bharatakosh ke snsthapak/snpadak ke fesabuk laiv ke lie yahan klik karen.

रसखान का दर्शन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

rasakhan vishay soochi
rasakhan ka darshan
Raskhan-1.jpg
poora nam saiyyad ibrahim (rasakhan)
janm sanh 1533 se 1558 bich (lagabhag)
janm bhoomi pihani, haradoee zila, uttar pradesh
karm bhoomi mahavan (mathura)
karm-kshetr krishn bhakti kavy
mukhy rachanaen 'sujan rasakhan' aur 'premavatika'
vishay sagun krishnabhakti
bhasha sadharan braj bhasha
vishesh yogadan prakriti varnan, krishnabhakti
nagarikata bharatiy
any janakari bharatendu harishchandr ne jin muslim haribhakton ke liye kaha tha, "in musalaman harijanan par kotin hindoo varie" unamen "rasakhan" ka nam sarvopari hai.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi
rasakhan ki rachanaen

hindi sahity men krishn bhakt tatha ritikalin kaviyon men rasakhan ka mahattvapoorn sthan hai. 'rasakhan' ko ras ki khan kaha jata hai. inake kavy men bhakti, shrringar ras donon pradhanata se milate hain. rasakhan krishn bhakt hain aur prabhu ke sagun aur nirgun nirakar roop ke prati shraddhalu hain.

rasakhan ka darshan

sahity, darshan aur jivan tinon ek doosare ke poorak hain. sahity jivan ko hriday dvara samajhane ka prayas hai, aur darshan use mastishk ke dvara samajhata hai. mastishk jivan ko jis roop men samajhata hai sahity usi ko saras banakar jan-jan ke man men utarane ka prayas karata hai. darshan jivan ki gaharaiyon ka thik-thik pata batata hai. sahity use jan-jan ke lie sulabh karata hai. jaise eeshvar-prapti ke lie gyan aur bhakti do alag-alag marg hain, vaise hi sahity aur darshan men donon ki pahunch ek hi tathy tak hai. donon ka pratipady vishay bhi ek hi hai. sakshat gyan ke saman darshan ko shrey aur sahity ko prem tak kahane ki udarata karate hain.

  • achary janakivallabh shastri apani rachana 'sahity darshan' men isaka tivr khndan karate hue kahate hain ki 'sahity ko prem kahana use doosare shabdon men narak ka pnth kahana hai. sahity svarg ka svarnim sopan hai.' sahity aur darshan ko ek hi shrey ka hriday aur mastishk bhav aur anubhooti aur chinta kahakar saman milana chahie.[1] bhakti-kavy men sahity aur darshan donon hi ek doosare ke ghanishth snbndhi hain. at: bhakt kavi ke sahity men darshan ki khoj karana samichin hai.
  • daau. ramakumar varma ke anusar rasakhan shrikrishn prem aur tanmayata ke lie prasiddh hain.[2]
  • shyamasundar ke matanusar krishn bhakt kaviyon men sachche premamagn kavi rasakhan ka nam bhagavan krishn ki sagugopasana men vishesh ooncha hai.[3]
  • achary ramachndr shukl ke anusar yah bade bhari krishn bhakt the. inaka prem atynt bhagavadh-bhakti men parinat hua.[4]
  • achary hazariprasad dvivedi ke anusar paramakarshak krishn bhakti ke muslim sahridayon men rasakhan ek pramukh kavi hain.[5]
  • pn. vishvanath prasad anek tark dete hue ant men kahate hain ki rasakhan bhaktimargi krishn bhakton , premamargi soophiyon, ritimargi kaviyon in sab hi se prithakh svachchhndamargi premonmatt gayak the. yadi unhen bhakt kahana ho to svachchhnd premamargi bhakt kaha ja sakata hai.[6]

uparyukt maton men adhikansh is vishay par ekamat hain ki ye prem ke divane the. inaki bhakti men prem ki pradhanata hai.

  • mishr ji ke tarkon ka sar is prakar hai: hindi-sahity ke madhyakal men tin prakar ki kavyadharaen thin- ek shuddh bhakti ki, doosari kavy-riti ki, tisari schachchhnd vritti ki. pratham paksh valon ke lie bhakti sadhy thi, kavita sadhan, kyonki ve keval bhakti ki abhivyakti ke lie kavita nahin karate the. ve bhakti ke pracharak bhi the. par rasakhan ki rachana ko ham bhakti ki pracharak rachana nahin kah sakate jaisa kabir, jayasi, soor aur tulasi ki rachana ko kaha jata hai. rasakhan to premomng ke kavi the. ye hindi ki svachchhnd kavyadhara ke sabase prachin kavi thaharate hain. ritidhara valon ke lie kavy hi sadhy tha kintu kavy ke sadhan riti ke oopar hi inhonne vishesh dhyan diya. ve keval chamatkar ke lie kavita karate the. rasakhan men hriday-paksh ki pradhanata ke karan unhen is dhara men nahin mana ja sakata. tisari dhara thi svachchhnd is dhara ke kaviyon ko kalapaksh ka agrah nahin tha. prem men lin hone par kavy ka pravah ap se ap bahar a jata tha. at: rasakhan ko svachchhnd kavyadhara ka hi kavi manana chahie. krishn bhakton ki giti parampara ka tyag karake kavitt savaiya-paddhati ka sahara lena hi unhen bhakt kaviyon ki samany shreni se alag kar deta hai. isi se rasakhan ko unmukt premonmatt kavi kaha jata hai. mishr ji age chalakar kahate hain ki nirgun men roop ki yojana n hone ke karan unhonne sagun men apani svachchhnd vritti lin ki—

anand-anubhav hot nahin bina prem jag jan.
kai vah vishayanand kai brahmannd bakhan ॥[7]

isilie ve krishn bhakti ki or akrisht aur lin hue. isi karan se unhen shuddh bhakt n manakar pramomng ka kavi mana jata hai. ve bihari lal, ghanannd, rahim, rasakhan, alam, shekh ko bhakti ke pad rachane par bhi unako shuddh bhakt kahane men hichak prakat karate hain. rasakhan ne krishn bhakti darshan men vallabhachary ji ka shuddhadvaitavad, ninbark ka dvaitadvaitavad, madhvachary ka dvaitavad athava chaitany mahaprabhu ke achinty bhedabhed kisi ka bhi anusaran nahin kiya. vallabhachary ji ne hriday ke snskar aur vikas ki drishti se eeshvar bhakti arthat alaukik prem ko hi sadhy mana hai kintu rasakhan laukik prem ko sadhy manate hue kahate hai-

akath kahani prem ki, janat laili khoob.
do tanahoon jahn ek bhe, man milai mahaboob॥[8]

is prakar yah shuddh advaitavadi pushti marg se bhi alag ho jate hain. mishr ji ke anusar rasakhan ne bhakton ki giti aur riti donon ka hi tyag kar diya. isi se unhen svachchhnd margi premonmatt gayak hi kaha ja sakata hai bhakt nahin. yadyapi mishr ji ka vivechan atyant tarkapoorn hai kintu phir bhi kuchh vicharaniy vishay rah jata hai. grnthavali ki bhoomika men sthan-sthan par yah kaha gaya hai yadi koee inhen bhakti vishayak rachana ke karan bhakt kahata hai to kahe, svachchhnd premamargi bhakt kaha jay to koee badha nahin.[9] in baton se yah spasht ho gaya ki mishr ji inaki kavita ko bhakti ka vishay manate hain aur agar koee inhen bhakt kavi kahe to usamen koee apatti bhi nahin manate. yahan tak ki jab unhen bhakton ki shreni se kharij karane ki bat ati hai to zoradar shabdon men yah bhi kahate hain ki inhen bhakton ki shreni se kharij karane ki avashyakata nahin. isase siddh hota hai ki mishr ji bhi is bat ko manate hain ki ve shakt the. inaki rachana bhakti pradhan hai. in do tathyon ko pray: sabhi ne poornaroopen svikar bhi kiya hai.

ab prashn yah uthata hai ki jab ve bhakt the aur unaki rachana bhakti pradhan hai to usaka koee darshan bhi avashy hoga. jahan alochak ki janakari ke lie niyamon ki shrinkhala men koee vastu nahin bndhati, vahan use svachchhnd kah diya jata hai. par vastav men aisi bat nahin. pratyek kary ka mool karan avashy rahata hai. mishr ji ne ek bat bar-bar kahi hai ki rasakhan men videshipan ki jhalak avashy dikhair padati hai.[10] yah premamargi bhakt the.[11] laukik paksh men inaka virah farasi kavy ki vndana se prabhavit hai, alaukik paksh men soophiyon ki premapir se. age kahate hain svachchhnd kaviyon ne prem ki pir soophi kaviyon se hi li hai isamen koee sndeh nahin.[12] rasakhan jaise pichhale kante ke krishnabhakt kavi soophi snton aur farasi sahity ki pravritti se prabhavit hue hain, yah asndigdh hai.[13]

  • soophi sadhana men soophi mat ganit ki tarah koee vastu nahin jo samajhane se samajh men a jay. n hi chalachitr ki bhanti koee kala hai ki chitron ke dekhane se sari sthiti spasht ho jay.
  • daau. tarachnd ke anusar tasavvuph vastav men gahan pavitrata, upasana, tallinata evn atmasamarpan ka dharm hai. muhabbat usaka aveg hai. kavy, sngit nrity usaki sadhana aur laukik avastha se guzar kar khuda se mil jana usaka lakshy hai.[14] soophiyon ke snbndh men kaha gaya hai ki jab prem ka poorn sphuran ho jata hai tab ve snsar ko samajhane-dekhane lagate hain. unake hriday men musalaman, isaee, hindoo ka bhedabhav nahin rah jata. usaka dharm keval ek rah jata hai, vah hai prem ka dharm.
  • prasiddh soophi sadhak roomi ne ek sthan par kaha hai- ishk ka mazahab sabhi mazahabon se alag hai. khuda ke ashikon ka khuda ke alava koee mazahab nahin hai.[15]
  • ibnul arabi ka kathan hai ki sachche soophi ko har mazahab men khuda mil jata hai.[16] ho sakata hai ki rasakhan bhi is vishay men poorn vishvas rakhate hon aur unhonne khuda ki prapti bharat ke prasiddh avatar krishn ke madhyam se ki.
  • abdulavahid bilagrami ne hakaeke-hindi ki rachana 1566 ee. men ki.[17] jisake dvara unhonne hindi kavita ki adhyatmik kunji di.
  • usake snbndh men achary hazari prasad dvivedi ka mat hai ki is pustak se keval soophi sadhakon ke adhyatmik snketon ka hi gyan nahin hota apitu sooradas ke poorvavarti brajabhasha sahity ki ek samriddh parampara ka bhi abhas milata hai.[18]
  • gulamali azad ki kathan hai ki sama (sngit) ko chishti soophiyon ki sadhana men bada mahattvapoorn sthan prapt tha. is prashn par vah kattar alimon tatha rajy ke adhikariyon se bhi takkar lene men n darate the. yadyapi shekh shahabuddin suharavardi tatha hujaberi ne apani pustak men sama ke niyam nirdharit kar die the aur bad ke soophiyon ne bhi un niyamon ka palan karane tatha karane ka prayatn kiya, kintu bhavavesh men kisi niyam ka palan karana tatha karana kathin hai.
  • amir khusaro ne hindi ragon ka bhi avishkar kiya aur prachalit ragon men bhi snshodhan kie. is prakar sama men bhi hindi ganon ko pravisht kar diya gaya. kabhi-kabhi hindi rag to farasi gazalon se kahin adhik prabhavashali ho jate the. quran ki ayaten bhi hindi ragon men gaee jane lagi thin.[19]
  • saiyad atahar abbas rijavi ke anusar in hindi kavitaon men bharatiy tatha hindoo snskar moolaroop men vidyaman rahate the. hakaeke-hindi ke adhyayan se pata chalata hai ki dhruvapad tatha vishnupad ko sabase adhik prasiddhi prapt thi. shrikrishn tatha radha ki prem-kathaen soophiyon ko bhi alaukik rahasy se poorn gyat hoti thin. in kavitaon ka 'sama' men gaya jana alimon ko to achchha lagata hi n hoga. kadachit kuchh soophi bhi in hindi ganon ki katu alochana karate honge. at: in kavitaon ka adhyatmik rahasy batana bhi param avashyak ho gaya hai. abdul vahid soophi ne hakaeke hindi men un hi shabdon ke rahasy ki badi goodh vyakhya hai jo us samay hindi ganon men prayog men ate the.[20]
  • rasakhan ne bhi krishn ka niroopan alaukik saundary ya rahasy ke pratik ya adhar roop men kiya. yah bhi snbhav hai ki rasakhan mir abdul vahid aur unaki rachana hakaeke hindi se bhi parichit rahe hon kyonki ve ayu men rasakhan se lagabhag chauntis varsh bade the. at: us samay ki paristhiti aur soophi mat ke svaroop ko dekhate hue rasakhan ne bhi usaka niroopan maulik dhng se kiya jo unaki pratibha aur mast svabhav ke anukool sarvatha hai.
  • svachchhand kavi hone ke karan rasakhan se soophi siddhanton ke poorn vivechan ki asha nahin karani chahie. snbhavat: isi karan rasakhan ke kavy men soophi mat ke siddhanton ka vidhivat niroopan nahin milata. stri ke roop men alaukik saundary ki charcha tatha masanavi shaili ke bhi darshan nahin hote. kintu rasakhan ke kavy ka anushilan karane par gyat hota hai ki soophi mat ka vidhivat niroopan n hone par unake kavy darshan par soophi sadhana ka vyapak prabhav pada. unaki bhakti ka bahari svaroop bharatiy hai kintu atma soophi se rnjit hai. soophi sadhana ke us svaroop ka vivechan prastut hai jo rasakhan ke kavy men parilakshit hota hai.
  • ishk (prem) 'kisi ke gun par jab rujhan hota hai to us dasha ko muhabbat kahate hain lekin jab yah muhabbat badhate-badhate tivr ho jati hai to ishk kahalati hai. yahi ashik (premi) mashook (priy) ke milan ka karan ban jati hai. tasavvuk poornataya ishk par adharit hai. sadhak ko khuda ke ausaph (gun) nazar ane lagate hain aur prem badhata hi jata hai. prem ki adhikata ke karan khuda ki prapti ke marg men sadhak sabako tyagane lagata hai. yahan tak ki lok-paralok ka bhed samapt ho jata hai. khuda ke atirikt use aur kisi ki chinta nahin rahati. aisi avastha a jati hai ki ishk men tallin sadhak ko snsar ka koee du:kh du:kh nahin pratit hota. har samay mrityu ki pratiksha rahati hai ki atma svatntr hokar vastavik priy se ja mile.[21] rasakhan men is ishk ka poorn niroopan milata hai. manushy ka khuda se ishk karana, svayn ko usamen lin kar dena soophi mat ki sngebuniyad (ninv) hai.[22] soophiyon ne prem ke do sopan mane hain: ishke majaji aur ishke hakiki (alaukik). soophi sadhak ishke majaji ke madhyam se ishke hakiki ko prapt karata hai. rasakhan ne alaukik satta ki prapti ka adhar ishk ko manate hue laukik alaukik donon premon ki charcha ki hai. bina prem ke kisi bhi prakar ke anand ki prapti snbhav nahi-

anand anubhav hot nahin bina prem jag jan.
kai vah bishayanand kai brahmanand bakhan॥[23]

  • gyan, karm aur upasana ke dvara soophi sadhak ko khuda ki prapti nahin. yah soophi mat ki char avasthaon men se pratham avastha shariyat mani gee hai. rasakhan us hakikat mat ishk ke dvara hi pahunchate hain. usi ke madhyam se unhen dridh nishchay ki prapti hoti hai-

gyan karm ru upasana, sab ahamiti ko mool.
dridh nischay nahin hot, bin kiye prem anukool॥[24]

rasakhan shastron aur vedon ke path ko bhi vyarth batate hue kahate hain ki ved aur quran ke padhane se kuchh nahin hota jab tak sadhak ko prem ka poorn gyan nahin hota arthat khuda ko ishk ke dvara hi prapt kiya ja sakata hai—

gyan dhyan bidyamati, mat bisvas bibek.
bina prem sab dhoori hain agajag ek anek॥[25]

  • prasiddh farasi soophi kavi haphij ne bhi kaha hai—

ishkat rasad bapharayad gar khud basan haphij.
quran jabar bakhavani bachar dah rivayat॥[26]

  • yadi tum itane bade gyani bhi ho ki quranamajid chaudah rivayaten ke sath tumhen knthasth ho to bhi bagair ishk ke tumhara kam nahin chalega.

sastran padhi pndit bhe, kai maulavi quran.
ju pai prem janyau nahin, kaha kiyau rasakhan॥[27]

  • farasi ke prasiddh kavi najiri ne bhi kaha hai—

kitabe haphate millatagar bekhavand adami ami ast.
n khuvand taje juj ashanaee dastanie ra॥[28]

arthat agar insan saton dharmon ki kitaben padh le to bhi jahil rahata hai jab tak ki muhabbat ki kitab se koee dastan n padhe. rasakhan ne ishk ko poornataya nirlipt mana hai jahan kam, krodh, mad, moh, bhay, lobh adi hota hai soophi sadhana ke anusar vahan prem nahin hota. rasakhan ne bhi kaha hai—

kam krodh mad moh bhay lobh droh matsary.
in sab hi ten prem hai pare, kahat munivary॥[29]

  • prasiddh farasi kavi maulana room ne bhi kaha hai—

har kara jama j ishke chak shud.
oo je hiraso jumale aibo pak shud॥[30]

arthat jisane apana libas ishk men chak kiya, vah lalach aur samast durgunon se pak ho gaya. ishke hakiki laukik svaroopon se ooncha uthakar khuda se prem karana hai. rasakhan ke anusar ishk shuddh, kamana rahit roop, gun, yauvan, dhan adi se pare hona chahie:

bin gun joban roop dhan, bin svarath hit jani.
suddh kamana ten rahit prem sakal rasakhani ॥[31]

  • mnsoor hallaj ne kaha hai eeshvar se milan tabhi snbhav hai jab ham kashton ke bich se hokar gujaren.[32] hindi premakhyanak kavy men bhi prem ke marg men ane vali kathinaiyon ka niroopan kiya gaya hai.
  • hujveri ne bhi yah bataya hai ki prem marg men musibaten jhelana anivary hai. eeshvar se prithakh hokar rooh (atma) us samay tak nirantar kasht sahati rahati hai jab tak ki vah apane priy eeshvar se sakshatkar ya tadatmy n ho jay. farasi sahity men jo ishkiya masanaviyan hain unamen premi ko bahut kasht uthana padata hai.[33] prem ke marg ko agamy tatha sagar ke saman rasakhan ne bhi bataya hai—

prem agam anupam amit, sagar saris bakhan.
jo avat yahi dhig bahuri jat nahin rasakhan॥[34]

  • farasi ke prasiddh kavi haphij ka varnan bhi isase milata-julata hai:

baharist bahare ishk ki hichash kinara nist.
anja jaja nike jam besiparnd chara nist॥[35]

  • prem marg men sadhak ko kin-kin kathinaiyon ka samana karana padata hai kitane kasht sahane padate hain. kaise usake pran tadapate hain. rasakhan ke anusar keval usansen hi chalati rahati hain—

prem prem sab kou kahai, kathin prem ki phans.
pran taraphi nikarai nahin, keval chalat usans॥[36]

  • sachche prem ke svaroop ka varnan karate hue rasakhan kahate hain ki yah atyant sookshm, komal, kshin aur agamy sadaiv ek-sa rahane vala ras se paripoorn hote hue bhi kathin hota hai—

ati soochham komal atihi ati pataro ati door.
prem kathin sab te sada, nit ik ras bharapoor॥[37]

  • prem marg ki adbhutata, durgamata evn durlabhata ka ullekh karate hue rasakhan kahate hain ki pranon ko nichhavar karake hi priy ki prapti hoti hai—

pai aitohoo ham sunyaun, prem ajoobo khel.
janbaji bazi jahan dil ka dil se mel॥[38]

rasakhan ke anusar snsar men samast chizen dekhi ev jani ja sakati hain kintu khuda evn prem aise hain ki n unako dekha ja sakata hai n jana.[39] soophiyon ke prem ko keval anubhav kiya ja sakata hai. dampaty sukh sansarik padarthon se prapt anand, pooja, dharmik vishvas in sabase ishke hakiki uchch evn pare hain—

dampati sukh aru bishay ras pooja nishtha dhyan.
in ten pare bakhaniyai shuddh drem rasakhani ॥[40]

  • soophi sadhak prem-marg men samast sansarik snbndh ko tyag apana dhyan ishke hakiki ke madhyam se alaukik satta ki or kendrit kar leta hai. vah keval apane premi ki hi satta ko sarvasv adhar manakar usi men tallinata ko prem manate hain. rasakhan ke anusar bhi-

ik angi binu karanahi, ikaras sada saman.
ganai priyahi sarvasv jo soi prem praman ॥[41]

  • hajarat muhammad saheb ki ek hadis men kaha gaya hai, 'allah ne kaha mera bnda prem-sadhana aur puny karyon se mere nikat ho jata hai aur main usase muhabbat karane lagata hoon, main usaki ankh ban jata hoon goya vah mere jarie dekhata hai. main usaki jaban ban jata hoon, vah mere jarie bolata hai. main usaka hath ban jata hoon, vah mere dvara grahan karata hai.[42] khuda ke is prem ke vashibhoot hone ki charcha rasakhan ke kavy men bhi milati hai. vah krishn ke roop men kunj-kutir men radha ke pair dabata drishtigochar hota hai.[43] snbhavat: yahan radha ka atma aur krishn ka paramatma ke roop men chitran hua hai. rasakhan snpatti, roop, bhog, jog evn mukti sabako vyarth manate hue kahate hain ki jo svayn radhika rani ke rng men racha hua hai arthat prem ke vashibhoot hai usi men lin hokar prem karana chahie- dai chittatake n rng rachyau ju rahyau rachi radhika rani ke rngahi.[44] khuda ke prem ke vashibhoot hone ki charcha rasakhan ne anek sthalon par ki hai. prem ke vashibhoot hone par vah chhachhiya bhari chhachh par nachane ko taiyar hai—

snkar se sur jahi japain chaturanan dhyanan dharm badhavai.
neku hiyen jihi anat hi jad moodh maha rasakhani kahavai.
ja par dev adev bhoo angana varat pranan pranan pavai.
tahi ahir ki chhohariya chhachhiya bhar chhachh pai nach nachavai.[45]

rasakhan ki samadhi, mahavan, mathura
  • prem ki tallinata is sima tak badhati hai ki ek bnde aur khuda ek ho jate hain. rasakhan ne bnde khuda ke ek hone tatha hari ke premadhin svaroop ki charcha hai:

hari ke sab adhin, pai hari prem-adhin.
yahi ten hari apuhin, yahi badappan din॥[46]

  • prasiddh soophi junaid ka kathan hai priy ki visheshataon men apani visheshataon ko mila dena prem hai. prem ki visheshata yah hoti hai ki nij ke vyaktitv ko samapt kar diya jay. yah annd aisa hota hai ki is par niyntran nahin kiya ja sakata. yah eesvariy kripa hai jo nirntar vinay karate rahane v akanksha karate rahane se prapt hoti hai.[47]

prem hari ko roop hai tyau hari prem-saroop.
ek hoi hai yaun lasai jyon sooraj au dhoop.[48]
sir katau, chhedau hiyo, took took kari dehu.
pai yake badale bihnsi vah vah hi lehu.[49]

  • prasiddh soophi alapharabi ne prem ko hi eeshvar mana hai aur srishti ka raj bhi unhonne prem ko hi svikar kiya hai. unaka mat hai ki 'bhautik vastuon tatha gyan aur buddhi se pare ek vishisht vastu hai jise prem kahate hain. prem ke sahare is srishti men har chiz jisamen vyakti bhi shamil hai, apani poornata par pahunch jati hai.[50] soophiyon ke anusar eeshvar ne atmabodh ke lie srishti ki rachana ki. ek hadis ke anusar 'main ek chhipa hua khazana tha meri chah thi ki main pahachana jaoon, sab log mujhe janen, at: mainne srishti ki rachana ki.[51]
  • alapharabi ke anusar eeshvar svayn prem hai. srishti ki rachana ka karan bhi prem hai. prem ke dvara srishti prem ke paramasrot men, jo poorn saundary aur sarvottam hai, nimagn ho jane ke lie poorn roop se judi huee hai.[52] rasakhan ne prem ka niroopan karate hue prem ki vastavikata ke sambandh men kaha hai—

karaj karan roop yah, prem ahai rasakhan.
karta karm kriya karan, apahi prem bakhan॥[53]
jaten upajat prem soee, bij kahavat prem.
jamain upajat prem soi kshetr kahavat prem॥[54]
jate panapat badhat aru phoolat phalat mahan.
so sab premahin prem yah kahat rasik rasakhan॥[55]
vahi bij ankur vahi, sek vahi adhar.
dal pat phal phool sab vahi prem sukhasar॥[56]
jo jaten jamain bahuri ja hit kahiyat besh.
so sab premahin prem hai jag rasakhani asesh॥[57]

  • sachcha premi mrityu se bhayabhit nahin hota. vah use ek yatra ka avasan aur doosari yatra ka prarnbh samajhata hai. nijami ne laila majanoo men mrityu ke darshan kiye hain. unake anusar yah maut nahin, bag aur bostan hai yah dost ke mahal ka rasta hai. isake bina mahabooba tak pahunchana nahin hoga.[58] isi masanavi men unhonne kaha hai, agar main akl ki ankh se dekhoon to yah maut, maut nahin hai balki ek jagah se doosari jagah jana hai. isi siddhant men vishvas rakhate hue rasakhan ne bhi kaha hai—

prem prem sab kou kahat, prem n janat koi.
jau jan janai prem tau, marai jagath kyaun roi॥[59]
isi bhav ka farasi ke prasiddh kavi haphij ne is prakar varnan kiya hai—
haragij namirad aki dilash jendashuddh bishk.
sibath ast kar juridae alame davame ma॥[60]
prem men atmasarpan kar pran dekar jiv sada jivit rahata hai. rasakhan ne prem ke is svaroop ka niroopan karate hue kaha hai—
prem-phans main phnsi marai, soi jiyai sadahi.
prem-maram jane bina, mari kou jivat nahin॥[61]
pai tithas ya mar ke, rom rom bharapoor.
marat jiyai, jhukatau thirai bane su chakanachoor॥[62]

  • at: manushy prem ke marg men marakar hi amar hota hai. musalamanon ki dharmik pustakon men kaha gaya hai ki marane ke bad kayamat mahapralay hogi. us samay pratyek manav ko ek pul (pule sarat) se gujarana hoga. vah pul bal se bhi adhik barik, talavar ki dhar se adhik tez hoga. premi vyakti eeshvar ke sachche sadhak use par kar lenge. rasakhan ne bhi kuchh isi prakar bhavon ka niroopan kiya—

kamalatntu so hin aru kathin khadg ki dhar.
ati soogho tedho bahuri prem pnth anivar॥[63]

at: kaha ja sakata hai rasakhan dvara niroopit prem soophi sadhana se poornataya rnjit hai.

tavakkul

tavakkul ka sambandh apane nijatv se tanik bhi sambandh rakhane vali pratyek vastu ke pratipoorn udasilata se hota hai. yah us sthiti ka nam hai jab manushy apane samast sambandhon ko khuda ko saunpakar yakin kar le ki jo kuchh karega khuda hi karega.[64] tavakkul men is bat par poorn vishvas ho jata hai ki jo kuchh hai khuda hai usake siva koee bhi nahin n doosara kuchh karana hai. tavakkul men sadhak poori tallinata se sadhana karata he, usaka dhyan kisi taraph nahin bhatakata vah khuda par poora bharosa rakhata hai. rasakhan ke kavy men bhi tavakkul ki saphal abhivynjana huee hai ve kahate hain ki manushy anek devi-devataon ko bhejakar anek sadhanon se dhan ekatrit karate hain tatha apane man ki ashaen poorn karate hain, kintu rasakhan kahate hain ki mera sadhan to keval yahi (param satta) hai. main us par tavakkul karata hoon—

sesh sures dines ganes prajes dhanes mahes manavau.
kooo bhavani bhajau, man ki sab as sabhi vidhi puravau.
kooo rama bhaji lehu maha dhan, kooo kahoon manavanchhit pavau.
pai rasakhani vahi mero sadhan, aur trilok rahau ki navasau॥[65]

  • tavakkul par atal vishvas rakhate hue rasakhan apane man ko santvana dete hue kahate hain—

draupadi au ganika gaj gidh ajamil son kiyaun so n niharo.
gautam-gehano kaisi tari, prahalad kon kaise harayau du:kh bharo.
kahe ko soch karai rasakhani kaha kari hai ravinnd bicharo.
takhan jakhan rakhiyai makhan chakhan haro so rakhan haro॥[66]

  • tavakkul ki bhavana par atal vishvas rakhate hue apane ap ko poornataya nishchint rakhate hue rasakhan kahate hain—

kaha karai rasakhani ko kooo chugul labar.
jau pai rakhan har hai makhan chakhan har॥[67]

fakir aur phukar

tasavvuph ki shabdavali men fakir use kahate hain jo yah vishvas rakhata ho ki lok-paralok men main kisi vastu ka svami nahin hoon. n mujhe kisi chiz par adhikar hai yahan tak ki vah sadhana ko bhi apani snpatti nahin samajhata. lok-paralok ki samast chizon ko hech nissar samajhata hai. n use dhan sampatti ki ichchha hoti hai n narak-svarg ka dhyan. use keval khuda ka dhyan rahata hai.[68] yah sthiti dainy ki sthiti se milati-julati hai. sachcha dainy keval snpati ka abhav nahin balki snpayi ki ichchha ka bhi abhav hai. vartaman jivan evn bhavishy jivan donon se poornaroop se prithakh ho jana tatha vartaman jivan aur bhavishy jivan ke svami ke atirikt any kisi vastu ki ichchha n rakhana hi sachcha dainy hai. aisa fakir vyaktigat astitv se nirlipt hota hai, yahan tak ki vah kisi kriya, bhavana ya gun ka arop apane men nahin karata.[69] rasakhan ke kavy ke avalokan se gyat hota hai ki rasakhan ke kavy men is prakar ke bhav poornataya vidyaman hain. 'kaladhaut ke dham' , 'knchan mndir' , 'manak moti' kisi ke bhi prati unake man men tanik moh nahin. siddhiyon aur nidhiyon ko jo kathin sadhana se prapt hoti hain rasakhan tanik mahattv n dete hue kahate hain—

va lakuti aru kamariya par raj tahoon pur ko taji darau.
athahu siddhi navau nidhi ko sukh nnd ki gai charai bisarau.
ek rasakhani jabai in nainan tain braj ke ban-bag niharau.
kotak ye kaladhaut ke dham karil ki kunjan oopar varaun॥[70]
rasakhan ne nirlipt soophi fakir ki visheshataen vidyaman hain unhen tanik bhi moh nahin.
knchan mndir oonche banai kai manik laee sada jhalakaiyat.
prat hi ten sagari nagari nag motin hi ki tulani tulaiyat.
jadyapi din prajan prajapati ki prabhuta maghava lalachaiyat.
aise bhe to kaha rasakhani jo sanvare uchar son neh n laiyat॥[71]
rasakhan sukhasnpatti ko bhi sarahin samajhate hain. yog adi men vishvas n rakhate hue kahate hain—
kaha rasakhani sukh snpatti sumar kaha,
kaha tan jogi hv lagae ang chhar ko
kaha sadhe pnchanal, kaha saue bich nal
kaha jiti lae raj sindhu-ar-par ko
jap bar bar, tap snjam bayar vrat,
tirath hazar are boojhat labar ko.
kinhau nahin pyar, nahin se yau darabar, chit
chahayau n niharayau jau pai nnd ke kumar ko.[72]

  • soophi fakir ko keval khuda ka dhyan rahata hai, usake lie sona mitti ke barabar hai. doosaron ke mal par nazar dalana pap hai—

darai sada chahai n kachhu, sahai sabai jo hoi.
rahai ekaras chahi kai, prem bakhanau soi॥[73]

zikrafikr

soophi anushasan ke vidhayak tattvon men zikr ko sabhi rahasyavadi soophi ek mat se svikar karate hain. quran men dharm par eeman lane valon ko upadesh diya gaya hai ki eeshvar ka smaran pray karate raho.[74] khuda ke nam ke anek paryay hain jinake jap par mahattv diya gaya hai, 'zikr hi pahali sidhi nijatv ko bhoolana hai aur antim sidhi upasak ka upasana-kary men is prakar lupt ho jana ki use upasana ki chetana n rahe aur vah upasy men aisa lavalin ho jay ki usaka svayn tak lautana pratibndhit ho jay.[75] rasakhan ke kavy men hamen zikr ka niroopan pad: pad: milata hai. yah doosari bat hai ki unhonne zikr ka adhar krishn aur krishn lilaon ko banaya. us yug men krishnalila ko alaukik rahasy prapti ka marg manana koee ashcharyajanak bat nahin mani gee hogi. krishn kavy ke is svaroop ko dekhakar hi sambhavat: mir abdulavahid vilagrami ne apane grnth hakaeke hindi ko tin bhagon men banta hai. pratham bhag men dhruv-pad men prayukt hindi-shabdon ke soophiyana arth diye ge hain. doosare bhag men un hindi shabdon ki vyakhya hai jo vishnu-pad men prayukt hote the. tisare bhag men any prakar ke giton aur kavyon adi men ay shabdon ki vyakhya ki gayi hai.[76] udaharanarth yadi hindi kavyon men krishn athava any namon ka ullekh ho to usase muhammad sahab ki or snket hota hai, kabhi keval manushy se tatpary, kabhi manushy ki vastavikata samajhi jati hai jo parameshvar ke jat (satta) ki vahadat (ek hona) se snbndhit hoti hai.[77] kahin-kahin kanhaiya marag roki se ibalis ke nana prakar se marg-bhrasht karane ki or snket hota hai.[78] holi khelane ki charcha lagabhag samast krishn-bhakt kaviyon ne kiya hai. usaka snket agni ki or kiya jata hai jo ashikon ke hriday ko sajae hue hai aur is agni ne unake astitv ko sir se pair tak gher rakha hai.[79] rasakhan ne holi ke padon ke madhyam se is ag ka zikr kiya hai.[80] rasakhan us alaukik rahasy ki charcha krishn ke zikr ke madhyam se karate hain. yadi unaki jihva kisi shabd ka uchcharan kare to keval unake nam ka ho— jo rasana rasana vilasai tehi dehu sada nij nam ucharan.[81]

  • soophi sadhak bhi zikr ko bahut mahattv dete hain. ve zikr karate-karate alaukik rahasy men itane tallin ho jate hain ki unhen apani sudh nahin rahati. rasakhan ne alaukik prem ki prapti ke lie shravan kirtan darshan ko avashyak mana hai—

stravan kiratan darasanahin jo upajat soi prem.[82]

  • yahan kirtan se abhipray zikr se hai. rasakhan ne shrikrishn ke madhyam se alaukik rahasy ka zikr kiya. farasi ke prasiddh eerani soophi jalaluddin roomi ne apani tasavvuph ki prasiddh pustak masanavi ke pahale sher (pad) men ruh (atma) ko jo khuda se alag ho chuki hai vnshi se tarabir (upama) kiya hai. prasiddh maulaviya snpraday ke soophi sadhak bansuri ko apana mukaddam (pavitr) saj (rag) samajhate hain.[83] rasakhan ne bhi is saj ke alaukik prabhav ki charcha (zikr) ki hai. gopiyon ka vnshi dhvani se besudh hona jivatma ki besudhi ka pratik hai.
  • rasakhan ne alaukik rahasy ke zikr ko bahut mahattv diya. unaka zikr krishn charcha tatha lilagan ke roop men milata hai. snbhavat: isi karan unaki krishn charcha men aveg ki gahan anubhooti, tallinata aur atmasamarpan ki saphal abhivynjana milati hai.

tark (tyag)

soophiyon ne tark ko bahut mahatta pradan ki hai. jab tak snsar men lipt rahane ki ichchha man men rahati hai. sadhak apani mnzil se door rahata hai. 'soophi ke lie tarkeduniya itana hi zaroori hai jitana ki jahaz ke lie pani ya namaz ke lie vajoo. jab tak duniya ki khvahish dil se door nahin mnzile makasood koson door rahati hai.[84] rasakhan ke kavy men bhi tark ke darshan hote hain—

jag men sab te adhik ati, mamata tanahin lakhai.
pai ya tanahoon te adhik, pyaron prem kahaee॥[85]

  • rasakhan apani sadhana ke madhyam se us mnzil tak pahunch chuke the jahan pahunch kar svarg aur hari ki prapti ki ichchha bhi baki nahin rahati—

jehi pae baikunth aru, hari hoon ki nahin chahi.
soi alaukik suddh subh, saras suprem kahahi॥[86]

  • yah avastha tarke-tark ki avastha hai. sadhak is avastha men itana nirlipt ho jata hai ki sab kuchh tark (tyag) kar deta hai. mukti bhi usaki drishti men nissar ho jati hai. is sambandh men rasakhan kahate hain—

yahi ten sab mukti ten, lahi badhaee prem.
prem bhe nasi jahin sab, bndhe jagath ke nam॥[87]

phana

tasavvuph men phana ko antim sopan mana gaya hai. sadhak is sthiti men apane vyaktitv ko poornataya eeshvar ko samarpit kar apani ichchhaon evn ahamh bhavanaon ko samapt kar de.[88] usaki smriti men itana tallin ho jay ki use apani sudhi n rahe. atm vistriti ki yah avastha hi phana kahalati hai. rasakhan ke kavy men is atm vistriti aur samarpan ka vivechan milata hai—

bain vahi unako gun gai au kan vahi un bain son sani.
hath vahi un gat sarai aru pai vahi ju vahi anujani.
jan vahi un an ke sng au man vahi ju karai manamani.
tyaun rasakhani vahi rasakhani ju hai rasakhani son rasakhani॥[89]

  • yah sthiti man ko paramatma ke chintan men kendribhoot karake manasik prithakkaran arthath man ko sabhi drishy padarthon, vicharon, karyo tatha bhavanaon se alag karana hai.[90] sikhane ke anusar samast sharirik angon ki sarthakata us priy men tallin ho jane men hai—

pran vahi ju rahain rijhi va par roop vahi jihi vahi rijhayau.
sis vahi jin ve parase pad ank vahi jin va parasayau.
doodh vahi ju duhayau ri vahi dahi su sahi ju vahi dharakayau.
aur kahanlaun kahaun rasakhani ri bhav vahi ju vahi man bhayaun॥[91]

  • phana ki sthiti men sadhak ko apana gyan nahin rahata. atma ke samast ragon aur ichchhaon ka ant ho jata hai. rasakhan dvara niroopit phana ki sthiti is prakar hai—

akath kahani prem ki janat laili khoob.
do tanahoon jahn ek bhe, man milai mahaboob.[92]
do man ek hote sunyau, pai vah prem n ahi.
hoi jabai dvai tanahoon ik, soee prem kahahi॥[93]

  • rasakhan ne is avastha ka is prakar varnan kiya hai—

pai mithas va mar ke, rom-rom bharapoor.
marat jiyai jhukato thirai banai su chakanachoor॥[94]

  • is sthiti ko soophi phanaal phana kahate hain, phana ki poorn sthiti men ahamh ka lobh ho jata hai aur atma ka paramatma men vas ho jata hai. soophi siddhanton ki drishti se rasakhan ke kavy par vichar karane se yah bhali bhanti vidit hota hai ki unake kavy ki atma soophi sadhana se poornataya rnjit hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. sahityadarshan, pri0 38
  2. hindi sahity ka alochanatmak itihas, pri0 595
  3. hindi sahity, pri0 230
  4. hindi sahity ka itihas, pri0 176
  5. hindi sahity, pri0 205
  6. rasakhani grnthavali, prastavana, pri0 22
  7. rasakhani grnthavali, prastavana, pri0 19
  8. premavatika, 33
  9. rasakhani (grnthavali), prastavana, pri0 22
  10. rasakhani (grnthavali), prastavana, pri0 24
  11. rasakhani (grnthavali), prastavana, pri0 22
  12. rasakhani (grnthavali), prastavana, pri0 18
  13. rasakhani (grnthavali), prastavana, pri0 18
  14. inphlooens aph islam on indiyan kalchar, pri0 83
  15. madhyayugin hindi premakhyan, pri0 16
  16. mirase islam, pri0 314
  17. hakaeke hindi, pri0 31
  18. hakaeke hindi prakkathan, pri0 12
  19. maseroolakaram, pri0 39
  20. hakaeke hindi, pri0 22
  21. ainae maraphat, pri0 101
  22. mir nambar dilli kaaulej urdoo patrika pri0 223
  23. prem vatika, 11
  24. prem vatika 12
  25. prem vatika 25
  26. alatakashshuk an muhimmatut tasavvuph, pri0 416
  27. prem vatika, 13
  28. naphahate abiri sharah divane najiri, pri0 100
  29. prem vatika 14
  30. masanavi manavi, pahala bhag, pri0 4
  31. prem vatika 15
  32. aut lain aauph islamik kalchar, pri0 350
  33. madhyayugin premakhyan, pri0 16
  34. prem vatika 3
  35. alatakashshuph an muhimmatut yasavvuph, pri0 410
  36. prem vatika 23
  37. prem vatika 16
  38. prem vatika 31
  39. prem vatika 17
  40. prem vatika 19
  41. prem vatika 21
  42. mira se islam, pri0 297
  43. sujan rasakhan, 17
  44. sujan rasakhan, 16
  45. sujan rasakhan, 14
  46. prem vatika, 36
  47. mistiks aph islam, pri0 112
  48. prem vatika, 24
  49. prem vatika, 32
  50. aut lain aph islami k kalchar, pri0 311
  51. kuto knjan makhaphiya phah vabato an o rapha, phakhalakatul khalak
  52. aut lain aauph islamik kalchar, pri0 311
  53. prem vatika 47
  54. prem vatika 43
  55. prem vatika 44
  56. prem vatika 45
  57. prem vatika 46
  58. laila majanoo, pri0 4
  59. prem vatika 2
  60. alatakashshuph an mahimmatutatasavvuph, pri0 218
  61. prem vatika 26
  62. prem vatika 30
  63. prem vatika 6
  64. aitare maraphat pri0 89
  65. sujan rasakhan, 5
  66. sujan rasakhan, 18
  67. sujan rasakhan,19
  68. aine maraphat pri0 96
  69. islam ke soophi sadhak, pri0 31
  70. sujan rasakhan, 3
  71. sujan rasakhan, 6
  72. sujan rasakhan, 9
  73. prem vatika, 22
  74. sharatar ensaiklopidiya aph islamakhh pri0 75
  75. islam ke soorph sadhak, pri0 40
  76. hakaeke hindi, pri0 6
  77. hakaeke hindi, pri0 73
  78. hakaeke hindi pri0 80
  79. hakaeke hindi pri0 102
  80. sujan rasakhan, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198
  81. prem vatika, 40
  82. mirase islam, pri0 324
  83. aine maraphat pri0 219
  84. sujan rasakhan, 3
  85. prem vatika, 28
  86. prem vatika, 35
  87. aine maraphat, pri0 87
  88. sujan rasakhan, 4
  89. islam ke soophi sadhak, pri0 50
  90. sujan rasakhan, 90
  91. prem vatika, 33
  92. prem vatika, 34
  93. prem vatika, 30
  94. pre0 va0, 30

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