi avashyak ho jata hai . ghananand muhammadashah rngile ke darabar men khas-kalam (praivet sekretari) the . is par bhi - farasi men mahir the- ek to kavi aur doosare saras gayak. pratibhasnpann hone ke karan badashah ka in par vishash anugrah tha. muhammadashah rngile ke darabar ki ek nrity-gayan vidya men nipun sujan namak veshya se inako prem ho gaya. idhar sujan ki in par anurakti aur doosari or badashah ke khas-kalam-in donon baton se ghananand ki unnati se sabhi darabari man hi men eershya karate the. antatah unhonne ek aisa shadyntr racha, jisamen ghananand poori tarah se lut ge. darabari logon ne muhammadashah rngile se kaha ki ghananand bahut achchha gate hain. unaki bat manakar badashah ne ek din inhen gane ke lie kaha, par ye itane svabhimani aur manamauji vyakti the ki gana gane se inhonne inakar kar diya . darabari logon ko is bat ka pata tha ki badashah ke kahane se ye kabhi gana nahin gaenge aur hua bhi vahi. darabari log isi ghadi ki to pratiksha kar rahe the. unahonne badashah se kaha ki yadi sujan ko bulaya jae aur vah ghananand se anurodh kare to ye avashy gana gaenge aur yah hua bhi. badashah ki agya se sujan veshya darabar men bulaee gee aur usake kahane par ghananand ne gana sunaya - sujan ki or munh karake aur badashah ki aur pith karake, parntu itani tanmayata se gana sunaya ki badashah aur sabhi darabari mntr-mugdh ho ge. parntu badashah jitane hi annd-vibhor gana sunate samay hue the, utane hi kupit gana samapt hone ke bad hue . yah unaki beadabi thi ki sujan ka kaha unase badhakar ho gaya . phalatah krodhit hokar unhonne tatkal ghananand ko darabar v rajy chhodane ka adesh diya. darabariyon ki chahat poorn ho chuki thi. ghananand ne chalate samay sujan se sath chalane ka agrah kiya, parntu usane apane jatiy gun ki raksha ki aur ghananand ke sath jana asvikar kar diya. jan aur jahan donon hi lutakar ghananand ne vrindavan ki or mukh kiya. jivan se inhen poorn virakti ho chuki thi . vrindavan men unhonne nimbark snpraday men diksha li.[1]

mrityu

ghananand ki mrityu-tithi bhi unaki janm-tithi ke saman hi vivadaspad hai. ghananand ki abhilasha thi ki ve braj-raj men lotate hue hi apane pran tyagen aur unaki yah ichchha bhagavan krishn ne poori kar di. is bat ki pushti ‘radha-krishn grnthavali’ men ek sthan par milati hai- ‘suna hai, mathura men katleam karane valon se unhonne kaha ki mujhe talavar ke ghav thodi-thodi der tak do. inako jyon-jyon talavar ke ghav lagate ge, tyon-tyon ye braj-raj men lotate rahe aur aise deh tyag di.[1]

kritiyan

apane vyaktitv ki bhanti hi ghananand ka krititv bhi ritikalin any kaviyon ki apeksha adhik vyapak aur gahari bhavabhoomi par pratishthit hai. achary vishvanathaprasad mishr ne 'ghananand grnthavali' ke antargat inaki nimnalikhit rachanaon ko sthan diya hai :

ghananand ki kritiyan [2]
  • sujanahit
  • kripakand nibndh
  • viyogaveli
  • ishkalata
  • yamuna-ygy
  • pritipavas
  • premapatrika
  • prem sarovar
  • brajavilas
  • saras basnt
  • anubhav-chndrika
  • rng badhaee
  • prem-paddhati
  • gokul git
  • vichar sar
  • nam madhuri
  • giri poojan
  • dan ghata
  • bhavana prakash
  • krishn kaumudi.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 ghananand (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) brand bihar daaut kaaum. abhigaman tithi: 17 julaee, 2011.
  2. ghananand (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) hindi ke gaurav. abhigaman tithi: 17 julaee, 2011.

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