रसखान का भाव-पक्ष  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

hindi sahity men krishn bhakt tatha ritikalin kaviyon men rasakhan ka mahattvapoorn sthan hai. 'rasakhan' ko ras ki khan kaha jata hai. inake kavy men bhakti, shrriganr ras donon pradhanata se milate hain. rasakhan krishn bhakt hain aur prabhu ke sagun aur nirgun nirakar roop ke prati shraddhalu hain.

rasakhan ka bhav-paksh

rasakhan ki samadhi, mahavan, mathura

ras

sahridayon ke hriday men vasana ya manovikar ke roop men vartaman rati adi sthayi bhav hi vibhav, anubhav, snchari bhav ke dvara vyakt hokar ras ban jate hain.[1] doosare shabdon men vibhav-alnban vibhav, uddipan vibhav, anubhav aur snchari bhav aur sthayi bhav hi ras ke ang hain. rasakhan ke kavy men bhavapaksh ke antargat alamban-niroopan,nayika-bhed, snchari bhav, uddipan vibhav adi ka varnan hai

alamban niroopan

alnban vibhav ka abhipray kavy-naty-varnit nayak-nayika adi se hai kyonki unhin ke sahare samajikon ke hriday men ras ka snchar hua karata hai. rasakhan ke kavy men alnban shri krishn, gopiyan evn radha hain. 'prem vatika' men yadyapi prem sambandhi dohe hain, kintu rasakhan ne usake mali krishn aur malin radha hi ko charitarth kiya hai. rasakhan alamban-niroopan men poorn saphal hue hain. ve gopiyon ka varnan bhi usi tanmayata ke sath karate hain jis tanmayata ke sath krishn ka. snpoorn 'sujan rasakhan' men gopiyon evn radha ko alnban (krishn) ke svaroop se prabhavit dikhaya hai.

nayak

bharatiy kavy-shastr ke anusar kavyalnban nayak vah mana gaya hai jo tyag bhavana se bhara ho, mahanh karyon ka karta ho, kul ka mahanh ho, buddhi-vaibhav se snpann ho, roop-yauvan aur utsah ki snpadaon se snpann ho, nirantar udyogashil rahane vala ho, janata ka snehabhajan ho aur tejasvita, chaturata kinva sushilata ka nidarshak ho. rasakhan ke kavy ke nayak shrikrishn hain, jo mahanh karyon ke karta, uchch kul men utpann buddhi, vaibhav se snpann, roop yauvan utsah ki snpadaon se sushobhit, gopiyon ke snehabhajan, tejasvi aur sushil hain. rasakhan ke nayak men nayakochit lagabhag sabhi gun milate hain. nayak ke mahanh karyon ki charcha milati hai. draupadi, ganika, gaj, gidh, ajamil ka rasakhan ke nayak ne uddhar kiya. ahilya ko tara, prahlad ke snkaton ka nash kiya.[2] keval yahi nahin, unhonne utsahapoorvak kaliy daman tatha kuvalaya vadh bhi kiya.[3] rasakhan ne apane nayak ke mahanh karyon ke sath-sath unake roop yauvan ki bhi charcha ki hai. gopiyon ne unake roop se prabhavit hokar lokamaryada tak ko tyag diya. krishn ke roop yauvan ka prabhav asadharan hai. gopi bebas hokar lok maryada tyagane par vivash ho jati hain-

ati lok ki laj samooh main chhori kai rakhi thaki bahusnkat son.
pal men kulakani ki med nakhi nahin roki ruki pal ke pat son॥
rasakhani su keto uchati rahi uchati n snkoch ki auchat son.
ali koti kiyau hataki n rahi ataki ankhiyan lataki lat son.[4]

rasakhan ne apane nayak ke roop-yauvan ki charcha anek padon men ki hai. roop yauban ke atirikt unaki cheshtaen, madhur muskan bhi man ko har leti hain.

main manohar bain bajai susaje tan sohat pit pata hai.
yaun damakai chamakai jhamakai duti damini ki mano syam ghata hai.
e sajani brajarajakumar ata chadhi pherat lal bata hai.
rasakhani mahamadhuri mukh ki musakani karai kulakani kata hai.[5]

rasakhan ne krishn ke premamay roop ka niroopan anek padon men kiya hai. unhen radha ke pair dabate hue dikhaya hai[6] tatha gopiyon ke agrah par chhachhiya bhari chhachh par bhi nachate hue dikhaya hai. sarvasamarth hokar bhi krishn apani preyasi gopiyon ke annd ke lie is prakar ka vyavahar karate hain. jisase siddh hota hai ki ve prem ke vashavarti hain. at: rasakhan dvara niroopit nayak men lagabhag un sab visheshataon ka sannivesh hai jo bharatiy kavyashastr ke antargat ginaee gee hain. unamen shaury, roop, yauvan aur utsah hai.

nayika

rasakhan ke anusar nayika se abhipray us stri se hai jo yauvan, roop, kul, prem, shil, gun, vaibhav aur bhooshan se sampann ho. rasakhan premonmatt bhakt kavi the. unhonne apani svachchhnd bhavana ke anukool krishn prem ka chitran apane kavy men kiya. isilie rasakhan ka nayika-bhed varnan n to shastriy vidhi ke anuroop hi hai aur n hi kisi kram ka usamen dhyan rakha gaya hai. krishn ke prati gopiyon ke prem-varnan men nayika-bhed ka chitran svabhavik roop se ho gaya hai.

nayika bhed

nayika bhed ki parnpara ke darshan snskrit-sahity tatha snskrit-kavy-shastr men hote hain. nayikaen tin prakar ki bataee hain-

  1. svakiya
  2. parakiya evn
  3. samany.

isake atirikt bhi nayika ke jati, dharm, dasha evn avasthanusar anek bhed kie ge hain.[7] premomng ke kavi se nayika bhed ke sagar men gote lagakar samast bhedopabhed niroopan ki asha karana nirarthak hi hoga, kyonki inhonne gopiyon ke svaroop ko adhik mahattv n dekar unaki bhavanaon ko hi adhik mahattv diya hai. phir bhi gopiyon ke niroopan men kahin-kahin nayika bhed ke darshan ho jate hain.

parakiya nayika

jo nayika par purush se priti kare, use parakiya kahate hain. rasakhan ke kavy men niroopit gopiyan par stri hain. par purush krishn prem ke karan ve parakiya nayika kahalaengi. rasakhan ne anek padon men[8] unaka sundar niroopan kiya hai. unhonne parakiya nayika ke chitran men nayikaon ki lok laj tatha apane kutunbiyon ke bhay se unaki vedanamayi sthiti aur premonmad ka bada hi marmasparshi chitran kiya hai-

kalhi bhath murali-dhuni men rasakhani liyo kahun nam hamarau.
ta chhin tain bhee bairini sas kitau kiyau jhankat deti n dvarau.
hot chavav balai son ali ri jau bhari ankhin bhentiyai pyaro.
bat pari abahin thithakyau hiyare atakyau piyare patavari॥[9]

parakiya nayika ke bhed

parakiya nayika ke do bhed mane ge hai[10]-

  1. anootha aur
  2. oodha.

rasakhan ne oodha nayika ka varnan kiya hai. parakiya ke avasthanusar chh: bhed hote hain-

  1. mudita,
  2. vidagdha,
  3. anushayana,
  4. gupta,
  5. lakshita,
  6. kulata.

inamen se rasakhan ne oodha mudita aur vidagdha ka hi chitran kiya hai.

oodha

oodha vah nayika hai jo apane pati ke atirikt any kisi purush se prem kare rasakhan ne is pad men oodha ka varnan kiya hai-

'auchak drishti pare kahoon kanh joo tason kahai nanadi anuragi.
sau suni sas rahi mukh mori, jithani phirai jiy main ris pagi.
nike nihari kai dekhai n ankhin, hon kabahoon bhari nain n jagi.
ma pachhitavo yahai ju sakhi ki kalnk lagyau par ank n 'lagi.[11]

mudita

yah parakiya ke avasthanusar bhedon men se ek hai. par-purush-milan-vishayak manobhilasha ki akasmat poorti hote dekhakar jo nayika mudit hoti hai use mudita kahate hain. rasakhan ne bhi nayika ki modavastha ka sundar chitran kiya hai-

'jat huti jamana jal kaun manamohan gheri layau mag ai kai.
mod bharayau lapatai layau, pat ghoonghat tari dayau chit chai kai.
aur kaha rasakhani kahaun mukh choomat ghatan bat banai kai.
kaisen nibhai kulakani rahi hiye sanvari moorati ki chhabi chhai.[12]

vidagdha

chaturatapoorvak par purushanurag ka snket karane vali nayika ko vidagdha kahate hain. vidagdha ke do bhed hote hain-

  1. vachanavidagdha
  2. kriyavidagdha.
vachanavidagdha nayika

jo nayika vachanan ki chaturata se par purushanurag vishayak kary ko snpann karana chahe use 'vachanavidagdha' kahate hain. rasakhan ki gopiyan anek sthanon par vachan chatury se kam leti hain-

chhir jau chahat chir gahen ajoo leu n ketik chhir achaihau.
chakhan ke mis makhan mangat khau n makhan ketik khaihau.
janati haun jiy ki rasakhani su kahe kaun etik bat badhaihau.
goras ke mis jo ras chahat so ras kanhajoo neku n paihau.[13]

yahan gopiyon ne vachanavidagdhata dvara apani ichchha ka spashtikaran kar diya hai.

kriyavidagdha

jo nayika kriya ki chaturata se par-purushanurag vishayak kary ko sampann karana chahe, use kriyavidagdha kahate hain. rasakhan ne nimnalikhit pad men kriya vidagdha nayika ka sundar chitran kiya hai-

khelai alijan ke gan main ut pritam pyare saun neh navino.
bainani bodh karai it kaun, ut sainani mohan ko man lino.
nainani ki chalibi kachhu jani sakhi rasakhani chitaive kon kino.
ja lakhi pai jnbhaee gee chutaki chatakai bida kari dino.[14]

rasakhan ki samadhi, mahavan, mathura
dashanusar nayikaen

nayika ke dashanusar tin bhed hote hain-

  1. garvita
  2. any snbhog dukhita
  3. manavati men se rasakhan ke kavy men any snbhog du:khita tatha manavati nayika ka chitran milata hai.
any snbhog dukhita

any stri ke tan par apane priyatam ke priti-chihn dekh kar du:khit hone vali nayika ko 'any snbhog du:khit' kahate hain rasakhan ne bhi any snbhog du:khita nari ka chitran kiya hai.

kah kahoon sajani sng ki rajani nit bitai mukund kon heri.
avan roz kahain manabhavan avan ki n kabaun kari pheri.
sautin-bhag badhyau braj main jin lootat hain nisi rng ghaneri.
mo rasakhani likhi bidhana man mari kai apu bani haun anheri॥[15]

manavati

apane priyatam ko any stri ki or akarshit janakar eershyapoorvak man karane vali nayika manavati kahalati hai. rasakhan ne manini nayika ka chitran tin padon men kiya hai. dooti nayika ko samajha rahi hai ki mere kahane se too man ko tyag de. tujhe basnt men man karana kisane sikha diya.[16] agale pady men vah krishn ki sundarata evn gunon ka bakhan karake ant men kahati hai ki tujhe kuchh nahin lagata. n jane kisane teri mati chhini hai.[17] pun: nayika ko samajhati huee kahati hai ki man ki avadhi to adhi ghadi hai, too man tyag de-

man ki audhi hai adhi ghari ari jau rasakhani darai hit ke dar,
kai hit chhodiyai pariyai paini aise katachhanahin hiyara-har.
mohanalal kon hal bilokiyai neku kachhoo kini chhoobekar saun kar,
nan karibe par vare hain pran kaha karihain ab han karibe par.[18]

rasakhan ne manini nayika ke man ka svabhavik chitran kiya hai. nayika ko samajhaya ja raha hai ki too kisi prakar man tyag de.

avasthanusar nayikaen

avasthanusar nayika ke das bhed mane ge hain jinamen se do ki charcha rasakhan ne ki hai-

  1. agatapatika
  2. proshitapatika.
agatapatika

apane priyatam ke agaman par prasann hone vali nayika 'agatapatika' kahalati hai. rasakhan ne agatapatika nayika ka chitran bahut hi sundar tatha bhavapoorn dhng se kiya hai-

nah-biyog badhyau rasakhani malin maha duti deh tiya ki.
pnkaj son mukh gau murajhaee lagin lapatain bari svans hiya ki.
aise men avat kanh sune hulasain tarakin ju tani angiya ki.
yau jagajoti uthi ang ki usakai dee manau bati diya ki.[19]

nayika virah-pidit hai kintu krishn ke agaman se usaki pida samapt ho jati hai aur usaki prasannata ka thikana nahin rahata. jaise dipak ki batti badhane se prakash badh jata hai vaise hi priy ke agaman se nayika ka sharir praphullit ho uthata hai.

proshitapatika

priyatam ke viyog se du:khit virahini nayika ko proshitapatika kahate hain. rasakhan ke kavy men proshitapatika nayika ke anek udaharan milate hain-

unahin ke sanehan sani rahain unahin ke ju neh divani rahain.
unahin ki sunain n au bain tyaun sain son chain anekan thani rahain.
unahin sng dolan main rasakhani sabai sukh sindhu aghani rahain.
unahin bin jyaun jalahin hvai min si ankhi meri ansuvani rahain.[20]

nimn pad men parakiya madhya proshitapatika ka chitran kiya gaya hai-

auchak drishti pare kahoon kanh joo tason kahai nanadi anuragi.
so suni sas rahi mukh mori, jithani phirai jiy main ris pagi.
niken nihari kai dekhe n ankhin, hon kabahoon bhari nain n jagi.
mo pachhitavo yahai ju sakhi ki kalnk lagyau par ank n lagi॥[21]

rasakhan ke kavy men proshitapatika nayika ka niroopan kee sthanon par milata hai.

vay
kram se nayika

vay:kram se nayika ke tin bhed mane ge hain-

  1. mugdha,
  2. madhya,
  3. praudha.

rasakhan ne mugdha nayika ka varnan kiya hai.

mugdha

jisake sharir par nav yauvan ka snchar ho raha ho, aisi lajjashila kishori ko 'mugdha nayika' kahate hain. rasakhan ne mugdha nayika ki vay:sndhi avastha ka sundar chitr khincha hai-

banki maror gahi bhrikutin lagin ankhiyan tirachhani tiya ki.
tank si lank bhee rasakhani sudamini te duti dooni hiya ki.
sohain tarng anng ki angani op uroj uthi chhatiya ki.
joban-joti su yaun damakai usakaee dee mano bati diya ki.[22]

jis prakar krishn kavy men parakiya nayikaon ko vishesh gaurav diya gaya hai, usi prakar rasakhan ne bhi parakiya varnan ko mahattv diya. isake tin pradhan ki saphalata ke lie bhavon ka marmik chitran avashyak hai.

  1. rati bhav ki jitani adhik marmikata aur tallinata parakiya prem men snbhav hai utani svakiya prem men nahin.
  2. doosara karan yah hai ki parakiya prem ka kshetr bahut vistrit hai. usamen prem ke vibhinn roopon aur paristhitiyon ke varnan ka avakash rahata hai. is prakar kavi ko apani pratibha ke pradarshan ka asim avasar milata hai.
  3. tisara karan hai lilavatari krishn ka madhur roop. krishn parabrahm parameshvar hai aur gopiyan jivatmaen hain. annt jivatmaon ke pratik roop men annt gopiyon ka chitran anivary tha. atev krishn bhakt shrringari kaviyon ne sabhi gopiyon ke prati krishn (bhagavan) ke sneh ki aur krishn ke prati sabhi gopiyon ke utkat anurag ki vynjana ke lie parakiya-prem ka vidhan kiya. yahan tak ki unake kavy men svakiya ka kahin bhi chitran nahin hua. parakiya nayika niroopan ke antargat rasakhan ne oodha mudita, kriyavidagdha, vachanavidagdha anyasnbhogadu:khita, manavati, agatapatika, proshitapatika evn mugdha adi nayikaon ka chitran kiya hai. rasakhan ka uddeshy nayika-bhed niroopan karana nahin tha atev unhonne gopiyon ke snbndh se krishn ka varnan karate hue prasnganusar nayikaon ke bahy roop evn unaki antarvrittiyon ka chitran kiya hai.

uddipan vibhav

jo rati adi sthayi bhavon ko uddipt karate hain, unaki asvad yogyata badhate hain, ve 'uddipan vibhav' kahalate hain. 'uddipan vibhav' unhen kahate hain jo kisi ras ko uddipt karate hain. uddipan vibhav pratyek ras ke apane hote hain. shrringar ras ke uddipan sakhi, sakha, dooti, shadhritu, van upavan, chndr, chandani, pushp, nadi , tat, chitr adi hote hain. nayak-nayika ki cheshtaen bhi ras ko uddipt karati hain. rasakhan ke kavy men uddipan vibhav prakriti ka khula prangan he. unake nayak krishn ki samast lilaen prakriti ke ramaniy kshetr men hueen. gokul ke bag, tadag, kunj-gali adi uddipan hain.
'van bag tadagani kunjagali ankhiyan sukh paihain dekhi dee.
ab gokul manjh vilokiyaigi vah gop sabhag subhay ree.
milihai hnsi gai kabai rasakhani kabai brajabalani premamee.
vah nil nichol ke ghoonghat ki chhavi dekhabi dekhan lajalee.[23] krishn ki kamadev ke saman navarngi chhavi, unaki baten baten sab uddipan kary kar rahi hain- bhal pagiya, sugndhit vastr, sugndhit vastr, angon men jadaoo nagine, muktamal ye sab gopiyon men shrringar ras ko uddipt karate hain.
lal lasain pagiya sabake, sab ke pat koti sugndhani bhine.
angani ang saje sab hi rasakhani anek jarau navine.
mukta-galamal lasai sab ke sab gvar kumar singar so kine.
pai sigare braj ke hari hin hari hi kai harain hiyara hari line॥[24]
khnjan, min, saroj ke mad ko harane vale bade-bade nayan, kunjon men muskate pan khate amrit vachan bolate krishn ka svaroop evn cheshtaen uddipan-kary kar rahi hain.[25] rasakhan ke kavy men uddipan muralivat ka tat[26], kunjagali[27], murali dhvani[28], madhur muskan, morapnkha, pitapata, van aur kundal adi hain. rasakhan ka uddeshy krishn-vishayak ragatmika vritti ki abhivyakti aur krishn ka vividh roopon men chitran karana tha. vibhinn vrittiyon ke hridayasparshi upachay aur lilaon ki prabhavashalita ke lie uddipanakari vatavaran ki srishti anivary hai. alnban ke karan jagrat bhav uddipan vibhavon ke abhavon men rasatmak nahin ho sakata. krishn ke chitran ko hridayagrahi roop dene ke lie unaki cheshtaon, unaki lilaon ko saras banane vale vatavaran adi ka chitran apekshit hai. vnshivat ka unaki kridaon se mahattvapoorn snbndh hai. yamuna tat unaka parnpara prasiddh lilasthal hai. murali ki tan unaki premikaon ko vishesh roop se akrisht karati hain. unaki veshabhoosha aur muskan ne gopiyon ke chitt ko lubha liya hai. atev sahriday kavi ne krishn-vishayak rati bhav ke paripak ke lie in vibhavon ka sthan-sthan par nidarshan kiya hai.

snchari bhav

snchari bhav ka doosara nam 'vyabhichari' bhav bhi hai. vyabhichari shabd men vi+abhi+char (upasarg tatha dhatu) ka yog hai. 'vi' vividhata ka, 'abhi' abhimukhy ka aur 'char' sncharan ka dyotak hai. atev vakh, ang tatha satvadi dvara vividh prakar ke, rasanukool sncharan karane vale bhavon ko vyabhichari athava snchari bhav kahate hain. yah sthayi bhav ke sahakari karan hain yah sabhi rason men yathasnbhav snchar karate hain. isi se inaki snchari ya vyabhichari sngya hai. sthayi bhav ki tarah ye ras ki siddhi tak sthir nahin rahate. ye avastha vishesh men utpann hote hain aur apana prayojan poora ho jane par sthayi bhav ko uchit sahayata dekar lupt ho jate hain. inaki snkhya is prakar 33 hai. nirvaid, glani, shnka, asooya, mad, shram, alasy, dainy, chinta, moh, smriti, ghriti, vrida, chapalata, harsh, aveg, jadata, garv vishad, autsuky, nidra, apasmar, svapn, vibodh, amarsh, avahittha, ugrata, mati, vyadhi, unmad, tras, vitark, maran. rasakhan ke kavy men rasanukool anek snchari bhavon ki vynjana huee hai.
kayik anubhav
kataksh adi angik cheshtaon ko 'kayik anubhav' kahate hain. rasakhan ke kavy men kayik anubhav ke sundar namoone milate hain. unhonne bhavanukool cheshtaon ka samyak vidhan kiya hain—
ali page rnge je rng sanvare mo pai na avat lalachi naina.
dhavat hain utahin jit mohan roke rukai nahin ghoonghat aisa.
kanani kaun kal nahin parai sakhi prem son bhije sune bin baina.
rasakhani bhee madhu ki makhiyan ab neh ko bndhan kyon hoon chhootaina.[29]
nayika ke nayanon ki gati men veg hai jo ghoonghat ke avaran ko svikar karane ko taiyar nahin. nayanon ki chnchalata nayika ki prabal akanksha ko abhivyakti pradan karane men sahayak huee hai. vibhinn angon ki utsukata evn utkntha ka chitran kayik anubhavon dvara sajivata ke sath hua hai.
nain nachai chitai musakai su ot hvai jai angootha dikhayau.[30] nain nachana, musakana aur ot men jakar angootha dikhana adi anek kayik bhavon ki ek sath vynjana huee hai. yahan kavi ne nayika ki chaturata evn chnchalata ki anubhavon dvara chitratmak dhng se abhivyakti ki hai.
aju haun niharayau bir nipat kalindi tir,
doun ko doun saun muri musakaibau.
dooo parain paiyan dooo let hain balaiyan unhen,
bhooli gee gaiyan inhen gagar uchaibo॥[31]
in pnktiyon men ek doosare ko dekhana, mud-mud kar muskana. ek doosare ke pairon par padana, nichhavar hona adi anek kayik anubhavon ki sundar vynjana huee hai.
aju hi barak 'lehu dahi' kahi kai kachhu nainan men vihnsi hai.
bairini vahi bhee musakani ju va rasakhani ke pran basi hai.[32]
yahan netron men hnsane tatha musakan se prabhavit hone ke karan kayik anubhav chamatkarapoorn hain.
pheri phirain ankhiyan thaharati hain kare pitnbaravare ke oopar.[33]
netron ki vivashata kayik anubhav dvara chitrit ki gee hai. yahan nirnimesh dekhane ka bhav nihit hai.
ankhiyan ankhiyan saun sakai milai hilai rijhai hiyo haribo.
batiyan chit choran chetak si ras charu charitran oocharibo.[34]
yahan ankhiyan milana, rijhana, baten karana adi kayik anubhavon dvara shrringar ras ki saphal vynjana huee hai.
satvik bhav
satv ke udrek se utpann jo anubhav hain unhin ko satvik bhav kaha gaya hai. rasakhan ke kavy men satvik bhavon ki bhi sundar vynjana huee hai.
bnsi bajavat ani kadhau so gali main ali kachhu tona so darai.
heri, chitai, tirachhi kari drishti chalau gayau mohan moothi si marai.
tahi ghari saun pari dhari sej pai pyari n bolati pranahoon barai.
radhika ji hai tau jihain sabai n to pihain halahal nnd ke dvarai॥[35]
is pad men krishn ka vnshi bajana aur tirachhi drishti se gopiyon ko dekhana uddipan vibhav hai. alnban krishn aur unaki chitavan adi uddipanon se gopi itani adhik prabhavit hain ki unaki vani bhavaveg ke karan avaruddh ho gee hai. is prakar satvik bhav 'stnbh' ka chitran kiya gaya hai. is chitran men shrringar ras ki hridayahari vynjana ki gee hai-
poorab punyani tain chitee jin ye ankhiyan musakani bhari joo.
kooo rahi putari si khari, koir ghat dari, kou bat pari joo.
je apane gharahin rasakhani kahai aru haunsani jati mari joo.
lal je bal bihal kari te bihal kari n nihal kari joo॥[36]
yahan gopiyan krishn ki muskan bhari ankhon se prabhavit hain. krishn alnban, unaki musakan bhari ankhen uddipan vibhav hain. unase prabhavit hokar gopiyon ki cheshtaen putali ke saman khadi rahana adi stnbh namak satvik bhav hain. ghat par girana, behal hona 'mari' jana men 'pralay' namak satvik bhav ka manoram niroopan hua hai.
mohan roop chhaki ban dolati ghoomati ri taji laj bicharai.
bnk bilokani nain bisal su dnpati kor katachhan marai.
rngabhari mukh ki musakan lakhen sakhi kaun ju deh samharai.
jyaun aravind himmat-kari jhakajhori kai tori marori kai darai॥[37]
krishn ki uddipak muskan ne gopi ko atm-vismrit kar diya hai. krishn ke prem men vibhor hone ke karan vah apane rati bhavana ko chhipa nahin pa rahi hai. vah vihval hokar van men dolati hai aur lajja tyagakar svachchhnd roop se ghoomati hai. usaka is prakar dolana aur ghoomana rati bhav vynjak hone ke karan kayik anubhav hai. krishn ki rngabhari musakan ke prabhav se apani deh ko n snbhal pana arthat nishchesht hona aur apane ko bhool jana adi 'pralay' namak satvik bhav hain. rasakhan ke kavy men satvik, manasik aur kayik anubhavon ki ek sath abhivyakti huee hain-
aeen sabai braj gop lali thithakin hvai gali jamuna-jal nhane.
auchak ai mile rasakhani bajavat bainu sunavat tane.
haha kari sisaki sigari mati main hari hiyara hulasane.
ghoomain divani amani chakor son or son dooo chalain drig bane.[38]
gopiyan yamuna men nahane jati hain kintu achanak krishn ki drishti pad jane par ve thithak uthati hain. is thithakane men anek bhav bhare hain. kuchh dar, kuchh lajja, kuchh ashnka, kuchh ashchary, sabhi baten ek sath akash men jhilamilate anek taron ki bhanti prakat ho rahi hain. sisakane men 'ashru' satvik bhav hai. hulasane men harsh manasik anubhav hai. ghoomana 'drigaban' chalana adi 'kayik' anubhav hain. 'kayik tatha manasik anubhavon ka chitr-rasakhan ne rekha dvara hi prastut kiya hai. rekhaen badi ubhari huee tatha sajiv hain. chitr-kalpana ka adarsh roop in rekha-chitron men prapt hota hai.'
rasakhan anubhav-yojana men poorn saphal huee hain. anubhavon aur cheshtaon ki yah vibhooti age chalakar ritikalin kaviyon men vishesh roop se dekhane ko milati hai. unaki anubhav-yojana chitratmakata, sajivata aur bhav-pravanata ki drishti se prashnsaniy hai.
sthayi bhav rati
kisi anukool vishay ki or man ki pravritti ko 'rati' kahate hain. vishvanath ne bhi priy vastu ke prati hriday ki utkat unmukhata (premardrata) ko 'rati' kaha hai. sthayi bhav jab sahayak samagri se pusht hokar vynjit hota hai tab ras ka paripak hota hai. jaise shrringar ras men rati sthayi bhav hota hai. parantu jahan pariposhak samagri nahin rahati vahan svatantr roop se sthayi bhav hi dhvanit hota hai. rasakhan ke kavy men aise anek udaharan mil jate hain—
kanh bhe bas bansuri ke ab kaun sakhi, hamakon chih hai.
nisadyaus rahai sng-sath lagi yah sautin tapan kyaun sahi hai.
jin mohi liyau manamohan kon rasakhani sada hamakon dahi hai.
mili aau sabai sakhi, bhagi chalain ab to braj main bnsuri rahi hai॥[39]


jal ki n ghat bharain mag ki n pag dharain,
ghar ki n kachhu karain baithi bharain sansu ri.
ekai suni laut geen ekai lot-pot bhee,
ekani ke drigani nikasi ae ansu ri.
kahain rasakhani so sabai braj-banita badhi,
badhik kahay hay bhee kulahansu ri.
kariyai upay bans uriyai katay,
nahin upajaigau bans nahin bajai pheri bansuri॥[40]
vatsaly rati
putr adi ke prati mata-pita ka jo vatsaly sneh hota hai use vatsaly kahate hain. yashoda ke is kathan men vatsaly rati ki jhalak rahi hain-
apano so dhota ham sabahi ko janat hain,
dooo prani sab hi ke kaj nit dhavahin.
te tau rasakhani ab door ten tamaso dekhain,
tarani tanooja ke nikat nahin avahin.
an din bat anahitun saun kahaun kaha,
hitoo jeoo jae te ye lochan duravahin.
kaha kahaun ali khali det sab thali par,
mere banamali kon n kali ten chhudavahin.[41]
yahan mata yashoda ki apane putr ke anisht ki ashnka se utpann hriday ki udvignata ka chitran kiya gaya hai. ve apane putr ki suraksha kamana ke lie bahut chintit hain. yahan mata ke hriday ki mngalamayi sneh-bhavana ka sundar chitran hai.
bhakti
eeshvar ke prati anurag ko bhakti kahate hain. rasakhan bhakt kavi hain, unaka kavy bhakti bhav se bharapoor hai.
va lakuti aru kamariya par raj tihoon pur ko taji daraun.
athahu siddhi navaun nidhi ko sukh nnd ki gai charai bisaraun.
e rasakhani jabai in nainan te braj ke ban-bag niharaun.
kotik yah kaladhaut ke dham karil ki kunjan oopar varaun.[42]
yahan sthayi bhav dev vishayak rati apane poorn vaibhav ke sath vidyaman hai.
knchan mndir oonche banai kai manik lai sada jhalakaiyat.
prat hi te sagari nagari nag motin hi ki tulani tulaiyat.
jadyapi din prajan prajapati ki prabhuta madhava lalachaiyat.
aise bhe tau kaha rasakhani jo sanvare gvar saun neh ne laiyat.[43]
yahan sthayi bhav dev vishayak rati ki vynjana ho rahi hai.
nirved ya sham
tatvgyan hone se sansarik vishayon men jo virag-buddhi utpann hoti hai, use 'nirved' kahate hain. rasakhan ki 'prem vatika' men sthan-sthan par nirved ki nibndhana milati hain-
prem agam anupam amit, sagar saris bakhan.
jo avat yahi dhig bahuri, jat nahin rasakhan॥[44]
annd-anubhav hot nahin, bina prem jag jan.
kai vah vishayannd kai brahmannd bakhan॥[45]
gyan karm 'ru upasana, sab ahamiti ko mool.
dridh nishchay nahin hot bin, kiye prem anukool॥[46] kam krodh mad moh bhay lobh droh matsary.
in sab hi tain prem hai pare, kahate munivary॥[47]
has
has ka abhipray vani adi ki vikritiyon ke darshan athava chintan se snbhoot chittavikas se hai. doosare shabdon men vikrit vachan, kary aur roop-rachana se sahriday ke man men jo ullas utpann hota hai use 'has' kahate hain. rasakhan ke kavy men aise ek-do udaharan mil jate hain—
kesariya pat, kesari khaur, banau gar gunj ko har dhararo.
ko hau joo apani ya chhabi son ju khare angana prati dithi n taro.
ani bikaoo se hoee rahe rasakhani kahai tumh roki duvaro.
hain to bikaoon jau let banai hnsabol tiharo hai mol hamaro॥[48]
yahan ras ke paripak ke abhav men has bhav ki abhivynjana hai.
utsah
kary karane ka abhinivesh, shaury, adi pradarshit karane ki prabal ichchha ko 'utsah' kahate hain. rasakhan ke kavy men utsah sthayi bhav ke udaharan kam milate hain. kyonki unaka uddeshy vir kavy ki rachana karana nahin tha. nimnalikhit pad men utsah ki vynjana huee hai—
kns ke krodh ki phaili rahi sigare braj mndal manjh phukar si.
ai ge kachhani kachhi kai tabahin nat-nagar nndakumar si.
dvarad ko rad khaichi liyau rasakhani hiye gahi lai bichar si.
lini kuthaur lagi lakhi tauri kalnk tamal ten kirati-dar si॥[49]


is prakar rasakhan ke kavy men chh: sthayi bhavon ki nibndhana milati hai- rati, nirved, utsah, has, vatsaly aur bhakti. yah bat dhyan dene yogy hai ki unhonne parnparaprathita char sthayi bhavon ko hi gaurav diya hai, jinamen anyatam bhav rati ka hai. krodh, jugupta, vismay, shok aur bhay ki upeksha ka mool karan yah pratit hota hai ki in bhavon ka rati se mel nahin hai. rasakhan premi jiv the, atev unhonne apani kavita men tin prakar ke rati bhavon ki rati, vatsaly aur bhakti ki vynjana ki; jo bhav inamen vishesh sahayak ho sakate the unhen yathasthan abhivyakti kiya. doosara karan yah bhi hai ki unaki rachana muktak hai; atev prabanadh kavy ki bhanti usamen sabhi prakar ke bhavon ka sannivesh avashyak bhi nahin hai.

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. vibhavenanubhaven vyakt: sncharina tatha rasatamaiti ityadi sthayibhav: sachetasamh॥ sahity darpan, pri0 99
  2. sujan rasakhan, 18
  3. sujan rasakhan, 200, 201, 202
  4. sujan rasakhan, 175
  5. sujan rasakhan, 172
  6. sujan rasakhan, 17
  7. jati ke anusar nayika ke char bhed kie ge hain-
    1. padamini,
    2. chitrini,
    3. shnkhini,
    4. hastini.
    • dharm ke anusar tin prakar ki nayikaen mani gee hain-
    1. garvita,
    2. anyasnbhogadu:khita,
    3. manavati.
    • avastha ke anusar nayika ke das bhed kie ge hain-
    1. svadhinapatika,
    2. vasakasajja,
    3. utknthita,
    4. abhisarika,
    5. vipralabdha,
    6. khndita,
    7. kalahantarita,
    8. pravatsyatpreyasi,
    9. proshitapatika,
    10. agatapatika. - brajabhasha sahity men nayika bhed, pri0 219
  8. sujan rasakhan, 203, 139, 178, 74, 81, 126
  9. sujan rasakhan, 99
  10. sahity-darpan pri0 166
  11. sujan rasakhan, 138
  12. sujan rasakhan, 36
  13. sujan rasakhan, 42
  14. sujan rasakhan, 116
  15. sujan rasakhan, 106
  16. sujan rasakhan, 113
  17. sujan rasakhan, 114
  18. sujan rasakhan, 115
  19. sujan rasakhan, 117
  20. sujan rasakhan, 74
  21. sujan rasakhan, 138
  22. sujan rasakhan, 51
  23. sujan rasakhan, 88
  24. sujan rasakhan, 137
  25. sujan rasakhan, 31
  26. sujan rasakhan, 35
  27. sujan rasakhan, 28
  28. sujan rasakhan, 55
  29. sujan rasakhan, 126
  30. sujan rasakhan, 101
  31. sujan rasakhan, 100
  32. sujan rasakhan, 32
  33. sujan rasakhan, 34
  34. sujan rasakhan, 120
  35. sujan rasakhan, 68
  36. sujan rasakhan, 142
  37. sujan rasakhan, 64
  38. sujan rasakhan,37
  39. sujan rasakhan,64
  40. sujan rasakhan, 54
  41. sujan rasakhan, 200
  42. sujan rasakhan, 3
  43. sujan rasakhan, 6
  44. prem vatika, 3
  45. prem vatika, 11
  46. prem vatika, 12
  47. prem vatika, 14
  48. sujan rasakhan, 163
  49. sujan rasakhan, 202

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