शम्भाजी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(शम्भुजी se punarnirdeshit)
shambhaji
sambhaji
poora nam sambhaji raje bhonsale
any nam shambhuji, shambhu raja
janm 14 mee, 1657
janm bhoomi purndar qila, pune, maharashtr
mrityu tithi 11 march, 1689 (ayu- 31 varsh)
mrityu sthan tulapur, pune, maharashtr
pita/mata shivaji aur see baee
pati/patni yesubaee
upadhi chhatrapati
shasan kal 20 julaee 1680 se 11 march 1689 tak
sha. avadhi 9 varsh
dharmik manyata hindoo dharm
poorvadhikari shivaji
uttaradhikari rajaram
vnsh maratha
any janakari dharm ke lie apane pranon ko nyochhavar karane vale, hindavi svarajy ka vistar kar poore hindustan men bhagava dhvaj phaharane ki ichchha rakhane vale shambhaji raja itihas men amar ho ge.

shambhaji / shnbhoo raje / shambhuji (angrezi: Sambhaji Bhosale, janm: 14 mee, 1657; mrityu: 11 march, 1689) shivaji ke jyeshth putr aur uttaradhikari the, jisane 1680 se 1689 ee. tak rajy kiya. shambhuji arambh se hi abhimani, krodhi evn bhog vilasi ho gaya tha. apani mrityu ke samay shivaji ne use panhala ke qile men qaid kar rakha tha. shambhuji men apane pita ki karmathata aur dridh snkalp ka abhav tha. vah vilas-premi tha, kintu usamen shaury ki kami n thi. 4 aprail, 1680 ee. ko shivaji ki mrityoparant unaki patni sooryabaee ne apane das varshiy putr rajaram ka aprail, 1680 ee. men rayagadh maharashtr men rajyabhishek kar diya, kintu shambhuji ne maratha senapati hamirarav mohite ko apane paksh men karake akraman kar diya. usane sooryabaee evn rajaram ko qaid kar liya aur rayagadh par adhikar karake 30 julaee, 1680 ee. ko apana rajyabhishek karavaya.

shambhaji ki niti

shambhuji ne nilopant ko apana peshava banaya. usane 1689 ee. tak shasan kiya. kalantar men shambhuji ke viruddh rajaram, sooryabaee aur annaji datto ne ek sngathan bana liya, parantu shambhuji ne is sngh ko barbaratapoorvak kuchalate hue sauteli man sooryabaee aur kuchh any mahattvapoorn maratha saradaron ki hatya karava di. shambhuji ne ujjain ke hindi evn snskrit ke prakand vidvan kavikalash ko apana salahakar niyukt kiya. aurngazeb ke vidrohi putr akabar ko sharan dene ke karan shambhuji ko mugal senaon ke akraman ka samana karana pada. lagabhag 9 varshon tak vah nirantar aurngazeb ki vishal senaon ka saphalatapoorvak samana karata raha.

shauryavan

snbhaji ne unhonne sahas evn nidarata ke sath aurngajeb ki ath lakh sena ka samana kiya tatha adhikansh mugal saradaron ko yuddh men parajit kar unhen bhagane ke lie vivash kar diya. 24 se 32 varshaki ayu tak shnbhoo raja ne mugalon ki pashvik shakti se ladaee ki evn ek bar bhi yah yoddha parajit nahin hua. isalie aurngajeb dirghakal tak maharashtr men yuddh karata raha. usake dabav se snpoorn uttar hindustan mukt raha. yadi unhonne aurngajeb ke sath samajhauta kiya hota athava usaka adhipaty svikar kiya hota to, vah do-tin varshon men hi pun: uttar hindustan men a dhamakata; parntu snbhaji raja ke sngharsh ke karan aurngajeb ko 27 varsh dakshin bharat men hi rukana pada. isase uttar men bundelakhnd, pnjab aur rajasthan men hinduon ki nee sattaen sthapit hokar hindoo samaj ko suraksha mili.

svarajy ka doosara chhatrapati

jyeshth shuddh 12 shake 1579, guruvar dinank 14 mee 1657 ko purndaragadh par svarajy ke doosare chhatrapati ka janm hua. shnbhoo raja ke janm ke do varsh pashchath inaki mata see baee ki mrityu ho gee evn raja matrisukh se vnchit ho ge. parntu jijaoo ne is abhav ki poorti ki. jis jijaoo ne shivaji ko taiyar kiya, usi jijaoo ne snbhaji raja par bhi snskar kie. snbhaji shakti snpannata evn roop saundary ki pratyaksh pratima hi the.

vishv ke pratham balasahityakar

14 varsh ki ayu tak budhabhooshanamh (snskrit), nayikabhed, satasatak, nakhashikh (hindi) ityadi grnthon ki rachana karane vale snbhaji vishv ke pratham balasahityakar the. marathi, hindi, farasi , snskrit, angrezi, kannad adi bhashaon par unaka prabhutv tha. jis teji se unhonne lekhani chalaee, usi teji se unhonne talavar bhi chalaee.

dharm parivartan ke virodh men kathor niti

‘marathon evn angrejon men 1684 men jo samajhauta hua, usamen chhatrapati snbhaji maharaj ne ek aisi shart rakhi thi ki angrejon ko mere rajy men das (gulam) banane athava eesaee dharm men kalnkit karane hetu logon ka kray karane ki anugya nahin milegi’[1]

hinduon ke shuddhikaran ke lie nirntar sajag

snbhaji maharaj ne ‘shuddhikaranake lie’ apane rajy men svatntr vibhag ki sthapana ki thi. chhatrapati snbhaji maharaj evn kavi kalash ne balapoorvak dharm parivartan kar musalaman banae ge harasul ke brahman gngadhar kulakarni ko shuddh kar punah hindoo dharm men parivartit karane ka sahas dikhaya. (yah ek sahas hi tha; kyonki us samay aise hinduon ko punah apane dharm men lene ke lie hinduon dvara hi atyadhik virodh hota tha. isalie gngadhar ko trynbakeshvar bhejakar vahan ki prayashchitt vidhi poori kara li gee. use shuddhipatr dekar apani pnkti men bhojan ke lie bithakar punarpravesh kara liya gaya.)’ snbhaji raja ki is udarata ke karan bahut se hindu punah svadharm men a ge.

purtagaliyon se mukabala

shambhaji ki pratima

phonda ka gadh purtagali-maratha sima par tha. gova ki purtagali satta ko ukasane tatha us satta ko poori tarah se ukhadane ke lie ghera dene ka jo prayas chhatrapati shivaji maharaj ne kiya tha, usamen phonda gadh ek mahattvapoorn duva tha. usaka nam tha ‘mardanagadh’ . purtagaliyon ne mardanagadh ke tat par topon ka varshav chaloo rakha. tat men aur ek darar padi. 9 navnbar ko purtagaliyon ne ghati se andar pravesh karane ka shadayntr racha. us samay snbhaji maharaj rajapur men the. unaka dhyan is ladaee par kendrit tha. maharaj ne phonda ke morache par svayn upasthit rahane ka nishchay kiya. ve shighrata se phonda pahunche. unaka hath evn eershya itani durdamy thi ki unhonne 800 savaron ki suraksha men 600 paidal sainikon ko bhali-bhanti kile men pahunchaya. purtagali unake dhairy evn nidar manasikata ko dekhate hi rah ge. unhen un par akraman karane ka bhan bhi nahin raha. snbhaji maharaj yuddh men sammilit hue, yah dekhate hi vaisaraauy ne apane man men aisa pakka nishchay kiya ki yah yuddh use bahut mahnga padega. maharaj ki upasthiti dekhakar marathon ko hosh aya. killedar yesaji knk chhatrapati shivaji maharaj ke samay ka yoddha tha. ab vah vriddh ho chuka tha; parntu usamen yuvak ko hatane ki shoorata, dhirata evn sudridhata thi. is vriddh yuvak ne parakram ki parakashtha ki usane apane ladake krishnaji ke sath chuninde sipahiyon ko sath lekar gadh ke bahar jakar purtagaliyon se ladaee ki. jinake sath ve lade, unako unhonne poori tarah parajit kiya; parntu is muthabhed men yesaji evn unake suputr krishnaji ko bhayanak chot lagi. 10 navnbar ko purtagaliyon ne lautana arnbh kiya. marathon ne un par chhape marakar unhen atyadhik pareshan kiya. top tatha bndookon ko pichhe chhodakar unhen palayan karana pada. chhatrapati snbhaji raja ki mrityu tak purtagali evn chhatrapati snbhaji donon men yuddh chaloo rah . tab tak marathon ne purtagaliyon ke niyntran men rahane vala jo pradesh jit liya tha, usaka bahut sa ansh marathon ke niyntranamen tha. gova ke gavarnar d rudrigu d kaausht 24 janavari 1688 ko purtagal ke raja ko likhate hain : ‘…chhatrapati snbhaji raja se chal raha yuddh ab tak samapt nahin hua. yah yuddh vaisaraauy kaaut d alver ke rajyakal men arnbh hua tha.’

bahanoee ganoji shirke ki beeemani ke karan gherav

yesubaee ke varishth bndhu arthat shnbhooraja ke bahanoee, ganoji shirke hindavi svarajy se beeeman ho ge. julfikar khan rayagadh par akraman karane a raha hai yah samachar milate hi shnbhooraja satara-vaee-mahad marg se hote hue rayagadh lautane vale the; parntu muqarrab khan kolhapur tak a pahuncha. isalie shnbhooraja ne sngameshvar marg ke chipalan-khed marg se rayagadh jane ka nishchay kiya. shnbhooraje ke svayn sngameshvar ane ki varta asapas ke kshetr men hava saman phail gee. shirke ke dngon ke karan uddhvast log apane parivar lekar snbhajiraja ke pas ane lage. janata ke parivar ko samajhakar unaka samadhan karane men unaka samay vyay ho gaya evn sngameshvar men 4-5 din tak nivas karana pada. udhar raja ko pata chala ki kolhapur se muqarrab khan nikalakar a raha hai. kolhapur se sngameshvar ki doori 90 mil thi tatha vah bhi sahyadri ki ghati se vyapt kathin marg tha. isalie nyoonatam 8-10 din ke antar vale sngameshvar ko beeeman ganoji shirke ne mukarr bakhan ko samip ke marg se keval 4-5 din men hi laya. snbhaji se pratishodh lene ke uddeshy se shirke ne beeemani ki thi tatha apani jagir prapt karane hetu yah kukarm kiya. atah 1 faravari 1689 ko muqarrab khan ne apani 3 hazar sena ki sahayata se shnbhoo raja ko gher liya.

gherav todane ka asaphal prayas

jab shnbhooraje ke dhyan men aya ki sngameshvar men jis saradesaee ke bade men ve nivas ke lie ruke the, us bade ko khan ne gher liya, to unako ashchary hua, kyonki unhen gyat tha ki itane alp dinon men khan ka vahan ana asnbhav tha; parntu yah chamatkar keval beeemani ka tha, yah bhi unake dhyan men aya. shnbhoo raja ne poorv se hi apani phauj rayagadh ke lie ravana ki thi tatha keval 400-500 sainy hi apane pas rakhe the. ab khan ka gherav tod kar rayagadh ki or prayan karana raja ke samaksh ekamatr yahi paryay shesh rah gaya tha; isalie raja ne apane sainikon ko shatruon par akraman karane ka adesh diya. is sthiti men bhi shnbhuraje, sntaji ghorapade evn khndoballaळ bina dagamagae shatru ka gherav todakar rayagadh ki disha men gati se nikale. durbhagyavash is ghamasan yuddh men maloji ghorapade ki mrityu ho gee; parntu snbhaji evn kavi kalash gherav men phns ge. is sthiti men bhi snbhaji ne apana ghoda gherav ke bahar nikala tha; parntu pichhe rahane vale kavi kalash ke dahine hath men muqarrab khan ka ban lagane se ve niche gire evn unhen bachane hetu raja punah pichhe mude tatha gherav men phns ge.

apanon ki beimani ke karan raj ka ghat

is avasar par anek sainikon ke mare jane ke karan unake ghode idhar-udhar bhag rahe the. sarvatr dhool ud rahi thi. kisi ko bhi spasht dikhaee nahin de raha tha. isaka labh uthakar shnbhoo ne punah saradesaee ke bade men pravesh kiya. vahan par matr unaka ghoda tha. dhool sthir hone par ganoji shirke ne shnbhooraja ke ghode ko pahachan liya; kyonki rajaon ke ghode ke panv men sone ka toda rahata tha, yah shirke ko gyat tha; isalie unhonne khan ki sena ko samip men hi snbhaji ko dhoondhane ki soochana ki. antat: muqarrab khan ke ladake ne arthat iravalas khan ne shnbhooraja ko niyntran men le liya. apanon ki beeemani ke karan ant men sinh ka shavak shatru ke hath lag hi gaya. jng pachhadakar bhi nirntar 9 varshon tak jo sat lakh sena ke hath nahin laga, jisane badashah ko kabhi svasth nahin baithane diya, aisa parakrami yoddha apane logon ki beeemani ke karan mugalon ke jal men phns gaya.

shambhuji ko dekhane ke lie mugal sena atur

sngameshvar se bahaduragadh ki doori lagabhag 250 mil ki hai; parntu muqarrab khan ne marathon ke bhay se keval 13 dinon men yah doori par ki evn 15 faravari 1689 ko shambhuji tatha kavi kalash ko lekar vah bahaduragadh men pravesh kiya. pakade ge snbhaji kaise dikhaee dete hain, yah dekhane ke lie mugal sena utsuk ho gee thi. aurngajeb ki chhavani arthat bazar bunagon ka vishal nagar hi tha. chhavani ka ghera 30 mil ka tha, jisamen 60 sahasr ghode, 4 lakh paidal, 50 sahasr oont, 3 sahasr hathi, 250 bazar peth tatha janavar kul milakar 7 lakh arthat bahut badi sena thi. isake pashchath bhi ayu ke 24ven se 32ven varsh tak shnbhuraja ne mugalon ki pashvik shakti se ladaee ki tatha yah yoddha ek bar bhi parajit n hua.

prakhar hindoo dharmabhimani

muqarrab khan ne shnbhu raja evn kavi kalash ko jer bnd kar hathi par bandha. snbhaji raja ka, vidushak ki vesh-bhoosha men, us samay chitrakar dvara banaya gaya chitr hath pairon ko lakadi men phnsakar raktarnjit avastha men, ahamadanagar ke sngrahalay men aj bhi dekha ja sakata hai. asnkhy yatanaen sahane vale yah hindoo raja chitr men atynt krodhit dikhaee dete hain. snbhaji raja ke svabhiman ka parichay is krodhit bhav bhngima se gyat hota hai. jis samay dharmavir chhatrapati snbhaji maharaj evn kavi kalash ko lekar muqarrab khan chhavani ke pas aya, us samay aurngajeb ne usake svagat ke lie saradar khan ko bheja. snbhaji maharaj vastav men pakade ge, yah dekhakar badashah ko atyannd hua. alla ke prati kritgyta vyakt karane hetu badashah takht se niche utara evn ghutane tekakar ‘rookata’ kahane laga. kavi kalash bajoo men hi khade the. yah drishy dekhakar shighr hi kavi kalash ne ek kavy kaha,

yavan ravan ki sabha snbhoo bndhyo bajarng .
lahoo lasat sindoorasam khub khelyo ranarng ..
jo ravi chhavi lachhat hi khadyot hot badarng .
tyo tuv tej nihari te takhat tyajyo avarng ..

arth : jis prakar ravan ki sabha men hanumanaji ko laya gaya tha, usi prakar snbhaji raja ko aurngajeb ke samaksh upasthit kiya gaya hai. jaise hanumanaji ki deh par sindoor shobhit hota hai, vaise hi bhishan yuddh men deh rakt se san gee hai. isalie he rajan, tujhe yah sushobhit kar raha hai. jis prakar sooraj ko dekhate hi juganoo ka prakash nasht hota hai, usi prakar tera tej dekhakar aurngajeb ne apane sinhasan ka tyag kiya hai. is kavita se apamanit hokar aurngajeb ne kavi kalash ki jibh katane ki agya di. badashah ke samaksh khada karane par ikhalas khan dvara bar bar abhivadan karane ko kahane par bhi shnbhu raja ne tanik bhi gardan nahin hilaee evn badashah ko thoda bhi mahattv nahin diya. isake viparit ve sntapt hokar badashah ki or dekh rahe the. sntapt badashah ne unhen usi avastha men karagrih men dalane ka adesh diya.

sharirik evn manasik yatanaen

shnbhooraja evn kavi kalash ki ankhon men tapati salakhen ghumakar unaki ankhen phodi gee. tatpashchath donon ki jihvaen kati gee. us din se donon ne ann-jal ka tyag kiya. musalamani sattaon ki parnpara ke anusar yah koee nee bat nahin thi. unako atynt kroorata evn nirdayata se shatru ka nash karane ki dharmagya hi hai; parntu ek svatntr raja ko aisi hi kroor paddhati se halahal karana amanaviyata ki charamasima hai. yah ghatana 17 faravari 1689 ko ghatit huee. taduparant kaviraja ke hath, panv aise ek-ek avayav tode ge evn ve rakt mans nadi ke kinare par phenke ge. pndhara mail ki paridhi men phaile is badashah ke tal par atyadhik sannata phaila tha. kavi kalash ko halahal kar mare jane ka samachar sarvatr phail gaya tha. manon kavi kalash par hone vale atyachar shnbhuraja par kie jane vale pratyek atyachar ka poorv prayog hi hota tha.

itihas men dharm ke lie amar

12 march 1689 ko gudi padava (navavarsharnbh) tha. hinduon ke tyauhar ke din unaka apaman karane ke lie 11 march phalgun amavasya ke din snbhaji rajaji ki hatya kar di gee. unaka mastak bhale ki nok par latakakar use sarv or ghumakar mugalon ne unaka atyadhik apaman kiya. is prakar 1 pharavari se 11 march tak 39 din yam yatana sahan kar snbhaji raja ne hindutv ke tej ko badhaya. dharm ke lie apane pranon ko nyochhavar karane vale, hindavi svarajy ka vistar kar poore hindustan men bhagava dhvaj phaharane ki ichchha rakhane vale snbhaji raja itihas men amar ho ge. aurngajeb itihas men rajadharm ko pairon tale raundane vala aparadhi ban gaya.

balidan ke pashchath maharashtr men kranti

snbhaji raja ke balidan ke karan maharashtr uttejit ho utha. aurngajeb ke sath marathon ka nirnayak sngharsh arnbh hua. ‘patte-patte ki talavar bani aur ghar-ghar kila ban gaya, ghar-ghar ki mataen, bahanen apane patiyon ko rajaji ke balidan ka pratishodh lene ko kahane lagin’ is prakar us kal ka saty varnan kiya gaya hai. snbhaji raja ke balidan ke karan marathon ka svabhiman pun: jagrit hua, maharani yesubaee, tara rani, sntaji ghorapade, dhanaji jadhav, ramachndrapnt amaty, shnkaraji narayan saman maratha vir-viranganaon ka uday hua. yah tin sau varsh poorv ke rashtrajivan ki atynt mahattvapoorn gatha hai. isase itihas ko ek naya mod mila. janata ki sahayata aur vishvas ke karan marathon ki sena badhane lagi aur sena ki snkhya do lakh tak pahunch gee. sabhi or pratyek star par mugalon ka ghor virodh hone laga. ant men 27 varsh ke nishphal yuddh ke uparant aurngajeb ka ant hua aur mugalon ki satta shakti kshin hone lagi evn hinduon ke shaktishali samrajy ka uday hua.[2]

hatya

yah sngharsh faravari, 1689 ee. men tab samapt hua, jab mugal senapati mukarrab khan ne sngameshvar men chhipe hue shambhuji evn kavi kalash ko giraftar kar liya. 21 march, 1689 ee. ko shambhuji ki hatya kar usaki khal men bhoosa bharava diya gaya. ise itihas ka ek barbar hatyakand mana jata hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. ‘shivaputr snbhaji’, lekhika – daau. (shrimati) kamal gokhale
  2. rashtr evn dharmake lie atmabalidan karanevale chhatrapati snbhaji maharaj ! (hindi) hindoo janajagriti samiti. abhigaman tithi: 31 janavari, 2015.

snbndhit lekh

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