कर निर्धारण  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

'kar' se abhipray hai ki shasan dvara samaj men vyavastha banae rakhane evn samast praja ki kalyanakari avashyakataon ki poorti ke uddeshy se lagae ge anivary udgrahan. kar ki sarvapramukh visheshata yah hai ki usaka vyaktigat pratyavartan[1] nahin hata, arthath‌ usake badale men karadata ko vyakti se kuchh prapt karane ka adhikar nahin hota. vinimay ke bhav ka abhav kar ki kalpana ka sarvavishisht ang hai.

kar ki vyakhya

'kar' ki isi paribhasha ke karan jal, vidyut, dak, tar adi vishisht sevaon ko prapt karane ke lie di jane vali dhanarashi ko kar nahin kah sakate. vah mooly ki shreni men gini jaegi. karan, ek to yah mooly dena pratyek ke lie anivary nahin aur doosare mooly evn usake dvara prapt seva men vinimay ka bhav pratyaksh hi avalakshit hota hai. isi prakar shulk evn anugypti[2] bhi kar se bhinn hai. path shulk[3], grih shulk[4], jal shulk[5] shvapach shulk[6] adi pratyek vyakti ko dena anivary nahin. path, grih, jal, shvapach adi ka labh jo uthana chahate hain, unhen hi ye shulk dene padate hain. isi prakar madak padarthon ka vikray karane ke lie jo anugypti di jati hai, usake pratidan men rajy kuchh dhanarashi leta hai. yahan bhi anugypti ki prapti ka etadarth pradatt dhanarashi se pratyaksh snbndh hai. isilie anugypti bhi kar ki paribhasha men nahin ati. karan, kar kinhin sevaon ka mooly ya shulk nahin hota. kar to vastav men vyakti ke oopar shasan ki sarvabhaum satta evn shakti ka pratik hai. is shakti ke adhar par hi shasan vyakti par udgrahan aropit kar sakata hai, vyakti usaka anupatik pratyavartan nahin mang sakata. jin udgrahanon ka anupatik pratyavartan ke lie shasan badhy ho, ve mooly, shulk ya anugypti bhale hi hon, par ve kar to nishchay hi nahin hain.[7]

itihas

'kar' utana hi prachin hai jitana rajy. parntu kar ke roop evn ve siddhant, jinake adhar par unaka nirdharan hota hai, samay-samay par parivartit hote rahe hain. ye saiddhantik parivartan mukhyat: do karanon se hue hain.

  1. nagarikon ke prati rajy ka kartavy
  2. samaj ki badalati huee arthik vyavastha

nagarikon ke prati rajy ka kartavy

pratyek samaj jis rajy ka nirman karata hai, us rajy se kuchh apekshaen bhi rakhata hai. rajy un apekshaon ke anuroop hi us samaj ke prati apane kartavyon ka nirdharan karata hai. ye apekshaen samay-samay par parivartit hoti rahati hain. udaharanasvaroop prachin ya madhy kal men aur rajatntr se snbndhit vyaktiyon ko adhikadhik sukh dena hota tha. shasit varg ki sukh suvidhaon ka prabndh karana rajy ka kartavy nahin tha. aise rajy nagarikon ke samajik evn arthik jivan men kam se kam hastakshep karane ki niti men vishvas rakhate the[8]. is siddhant ke anusar spasht hai ki rajy ko adhik dhan ki avashyakata nahin padati thi. at: adhik kar bhi nahin lagae jate the aur jo kar lagae bhi jate the, unake pichhe shasit varg ke kalyan ki bhavana nihit nahin hoti thi.

dhire-dhire samaj ke prati rajy ke kartavy ki kalpanaen badalane lagin aur yah vishvas kiya jane laga ki nagarikon ko sukh, samriddhi aur sabhi prakar ki suvidhaen pradan karana rajy ka kartavy hai. in kalpanaon ka poorn vikasit roop lok kalyanakari rajy ka adarsh hai. yahan yah bata dena avashyak hai ki lok kalyanakari rajy ki sthapana ki kalpana prajatntravadi shasanatntr ke avirbhav ka parinam hai. is adarsh ko karyanvit karane ke lie spashtat: rajy ko adhik dhan ki avashyakata huee. parinamasvaroop n keval karon ki snkhya men vriddhi avashyak ho gee, pratyut is prakar ke karon ki khoj bhi karani padi jo samaj ke dhani evn nirdhan, donon hi vargon se, unaki kshamata ke anusar kar lete hue bhi unhen saman samajik evn arthik star par lane men saphal hon. ayakar, vyayakar, mrityukar, snpattikar, danakar adi isi khoj ke parinam hain.

samaj ki badalati huee arthik vyavastha

kar pranali ki rooparekha par samaj ki arthik sthiti ki sidha prabhav padata hai. krishi pradhan rajy men spashtat: adhikatar kar krishi karm karane vale nagarikon se hi vasool kie jaenge. yahi karan hai ki samnti yug men bhoorajasv kar pranali ka mukhy adhar tha. madhyakalin yoorop men adhikatar deshon men krishi ke sthan par vyapar ki pradhanata ho gee. parinamasvaroop bhoorajasv ke atirikt ayat, niryat kar evn path shulk ka avirbhav hua. audyogik kranti ka prarnbh hone ke bad kar pranali ke mukhy adhar udyog snbndhi kar ho ge. vibhinn prakar ke utpadanashulk evn kray-vikray-kar isi audyogik arthik pranali ki den hain.[7]

prakar

karon ke anek prakar hain, parntu sarvapramukh vargikaran pratyaksh evn paroksh karon ka hai. pratyaksh kar ve hain jo jis vyakti par lagae jaen, usake dvara inake bhar ka sthanantaran n ho sake. paroksh kar pratyaksh men to ek vyakti par lagae jate hain, parntu vah us kar ko ekatr karane ka madhyam matr hota hai, kyonki us kar ke bhar ko svayn vahan nahin karata varanh turnt usaka sthanantaran kar deta hai. is prakar pratyaksh evn paroksh kar ke vargikaran ka mukhy adhar sthanantaran ki kshamata hai. yadi kar bhar sthanantarit kiya ja sakata hai to vah kar paroksh hai. karan, vah vyakti jis par kar bhar sthanantarit kiya gaya hai, yah nahin janata ki vah paroksh roop men kar de raha hai. isake vipariti yadi kar bhar sthanantarit nahin kiya ja sakata to spasht hai ki vahi vyakti, jis par kar aropit kiya gaya hai, us kar ko dega aur janega ki vah kar de raha hai. udaharanarth ayakar, vyayakar, danakar, snpattikar, mrityukar adi pratyaksh kar hain, kyonki jis vyakti par ye kar aropit kie jate hain, vah poornat: doosaron se inhen kisi bhi roop men vasool nahin kar sakata. isake viparit utpadan shulk, kray-vikray-shulk, ayat-niryat-kar adi paroksh kar hain. jin vyapariyon par ye aropit hote hain, ve mooly ke sath-sath apane grahakon se inako bhi vasool lete hain.

pratyaksh kar ke sthanantarit n ho sakane ke gun ka parinam yah hai ki shasan yadi chahe to unaka upayog kis varg vishesh par kar bhar adhik ya kam karane men kar sakata hai. paroksh kar ka upayog is roop men nahin ho sakata, kyonki barabar sthanantarit hote rahane ke karan yah anuman lagana kathin hai ki antatogatva us kar ka bhar kisane adhik vahan kiya. yahi karan hai ki kisi bhi lok kalyanakari shasan ki kar pranali men pratyaksh karon ko adhik mahatv diya jata hai aur jahan tak snbhav hota hai, paroksh karon ko kam se kam rakhane ka hi prayas kiya jata hai; kyonki pratyaksh karon ke dvara hi dhanik varg se, madhyam evn nimn varg ki tulana men, adhik dhanarashi udgrahit ho sakati hai aur kar pranali ko pragatishil roop dete hue samast nagarikon ki samajik evn arthik samata ke adarsh ki upalabdhi snbhav hai. isaka yah tatpary nahin hai ki paroksh karon ka koee upayog nahin hai. vastav men rajy ke janonnati ke prayason men adhikadhik dhan ki avashyakata hoti hai. yah samast dhan pratyaksh karon se prapt nahin ho sakata. at: paroksh karon ka sahara lena hi padata hai, vishesh roop se isalie ki unake dvara dhan prapti bhi ho jati hai, sath hi paroksh roop men hone ke karan udgrahan ke prati svabhavik virodh ki prakriya bhi tivr nahin ho pati.

any vargikaran

karon ke any vargikaran vishesh mahatvapoorn nahin hain. snkshep men ve is prakar hain-

  1. moolyadhar ya nap taul ke adhar par-kuchh vastuon par kar mooly ke pratishat par lagata hai, kuchh par unaki taul ke adhar par; jaise ek rupaya prati kilogram, ya 30 ne paise prati gaj.
  2. avashyakata ke adhar par, jaise samany aur apatkalin kar
  3. sthayatvi ke adhar par, jaise sthayi aur apatkalin kar; udaharanarth, atirikt labhakar, vyaparik labhakar adi, jo yuddhakal men bharat men bhi lagae ge the.
  4. kshetradhikar ke adhar par, jaise, rashtriy, prantiy tatha sthaniy.
  5. anupatik adhar par, is adhar par karon ko tin bhagon men vibhajit kiya ja sakata hai- anupatik, pragatishil evn pratigami.[7]

anupatik kar use kahate hain jo vyakti ki kar-dey-kshamata ki chinta kie bina pratyek vyakti se saman anupat se liya jata hai.

pragatishil kar use kahate hain jo kar-dey-kshamata ko dhyan men rakhate hue adhik kshamatavalon se adhik aur kam kshamata valon se kam liya jae. udaharanasvarooph ayakar, vyayakar adi.

pratigami kar pragatishil ka ulta hota hai. arthath‌ lagon ki kar dene ki kshamata kam hai, unhen adhik aur jinaki kshamata adhik hai, unhen kam kar dena hota hai. frans men san 1781 ki rajyakranti se poorv isi prakar ki kar pranali vidyaman thi, jahan amir samnton ko kar 'nahin' ke barabar dena hota tha, jabaki nirdhan krishak kar bhar se dabe hue the. ajakal is prakar ke pratigami kar ka shuddh udaharan prapt hona kathin hai, parntu vastav men antim prabhav ki drishti se sare hi paroksh kar pratigami hote hain. is drishti se sabhi anupatik kar bhi pratigami ki shreni men hi a jate hain. isalie karon ka vastavik vargikaran anupatik, pragatishil aur pratigami ke roop men nahin apitu pragatishil aur pratigami ke hi roop men hona chahie.

kar nirdharan ke adarsh

kar nirdharan rajy dvara hota hai. at: kis rajy men kar nirdharan kaisa ho, yah is bat par nirbhar karega ki us rajy ke adarsh kya hain. yadi rajy svayn ko nagarikon ki shanti, vyavastha aur desh ki suraksha matr ke lie uttaradayi samajhata hai to spasht hai ki aisa rajy desh ki arthik evn samajik sthiti men parivartan lane ki tanik bhi utsukata n dikhaega. aise rajy men kar rajy ke lie dhan ekatrit karane ke sadhan matr honge, unaka any koee uddeshy nahin hoga. yah bat doosari hai ki jo kar lagae jaen, ve svayn apani pratikriya dvara samaj ke jivan par ek vishesh prakar ka prabhav chhod jaen, par rajy ka uddeshy kar pranali dvara yah prabhav utpann karana nahin tha. rajy ke kartavyadarsh ki yah vicharadhara ab bahut purani ho chuki hai. 19vin tatha 20vin sadi ke poorvardh men pashchaty deshon men audyogik kranti ke karan jab arthik pragati tivrata se hi ho rahi thi, us samay un rajyon ki kar pranali ka mukhy uddeshy utpadan men sahayata pradan karana tha.

rajanitik evn arthik chintan men parivartan

pratham mahayuddh ke pashchath‌ sabhi deshon ke rajanitik evn arthik chintan men ek mahatvapoorn parivartan aya. abhi tak adhikatar pashchaty deshon men arthavidon evn rajanitigyon ka dhyan keval rashtr ki snpatti badhane men tha. us badhati huee rashtr ki snpada ka rashtr ke vibhinn vargon men vitaran kis prakar ho raha hai, is or rajy ka dhyan bilkul nahin tha. isaka parinam yah hua ki poonjivadi arthaniti ke karan adhikatar deshon men vibhinn vargon men asamanata evn vishamata badhati gee. sath hi, choonki poonjivadiyon ka mukhy uddeshy labh ki prapti tha, isalie jab kabhi unake labhansh men kami hone ka andesha hota tha, vah utpadan se ekadam hath khinch lete the aur utpadit vastuon ko jala dene ya samudr tal men duba dene men bhi snkoch nahin karate the. 1930 men jab vishvavyapi mahanh‌ arthik snkat utpann hua, tab udyogapatiyon ne apani milon men tale dal die. rashtron ka utpadan ekadam gir gaya, bhayanak bekari charon or phail gee. arthik vitaran ki vishamata ke karan rashtr ki snpatti ka adhikansh udyogapatiyon ke pas tha, at: unhen adhik kasht nahin uthana pada. parntu madhyam evn nimn varg ke log mar mite. in sab paristhitiyon ko dekhakar samajashastriyon evn arthavidon ne apani virodh ki avaj oonchi ki aur kaha ki rajy ko svayn aisi sthiti men arthik jivan men pran dalane ka prayas karana chahie evn bekari tatha vitaran ki samasya ko sada ke lie door kar dena chahie.

arthaniti ka uddeshy

isake parinamasvaroop lok kalyanakari rajy ki bhavana ka pradurbhav hua aur rajy ke nagarikon ke prati kartavyadarsh parivartit hue. rajy ki arthaniti ko, kar niti jisaka ek antarng bhag hai, ek nee disha mili aur arthaniti ka mukhy uddeshy ho gaya-

  1. sab kary kar sakane yogy vyaktiyon ko kary dilana
  2. snpoorn samaj ki sukh samriddhi ko adhikatam karana

ajakal ke sabhy kahe jane vale sabhi rashtron ki arthaniti ke yahi do adarsh hain. in adarshon ki poorti ke lie jahan yah avashyak hai ki rashtr ki ay adhik se adhik adhikatar hoti chale, vahan yah bhi avashyak hai ki yah badhati huee rashtr snpada sab vargon men saman roop vitarit ho. yahi karan hai ki jahan ajakal ki kar pranaliyon men utpadan ko protsahan dene ki vyavastha hoti hai, vahan sath hi is bat ka bhi prabndh hota hai ki dhanik vargon se adhikadhik dhan kar dvara lekar rajy usaka vyay lokamngal ke karyon men kare, jisaka adhik labh un vargon ko prapt ho, jinase ya to kam kar liya jata hai ya bilkul hi nahin liya jata.[7]

suvyavasthit kar pranali

aisi suvyavasthit kar pranali ka nirman saral nahin hai, jo rajy ke adarshon ko poorn roop se karyanvit kar sake. arthashastriyon ne suvyavasthit kar pranali ki kuchh visheshataon ka ullekh kiya hai. ve is prakar hain-

  1. lachilapan - kar vyavastha aisi ho ki usase avashyakatanusar dhanarashi ka udgrahan kam ya adhik kiya ja sake
  2. sthayitv - kar pranali men shighr parivartan nahin hone chahien. usamen sthayatvi ka ansh rahana avashyak hai anyatha kar prashasan men bahut kathinaiyan hongi
  3. saraly - kar vyavastha itani saral ho ki janasadharan sugamata se use samajh sake aur apane kar bhar ka anuman laga saken
  4. samanata tatha nyayaparata - yah nitant avashyak hai ki koee nagarik yah n anubhav kare ki kisi varg ke sath pakshapat kiya ja raha hai aur svayn usake sath anyay ya asamanata ka vyavahar kiya gaya hai. yadi kar vyavastha men varg vishesh ke sath pakshapat hoga to nishchay hi samaj men ashanti hogi.
  5. mitavyayata - kar pranali is prakar ki ho ki kar nirdharan karane evn ekatr karane men kam se kam vyay ho.

snkshep men kisi bhi achchhi kar vyavastha men kar is prakar lagae jaen ki ve utpadan men badhak n hon, unake vasool karane men kam se kam vyay ho, unake karan nagarikon men virodh ki bhavana n udit ho aur samajik durgunon ka uday n ho. yadi samajik hit ka protsahan kar vyavastha ke dvara kiya jata hai, nagarikon ko yah vishvas ho jata hai ki kar vyavastha nyayasngat hai aur usake karan utpadan kshamata badhati hai aur bekari ki samasya ka nirakaran hota hai, to aisi adarsh vyavastha men nagarik ko kar dene men bhi utsah hota hai.

kar prashasan ka mahatv

kar vyavastha men kar prashasan ka mahatv bahut bada hai. kar prashasan ke bure hone par karon ke prati janata men ghrina aur krodh ki bhavana utpann hoti hai. isalie yah kaha gaya hai ki kar vyavastha ke achchhe ya bure hane men vidhayika ka hath 10 pratishat aur prashasan ka 90 pratishat rahata hai. kar nirdharan ki tin sthitiyan hoti hain. pahali sthiti men vidhayika kar ke niyam aur adhiniyam banati hai, jinake adhar par prashasan karanirdharan karata hai. doosari sthiti kar nirdharan ki hai, jisamen prashasak vyaktivishesh ki sthiti par dhyan dete hue vidhayika dvara nishchit kie hue niyamon evn adhiniyamon ke adhar par us vyakti vishesh ka kar bhar nirdharit karate hain. tisari sthiti kar ka udgrahan karane ki hai, jisamen nirdharit kar ko prashasan vyakti se udgrahit karata hai. kar n dene ki sthiti men kar pranali men dnd ka vidhan hota hai. dnd adhikatar arthik hota hai, kintu kinhin vishesh paristhitiyon men karagar bndi bana die jane ka bhi vidhan hota hai. kar nirdharan evn karodgrahan donon prashasan ka uttaradayitv hai. in karyon ka sucharu, nirbhik evn nyayapoorn dhng se snpadan karane men hi prashasan ki kushalata hai.[7]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. Quid por quo
  2. laisens
  3. taaul taiks
  4. haus taiks
  5. vatar taiks
  6. skaivenjing fi
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 kar nirdharan (hindi) bharatakoj. abhigaman tithi: 07 joon, 2014.
  8. Policy of Laissez-Faire

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