सिंधु घाटी सभ्यता  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(सिंधु सभ्यता se punarnirdeshit)
sindhu ghati sabhyata
sindh men mohanajodadon men hadappa snskriti ke avashesh
vivaran sabase pahale 1927 men 'hadappa' namak sthal par utkhanan hone ke karan 'sindhu sabhyata' ka nam 'hadappa sabhyata' pada. par kalantar men 'piggat' ne hadappa evn mohanajodadon ko ‘ek vistrit samrajy ki judava rajadhaniyan‘ batalaya.
khoj ka shrey is agyat sabhyata ki khoj ka shrey 'rayabahadur dayaram sahani' ko jata hai. unhonne hi puratattv sarvekshan vibhag ke mahanideshak 'sar jaaun marshal' ke nirdeshan men 1921 men is sthan ki khudaee karavayi.
kal 1920 eesa poorv ke dashak men sarvapratham hadappaee sabhyata ka gyan hua.
durg nagar ki pashchimi tile par sambhavatah suraksha hetu ek 'durg' ka nirman hua tha jisaki uttar se dakshin ki or lambaee 460 gaj evn poorv se pashchim ki or lambaee 215 gaj thi.
kala saindhav sabhyata ki kala men muharon ka apana vishisht sthan tha. ab tak qarib 2000 muharen prapt ki ja chuki hain. isamen lagabhag 1200 akele mohanajodado se prapt huee hain.
dharm hadappa tatha mohanajodado men asnkhyy deviyon ki moortiyan prapt huee hain. vidvanon ka anuman hai ki ye moortiyan matridevi athava prakriti devi ki hain. prachin kal se hi matri ya prakriti ki pooja bharatiy karate rahe hain aur adhunik kal men bhi kar rahe hain.
sindhu sabhyata sthal hadappa, mohanajodado, chanhoodadon, lothal, ropad, kalibnga, soorakotada, alamagirapur (merath), banavali (hariyana), dhaulavira, alimurad (sindh prant) adi
any janakari ab tak bharatiy upamahadvip men is sabhyata ke lagabhag 1000 sthanon ka pata chala hai jinamen kuchh hi paripakv avastha men prapt hue hain.

sindhu ghati sabhyata (angrezi:Indus Valley Civilization) vishv ki prachin nadi ghati sabhyataon men se ek pramukh sabhyata thi. yah hadappa sabhyata aur sindhu-sarasvati sabhyata ke nam se bhi jani jati hai. aj se lagabhag 79 varsh poorv pakistan ke 'pashchimi pnjab prant' ke 'mantagomari zile' men sthit 'hariyana' ke nivasiyon ko shayad is bat ka kinchitmatr bhi abhas nahin tha ki ve apane as-pas ki zamin men dabi jin eeton ka prayog itane dhadalle se apane makanon ke nirman men kar rahe hain, vah koee sadharan eeten nahin, balki lagabhag 5,000 varsh purani aur poori tarah vikasit sabhyata ke avashesh hain. isaka abhas unhen tab hua jab 1856 ee. men 'jaaun viliyam brantam' ne karachi se lahaur tak relave lain bichhavane hetu eeton ki apoorti ke in khandaharon ki khudaee prarambh karavayi. khudaee ke dauran hi is sabhyata ke pratham avashesh prapt hue, jise is sabhyata ka nam ‘hadappa sabhyata‘ ka nam diya gaya.

khoj

is agyat sabhyata ki khoj ka shrey 'rayabahadur dayaram sahani' ko jata hai. unhonne hi puratattv sarvekshan vibhag ke mahanideshak 'sar jaaun marshal' ke nirdeshan men 1921 men is sthan ki khudaee karavayi. lagabhag ek varsh bad 1922 men 'shri rakhal das banarji' ke netritv men pakistan ke sindh prant ke 'larakana' zile ke mohanajodado men sthit ek bauddh stoop ki khudaee ke samay ek aur sthan ka pata chala. is navinatam sthan ke prakash men ane k uparant yah man liya gaya ki snbhavatah yah sabhyata sindhu nadi ki ghati tak hi simit hai, atah is sabhyata ka nam ‘sidhu ghati ki sabhyata‘ (Indus Valley Civilization) rakha gaya. sabase pahale 1927 men 'hadappa' namak sthal par utkhanan hone ke karan 'sindhu sabhyata' ka nam 'hadappa sabhyata' pada. par kalantar men 'piggat' ne hadappa evn mohanajodadon ko ‘ek vistrit samrajy ki judava rajadhaniyan‘ batalaya.

kul 6 nagar

ab tak bharatiy upamahadvip men is sabhyata ke lagabhag 1000 sthanon ka pata chala hai jinamen kuchh hi paripakv avastha men prapt hue hain. in sthanon ke keval 6 ko hi nagar ki sngya di jati hai. ye hain -

  1. hadappa
  2. mohanajodado
  3. chanhoodadon
  4. lothal
  5. kalibnga
  6. hisar
  7. banavali

durg

nagar ki pashchimi tile par sambhavatah suraksha hetu ek 'durg' ka nirman hua tha jisaki uttar se dakshin ki or lambaee 460 gaj evn poorv se pashchim ki or lambaee 215 gaj thi. hvilar dvara is tile ko 'maunt e-bi' nam pradan kiya gaya hai. durg ke charon or qarib 45 phit chaudi ek suraksha prachir ka nirman kiya gaya tha jisamen jagah-jagah par phatakon ev rakshak grihon ka nirman kiya gaya tha. durg ka mukhy pravesh marg uttar evn dakshin disha men tha. durg ke bahar uttar ki or 6 mitar oonche 'eph' namak tile par paki eeton se nirmit atharah vrittakar chabootare mile hain jisamen pratyek chabootare ka vyas qarib 3.2 mitar hai chabootare ke madhy men ek bada chhed hain, jisamen lakadi ki okhali lagi thi, in chhedon se jau, jale gehoon evn bhoosi ke avashesh milate hain. is kshetr men shramik avas ke roop men pandrah makanon ki do pnktiyan mili hain jinamen sat makan uttari pnkti ath makan dakshini pnkti men mile hain. pratyek makan men ek angan evn qarib do kamare avashesh prapt hue hain. ye makan akar men 17x7.5 mitar ke the. chabootaron ke uttar ki or nirmit annagaron ko do pnktiyan mili hain, jinamen pratyek pnkti men 6-6 kamare nirmit hain, donon pnktiyon ke madhy qarib 7 mitar chauda ek rasta bana tha. pratyek annagar qarib 15.24 mitar lamba evn 6.10 mitar chauda hai.

vishesh imaraten

sindhu ghati pradesh men huee khudaee kuchh mahattvapoorn dhvnsavasheshon ke praman mile hain. hadappa ki khudaee men mile avasheshon men mahattvapoorn the -

  1. durg
  2. raksha-prachir
  3. nivasagrih
  4. chabootare
  5. annagar adi .

sabhyata ka vistar

ab tak is sabhyata ke avashesh pakistan aur bharat ke pnjab, sindh, baloochistan, gujarat, rajasthan, hariyana, pashchimi uttar pradesh, jammoo-kashmir ke bhagon men paye ja chuke hain. is sabhyata ka phailav uttar men 'jammoo' ke 'manda' se lekar dakshin men narmada ke muhane 'bhagatarav' tak aur pashchimi men 'makaran' samudr tat par 'sutkagenador' se lekar poorv men pashchimi uttar pradesh men merath tak hai. is sabhyata ka sarvadhik pashchimi purasthal 'sutkagenador', poorvi purasthal 'alamagir', uttari purasthal 'manda' tatha dakshini purasthal 'dayamabad' hai. lagabhag tribhujakar vala yah bhag kul qarib 12,99,600 varg kilomitar ke kshetr men phaila hua hai. sindhu sabhyata ka vistar ka poorv se pashchimi tak 1600 kilomitar tatha uttar se dakshin tak 1400 kilomitar tha. is prakar sindhu sabhyata samakalin misr ya 'sumeriyan sabhyata' se adhik vistrit kshetr men phaili thi.

sindhu sabhyata sthal

baloochistan

uttari baloochistan men sthit 'kveta' tatha 'janb' ki dhariyon men saindhav sabhyata se sambandhit koee bhi sthal nahin hai. kintu dakshini baloochistan men saindhav sabhyata ke kee purasthal sthit hain jisamen ati mahattvapoorn hai 'makaran tat'. makaran tat pradesh par milane vale anek sthalon men se puratatvik drishti se keval tin sthal mahattvapoorn hain-

  1. sutkagenador (dashk nadi ke muhane par)
  2. sutkakoh (shadikaur ke muhane par)
  3. balakot (vindar nadi ke muhane par)
  4. davarakot (son miyani khadi ke poorv men vidar nadi ke muhane par)
sindhu ghati sabhyata men sthit ek kuan aur snanaghar

uttar pashchimi simant

yahan sari samagri, 'gomal ghati' men kendrit pratit hoti hai jo afaganistan jane ka ek atynt mahattvapoorn marg hai. 'gumala' jaise sthalon par sindhu poorv sabhyata ke nikshepon ke oopar sindhu sabhyata ke avashesh prapt hue hain.

sindhu

inamen kuchh sthal prasiddh hain jaise - 'mohanajodadon', 'chanhoodadon', 'joodirojodadon', (kachchhi maidan men jo ki sibi aur jaikobabad ke bich sindhu ki badh ki mitti ka vistar hai) 'amari' (jisamen sindhu poorv sabhyata ke nikshep ke oopar sindhu sabhyata ke nikshep milate hain) 'kotadiji', 'alimurad', 'rahamanadheri', 'ranadhudee' ityadi.

pashchimi pnjab

is kshetr men bahut zyada sthal nahin hai. isaka karan samajh men nahin ata. ho sakata hai pnjab ki nadiyon ne apana marg badalate-badalate kuchh sthalon ka nasht kar diya ho. isake atirikt 'dera ismailakhana', 'jalilapur', 'rahamanadheri', 'gumala', 'chak-puravanasyal' adi mahattvapoorn purasthal hai.

bahavalapur

yahan ke sthal sookhi huee sarasvati nadi ke marg par sthit hain. is marg ka sthaniy nam ka ‘hakara‘ hai . 'ghagghar hamara' arthat sarasvati drishadvati nadiyon ki ghatiyon men hadappa snskriti ke sthalon ka sarvadhik snkendran (sarvadhik sthal) prapt hua hai. kintu is kshetr men abhi tak kisi sthal ka utkhanan nahin hua hai. is sthal ka nam 'kudavala ther' hai jo prakatatah bahut bada hai.

rajasthan

yahan ke sthal 'bahabalapur' ke sthalon ke nirntar kram men hain jo prachin sarasvati nadi ke sookhe hue marg par sthit hai. is kshetr men sarasvati nadi ko 'ghaghghar' kaha jata hai. kuchh prachin drishadvati nadi ke sookhe hue marg ke sath- sath bhi hai jise ab 'chaitag nadi' kaha jata hai. is kshetr ka sabase mahattvapoorn sthal 'kalibnga' hai. kalibnga namak purasthal par bhi pashchimi se gadhi aur poorv men nagar ke do tile, hadappa tatha mohanajodadon, ki bhanti vidyaman hai. rajasthan ke samast sindhu sabhyata ke sthal adhunik gnganagar zile men ate hain.

hariyana

hariyana ka mahattvapoorn sindhu sabhyata sthal hisar zile men sthit 'banavali' hai. isake atirikt 'mithatal', 'sisaval', 'vanavali', 'rakhigadh', 'vada tatha 'valoo' namak sthalon ka bhi utkhanan kiya ja chuka hai.

poorvi pnjab

is kshetr ke mahattvapoorn sthal 'ropad sndhol' hai. hal hi men chndigadh nagar men bhi hadappa snskriti ke nikshep paye gaye hain. isake atirikt 'kotalanihng khan', 'chak 86 vada', 'dher-majara' adi purasthalon se saindhav sabhyata se sambaddh puravashesh prapt hue hai.

gnga-yamuna doab

yahan ke sthal merath zile ke 'alamagir' tak phaile hue hain. ek any sthal saharanapur zile men sthit 'hulas' tatha 'badaganv' hai. hulas tatha badaganv ki ganana pashvarti sindhu sabhyata ke purasthalon men ki jati hai.

jammoo

is kshetr ke matr ek sthal ka pata laga hai, jo 'akhanoor' ke nikat 'bhanda' men hai. yah sthal bhi sindhu sabhyata ke paravarti charan se sambanghit hai.

sindhu ghati sabhyata kalin bartan

gujarat

1947 ke bad gujarat men saindhav sthalon ki khoj ke lie vyapak star par utkhanan kiya gaya. gujarat ke 'kachchh', 'saurashtr' tatha gujarat ke maidani bhagon men saindhav sabhyata se sambanghit 22 purasthal hai, jisamen se 14 kachchh kshetr men tatha shesh any bhagon men sthit hai. gujarat pradesh men ye pae ge pramukh purasthalon men 'rngapur', 'lapethal', 'padari', 'prabhas-patan', 'rajhadi', 'deshalapur', 'megham', 'vetelod', 'bhagavatarav', 'surakotada', 'nageshvar', 'kuntasi', 'shikarapur' tatha 'dhaulavira' adi hai.

maharashtr

pradesh ke 'dayamabad' namak purasthal se mitti ke thikare prapt hue hai jin par chiraparichit saindhav lipi men kuchh likha mila hai, kintu paryapt sakshy ke abhav men saindhav sabhyata ka vistar maharashtr tak nahin mana ja sakata hai. tamr moortiyon ka ek nidhan, jise prayah hadappa snskriti se sambaddh kiya jata hai, vah maharashtr aur dayamadabad namak sthan se prapt hua hai - isamen 'rath chalate manushy', 'sand', 'gainda', aur 'hathi' ki akriti pramukh hai. yah sabhi thos dhatu ki hai aur vajan kee kilo hai, isaki tithi ke vishay men viddhanon men matabhed hai.

afaganistan

hindukash ke uttar men afaganistan men sthit 'mundigak' aur 'sortagoee' do purasthal hai. mundigak ka utkhanan 'je.em. kaisal' dvara kiya gaya tha tatha sortagoee ki khoj evn utkhanan 'henari phrainkaphart' dvara karaya gaya tha. sortagoee lajavard ki prapti ke lie basayi gayi vyaparik basti thi.

kal nirdharan

saindhav sabhyata ke kal ko nirdharit karana niahsndeh bada hi kathin kam hai, phir bhi vibhinn viddhanon ne is vivadaspad vishay par apane vichar vyakt kiye hain. 1920 eesa poorv ke dashak men sarvapratham hadappaee sabhyata ka gyan hua.

  • hadappaee sabhyata ka kal nirdharan mukhy roop se 'mesopotamiya' men 'ur' aur 'kish' sthalon par pae ge hadappaee mudraon ke adhar par kiya gaya. is kshetr men sarvapratham prayas 'jaaun marshal' ka raha. unhonne 1931 ee. men is sabhyata ka kal 3250 ee.poo. 2750 ee.poo. nirdharit kiya.
  • hvilar ne isaka kal 2500 - 1500 ee.poo. mana hai. bad ke samay men kal nirdharan ki rediyo vidhi ka avishkar hua aur is vidhi se is sabhyata ka kal nirdharan is prakar hai-
  1. poorv hadappaee charan: lagabhag 3500-2600 ee.poo.
  2. paripakv hadappaee charan - lagabhag 2600-1900 ee.poo.
  3. uttar hadappaee charan: lagabhag 1900-1300 ee.poo.
  • rediyo karban ‘si-14‘ jaisi navin vishleshan paddhati ke dvara hadappa sabhyata ka sarvamany kal 2500 ee.poo. se 1750 ee.poo. ko mana gaya hai.
vibhinn viddhanon dvara sindhu sabhyata ka kal nirdharan
kal viddhan
1- 3,500 - 2,700 ee.poo. madhosvaroop vats
2- 3,250 - 2,750 ee.poo. jaaun marshal
3- 2,900 - 1,900 ee.poo. dels
4- 2,800 - 1,500 ee.poo. . arnest maike
5- 2,500 - 1,500 ee.poo. martimar hyilar
6- 2,350 - 1,700 ee.poo. si.je. gaid
7- 2,350 - 1,750 ee.poo. di.pi. agraval
8- 2,000 - 1,500 ee.poo. pheyar sarvis
sidhu sabhyata ke pramukh sthal evn usake khojakarta
pramukh sthal khojakarta varsh
1- hadappa madho svaroop vats, dayaram sahani 1921
2- mohanajodado rakhal das banarji 1922
3- ropad ygydatt sharma 1953
4- kalibnga brajavasi lal, amalanand ghosh 1953
5- lothal e. rnganath rav 1954
6- chanhoodadon en.gopal majoomadar 1931
7- soorakotada jagapati joshi 1964
8- banavali ravindr sinh visht 1973
9- alamagirapur ygydatt sharma 1958
10- rngapur madhosvaroop vats, rnganath rav 1931.-1953
10- kotadiji phazal ahamad 1953
11- sutkagenador aaurel stain, jarj eph. dels 1927
hadappakalin nadiyon ke kinare base nagar
nagar nadi/sagar tat
1- mohanajodado sindhu nadi
2- hadappa ravi nadi
3- ropad sataluj nadi
4- kalibnga ghagghar nadi
5- lothal bhogava nadi
6- sutkagenador dasht nadi
7- valakot arab sagar
8- sotkakoh arab sagar
9- alamagirapur hindan nadi
10- rngapur madar nadi
10- kotadiji sindhu nadi
hadappa sabhyata ke purasthal
purasthal sthan
1- hadappa sabhyata ka sarvadhik pashchimi purasthal satkagendor (baloochistan)
2- sarvadhik poorvi purasthal alamagirapur (merath)
3- sarvadhik uttar poorasthal manda (jammoo kashmir)
4- sarvadhik dakshini purasthal dayamabad (maharashtr)

sidhu sabhyata ke nirmata aur nivasi

yah atyant hi vivadagrast vishay hai. is vivad men kuchh viddhanon ke prakar hain-

  • 'daau. lakshman svaroop' aur 'ramachandr' sindhu sabhyata evn vaidik sabhyata donon ke nirmata ke roop men aryo ko manate hain.
  • 'gardan chaild' sindhu sabhyata ke nirmata ke roop men 'sumeriyan' logon ko manate hain.
  • 'rakhal das banarji' is sabhyata ke nirmata ke roop men dravidon ko manate hain
  • hvilar ka manana hai ki rigved men varnit dasyu evn ‘das‘ sindhu sabhyata ke nirmata the.
  • in samast vivadon ka avalokan karake 'daau. rama shnkar tripathi' ka kahana hai ki 'aitihasik gyan ki is sima par khade hokar abhi is vishay par hamara maun hi sarahy aur uchit hai.'

dharm

hadappa tatha mohanajodado men asnkhyy deviyon ki moortiyan prapt huee hain. vidvanon ka anuman hai ki ye moortiyan matridevi athava prakriti devi ki hain. prachin kal se hi matri ya prakriti ki pooja bharatiy karate rahe hain aur adhunik kal men bhi kar rahe hain. matridevi ki pooja faras se lekar yoonan ke nikat ijiyan sagar tak ke sabhi deshon ke prachin nivasiyon men prachalit thi. matridevi ki upasana log kis prakar karate the, isaka gyan hamen hadappa se papt ek muhar ke chitr se milata hai. is muhar ke chitr men ek nari bani huee hai, jisake pet se ek paudha nikalata dikhaya gaya hai, chakoo liye hue ek purush ka bhi chitr hai aur nari apane hathon ko oopar uthaye hue hai, jisaki shayad bali chadhaee jane vali hai.

abhi tak sindhu ghati ki khudaee men koee mandir ya pooja sthan nahin mila, at: is sabhyata ke dharmik jivan ka ekamatr srot yahan paee gee mitti aur patthar ki moortiyon tatha muharen hain. inase yah gyat hota hai ki yahan matridevi ki, pashupati shiv ki tatha usake ling ki pooja aur pipal, nim adi pedon evn nagadi jiv jntuon ki upasana prachalit thi. mohanajodado tatha hadappa men khadi huee ardhanagn nari ki bahut mrinmay moortiyan mili hain, inake sharir par chhota sa lahnga hai, jise kati pradesh par mekhala se bandha gaya hai. gale men har pada hua hai tatha mastak par pnkhe ke akar ki vichitr shirabhoosha hai. isake donon or pyale jaisa padarth hai, jisamen lage dhuen ke nishan se yah gyat hota hai ki inamen bhakton dvara devi ko prasann karane ke lie tel ya dhoop jalaya jata tha. is prakar ki moortiyan pashchimi eshiya men bhi mili hain. ye us samay ki matridevi ki upasana ki vyapakata ki soochit karati hain. aj bhi bharat ki sadharan janata men devi ki upasana bahut prachalit hai. in moortiyon ke bahut adhik matra men paye jane se yah kalpana ki gee hai ki vartaman kul devataon ki bhanti pratyek ghar men inaki pratishtha aur pooja ki jati thi. purush devataon men pashupati pradhan pratit hota hai. ek muhar men tin munh vala ek nagn vyakti chauki par padmasan lagakar baitha hua hai. isake charon or hathi tatha bail hain. chauki ke niche hiran hai, usake sir par sing aur vichitr shirobhoosha hai. isane hathon men choodiyan aur gale men har pahan rakha hai. yah moorti shiv ke pashupati roop ki samajhi jati hai. padmasan men dhyanavasthit mudra men isaki nasagr drishti shiv ke yogeshvar ya mahayogi roop ko soochit karati hai. tin any muharen pashupati ke is roop par prakash dalati hain. anek vidvanon ne mohanajodado ki ati prasiddh shaladharini moorti ka bhi yog se sambandh joda hai.[1]

saindhav sabhyata ki kala men muharon ka apana vishisht sthan tha. ab tak qarib 2000 muharen prapt ki ja chuki hain. isamen lagabhag 1200 akele mohanajodado se prapt huee hain. ye muhare belanakar, vargakar, ayatakar evn vrittakar roop men mili hain. muharon ka nirman adhikatar selakhadi se hua hai. is paki mitti ki moortiyon ka nirman 'chikoti paddhati' se kiya gaya hai. par kuchh muharen 'kachal mitti', gomed, chart aur mitti ki bani huee bhi prapt huee hain. adhikansh muharon par snkshipt lekh, ek shrringi, sand, bhains, bagh, gaida, hiran, bakari evn hathi ke chitr ukere gaye hain. inamen se sarvadhik akritiyan ek shrringi, sand ki mili hain. lothal or deshalapur se tanbe ki muhare mili hain.

shnku tatha belan ke akar ke pattharon se yah gyat hota hai ki us samay shiv ki moorti pooja ke atirikt ling pooja bhi prachalit thi. muharon par utkirn vibhinn prakar ke pedon ki tatha pashuon ki akriti se yah gyat hota hai ki us samay pipal aur nim ko pooja jata tha. pashuon men hathi, bail, bagh, bhainse, gainde aur ghadiyal ke chitr adhik mile hain. ajakal inamen se anek pashu devataon ke vahan roop men poojit hain. yah kahana kathi hai ki us samay inaki vahanon ke roop men pratishtha thi ya svatntr roop men. sanpon ko doodh pilane tatha pooja karane ka vichar bhi is sabhyata men tha. vir purushon ki pooja karane ka vichar bhi sambhavat: yahan tha. do baghon ke sath ladate hue ek purush ki sumer ke prasiddh vir gilagamesh ke sath tulana ki gee hai. soory pooja tatha svastik ke bhi chihn yahan paye ge hain. uparyukt upasy devataon ke atirikt inaki pooja vidhi ke sambandh men bhi kuchh manornjak kalpanaen ki gee hain. mitti ke ek tabij par ek vyakti ko dhol pitata hua tatha doosare vyakti ko nachate hue dikhaya gaya hai. aisa pratit hota hai ki vartaman kal ki bhanti us samay sngit aur nrity pooja ke ang the. mohanajodado ki nartaki ki prasiddh kansy moorti sambhavat: us samay devata ke sammukh nachane vali kisi devadasi ki pratima hai.

mukhy sthal

hadappa

hadappa 6000-2600 eesa poorv ki ek suvyavasthit nagariy sabhyata thi. mohanajodado, meharagadh aur lothal ki hi shrinkhala men hadappa men bhi purrattav utkhanan kiya gaya. yahan misr aur maisopotamiya jaisi hi prachin sabhyata ke avashesh mile hai. isaki khoj 1920 men ki gee. vartaman men yah pakistan ke pnjab prant men sthit hai. sanh 1857 men lahaur multan relamarg banane men hadappa nagar ki eeton ka istemal kiya gaya jisase ise bahut nuqasan pahuncha.

mohanajodado

pradhan anushthanakarta mohanajodado 2000 ee.poo.
  • mohan jodado, jisaka ki arth murdo ka tila hai 2600 eesa poorv ki ek suvyavasthit nagariy sabhyata thi.
  • hadappa, meharagadh aur lothal ki hi shrinkhala men mohan jodado men bhi purrattav utkhanan kiya gaya.
  • yahan misr aur maisopotamiya jaisi hi prachin sabhyata ke avashesh mile hai.

is sabhyata ke dhvnsavashesh pakistan ke sindh prant ke 'larakana zile' men sindhu nadi ke dahine kinare par prapt hue hain. yah nagar qarib 5 ki.mi. ke kshetr men phaila hua hai. mohanajodadon ke tilo ka 1922 ee. men khojane ka shrey 'rakhaladas banarji' ko prapt hua.

chanhoodadon

mohanajodado ke dakshin men sthit chanhoodadon namak sthan par muhar evn gudiyon ke nirman ke sath-sath haddiyon se bhi anek vastuon ka nirman hota tha. is nagar ki khoj sarvapratham 1931 men 'en.gopal majoomadar' ne kiya tatha 1943 ee. men 'maike' dvara yahan utkhanan karavaya gaya. sabase nichale star se 'saindhav snskriti' ke sakshy milate hain.

lothal

yah gujarat ke ahamadabad zile men 'bhogava nadi' ke kinare 'saragavala' namak gram ke samip sthit hai. khudaee 1954-55 ee. men 'rnganath rav' ke netritv men ki gee. is sthal se samakalin sabhyata ke panch star pae ge hain. yahan par do bhinn-bhinn tile nahin mile hain, balki poori basti ek hi divar se ghiri thi.

ropad

pnjab pradesh ke 'ropad zile' men sataluj nadi ke bane tat par sthit hai. yahan svatntrata prapti ke pashchath sarvapratham utkhanan kiya gaya tha. isaka adhunik nam 'roop nagar' tha. 1950 men isaki khoj 'bi.bi.lal' ne ki thi.

kalibnga (kale rng ki choodiyan)

yah sthal rajasthan ke gnganagar zile men ghagghar nadi ke baen tat par sthit hai. khudaee 1953 men 'bi.bi. lal' evn 'bi. ke. thapad' dvara karayi gayi. yahan par prakh hadappa evn hadappakalin snskriti ke avashesh mile hain.

nrityangana mohanajodado 2500 ee.poo.

soorakotada

  • yah sthal gujarat ke kachchh zile men sthit hai.
  • isaki khoj 1964 men 'jagapati joshi' ne ki thi is sthal se 'sindhu sabhyata ke patan' ke avashesh parilakshit hote hain.

alamagirapur (merath)

pashchim uttar pradesh ke merath zile men yamuna ki sahayak hindan nadi par sthit is purasthal ki khoj 1958 men 'ygy datt sharma' dvara ki gayi.

rngapur (gujarat)

  • gujarat ke kathiyavad pray:dvip men bhadar nadi ke samip sthit is sthal ki khudaee 1953-54 men 'e. rnganath rav' dvara ki gee.
  • yahan par poorv hadappa kalin saskriti ke avashesh mile hain.
  • yahan mile kachchi eeton ke durg, naliyan, mridabhand, bant, patthar ke phalak adi mahattvapoorn hain.
  • yahan dhan ki bhoosi ke dher mile hain.
  • yahan uttarottar hadappa snskriti ke sakshy milate hain.

banavali (hariyana)

  • hariyana ke hisar zile men sthit do sanskritik avasthaon ke avashesh mile hain.
  • hadappa poorv evn hadappakalin is sthal ki khudaee 1973-74 ee. men 'ravindr sinh visht' ke netritv men ki gayi.

alimurad (sindh prant)

  • sindh prant men sthit is nagar se kuan, mitti ke bartan, karniliyan ke manake evn pattharon se nirmit ek vishal durg ke avashesh mile hain.
  • isake atirikt is sthal se bail ki laghu mrinmoorti evn kanse ki kulhadi bhi mili hai.

sutkagenador (dakshin baloochistan)

  • yah sthal dakshin baloochistan men dasht nadi ke kinare sthit hai.

hadappakalin sabhyata se sambandhit kuchh navin kshetr

kharvi (ahamadabad)

  • ahamadabad se 114 kilomitar ki doori par sthit is sthan se hadappakalin mridabhand evn tamr abhooshan ke avashesh mile hai.

kunutasi (gujarat)

  • gujarat ke rajakot zile men sthit is sthal ki khudaee 'em.ke. dhavalikar', 'em.ar.ar. raval' tatha 'vaee.em. chitalavas' dvara karavaee gee.

dhaulavira

  • is sthal ki khudaee se vishal saindhav kalin nagar ke avashesh ka pata chalata hai.

kotadiji (sindh prant)

  • sindh prant ke 'khairapur' namak sthan par yah sthal sthit hai.
  • sarvapratham isaki khoj 'dhurye' ne 1935 ee. men ki .
  • niyamit khudaee 1953 ee. men phazal ahamad khan dvara sampann karayi gayi.

balakot (baloochistan)

  • nalakot se lagabhag 90 kimi ki doori par baloochistan ke dakshini tatavarti par balakot sthit tha.
  • isaka utkhanan 1963-1970 ke bich 'jaaurj eph.dels' dvara kiya gaya .

allahadinon (arab mahasagar)

  • allahadinon sindhu aur arab mahasagar ke sngam se lagabhag 16 kilomitar uttar-poorv tatha karachi se poorv men sthit hai.
  • 1982 men 'pheyar sarvis' ne yahan par utkhanan karavaya tha.

manda

  • chenab nadi ke dakshini kinare par sthit yah vikasit hadappa snskriti ka sabase uttari sthal hai.
  • isaka utkhanan 1982 men 'je.pi. joshi' tatha 'madhubala' dvara karavaya gaya tha.
  • utkhanan se prapt yahan se tin sanskritik star
  1. prakh saindhav,
  2. vikasit saindhav, tatha
  3. uttar kalin saindhav prakash men ae.
  • yahan vishesh prakar ke mridabhand (mitti ke bartan), gair hadappa se sambaddh kuchh thikara pakki mitti ki pindikaen (terakota kek) adi prapt hue hai.

bhagavanapura (hariyana)

desalapur (gujarat)

  • gujarat ke bhuj zile men sthit 'desalapur' ki khudaee 'pi.pi. pandya' aur 'ek. ke. dhake' dvara kiya gaya .
  • bad men 'saunadararajan' dvara bhi utkhanan kiya gaya.

rojadi (gujarat)

kansyayugin dhaulavira

hadappa sabhyata‘ ke purasthalon men ek navin kadi ke roop men judane vala purasthal dhaulavira kachchh ke ran ke madhy sthit dvip 'khadir' men sthit hai. is dvip ke samip hi 'surkhav'- shahar sthit hai. dhaulavir ganv 'khadir dvip' ki uttari-pashchimi sima par basa hai. dhaulavira purasthal ki khudaee men mile avasheshon ka prasar 'manahar' evn 'manasar' namak nalon ke bich men hua tha. dhaulavira namak hadappaee snskriti vale is nagar ki yojana samanantar chaturbhuj ke roop men ki gayi thi. is nagar ki lambaee poorab se pashchim ki or hai. nagar ke charon taraph ek mazaboot divar ke nirman ke sakshy mile hain. nagar ke mahaprasad vale bhag ke uttar men ek vistrit sampoorn evn vyapak samatal maidan ke avashesh mile hain. isake uttar men nagar ka madhyam bhag hai jise 'pur' ki sngya di gayi thi. isake poorv men nagar ka tisara mahattvapoorn bhag sthit hai jise 'nichala shahar' ya phir 'avam nagar' kaha jata hai


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tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. dharmik jivan (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 16 julaee, 2013.

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