ग्रेफाइट  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

grephait

grephait ko 'kala sisa' tatha 'plabago' bhi kaha jata hai. grephait karban ka khanij hai. grephait ki rasayanik prakriti san 1779 men ke. dabloo shole ne gyat ki aur isaka namakaran san 1789 men e. ji. varnar ne kiya. grephait shabd grik ke shabd grephi se liya gaya hai, jisaka arth hai 'main likhata hoon'. kayantarit shailon men milane vali karbanik snrachana men grephait ki prapti hoti hai. grephait ke sath silika evn siliket jaisi ashuddhiyan bhi payi jati hain. grephait ka upayog pensilon ki led banane tatha paramanu shakti ke riektaro men mandak ke roop men kiya jata hai.

utpadan

grephait ke pramukh utpadak rajy hain- jharakhand men sokara, khanadih tatha rajahara kshetr, udisa men kalahandi baboopali, dengasaragi, viliyanagoda, akhamalik kshetr tatha bolngiri, sammalapur, koraput, phoolabani tatha andhr pradesh men rampa, chodvaram[1], raindi bodiyar tatha haripuramh kshetr[2], khamamet [3], narasipattanam [4], saloor[5] tatha narasaropet [6]. arunachal pradesh[7], jammoo kashmir [8], madhy pradesh[9], keral [10] tatha uttar pradesh men bahut kam matra men grephait ka utpadan hua.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. poorv godavari
  2. pashchim godavari
  3. khammam
  4. vishakhapatanam
  5. shrikakulam
  6. guntoor
  7. lohit simant kshetr
  8. udi kshetr
  9. betul
  10. travanakor

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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