पृथ्वीराज रासो  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

prithviraj raso
prithviraj raso
kavi chndabaradaee
mool shirshak prithviraj raso
mukhy patr prithviraj chauhan
desh bharat
shaili kavy
vishay jivan charitr ka varnan
vidha mahakavy
vishesh 'prithviraj raso' vir ras ka hindi ka sarvashreshth kavy hai.

prithviraj raso hindi bhasha men likha gaya ek mahakavy hai, jisamen prithviraj chauhan ke jivan-charitr ka varnan kiya gaya hai. yah kavi chndabaradaee ki rachana hai, jo prithviraj ke abhinn mitr tatha rajakavi the. isamen dillishvar prithviraj ke jivan ki ghatanaon ka vishad varnan hai. yah ek vishal mahakavy hai. yah terahavin shati ki rachana hai. daau. mataprasad gupt ise 1400 vi. ke lagabhag ki rachana manate hain. prithviraj raso ki aitihasikata vivadagrast hai.[1]

hindi sahity ka mahakavy

is pustak ke bare men sndeh yah hai ki yah rachana 'dingal' ki hai athava 'pingal' ki. yah grnth ek se adhik rachayitaon ka ho sakata hai. 'prithviraj raso' dhaee hazar prishthon ka sngrah hai. isamen prithviraj v unaki premika snyogita ke parinay ka sundar varnan hai. yah grnth aitihasik kam kalpanik adhik hai. 'prithviraj raso' tatha 'alhakhand' hindi sahity ke adi kal ke do prasiddh mahakavy hain. prithviraj raso ko ham sahityik parampara ka vikasanashil mahakavy aur alhakhand ko lok-mahakavy ki sngya de sakate hain. raso ka vrihattam roopantar jo nagaripracharini sabha se prakashit hai, 69 samay (sarg) ka vishal granth hai. isamen antim hindoo samrat prithviraj chauhan ke jivan-vritt ke sath samanti vir-yug ki sabhyata, rahan-sahan, man-maryada, khan-pan tatha any jivan-vidhiyon ka itana kramavar aur sahi varnan hua hai ki isamen tatkalin samagr yugajivan apane samast gun-doshon ke sath yatharth roop men chitrit ho utha hai.

vivaran

adhyatm, rajaniti, dharm, yog, kamashastr, mantr-tantr, yuddh, vivah, mrigay, mantrana, dauty, manaviy saundary, sngit-nrity, van upavan-vihar, yatra, pashu-pakshi, vriksh, phal-phool, pooja-upasana, tirth-vrat, devata-muni, svarg, raj-darabar, ant:pur, udyan goshthi, shastrarth, vasantotsav tatha samajik tatha samajik riti-rivaj – tatpary yah ki tatkalin jivan ka koee pahaloo aisa nahin bacha hai, jo rason men n aya ho. kintu in vishayon men bhi yugapravritti ke anusar sabase adhik ubhar mila hai yuddh, vivah, bhog vilas tatha mrigaya ke hi varnanon ko aur yahi karan hai ki 'prithviraj raso' men charitry ki vah garima nahin a payi hai, jo adarsh mahakavy ke lie avashyak hain.

mahakavy ka vishay

raso ke 65 ven sarg men prithviraj ki raniyon ke nam ginayen gaye hain, jinaki snkhya terah hai. inamen se keval char ke vivah ubhay paksh ki svechchha se hue, shesh sabako balat haran kiya gaya tha, jinake lie yuddh bhi karane pade the. in vivahon ke varnan rason men atyadhik vistar se milate hain, jisase gyat hota hai ki ye hi ukt mahakavy ke pramukh vishay hai.

rajanitik sthiti ka varnan

shahabuddin gauri ke akramanon ke samay prithviraj itana vilasi ho gaya tha ki snyogita ke mahal se bahar nikalata hi nahin tha. usaki sahayata ke lie raval samar sinh dilli akar thaharate the, kintu prithviraj ko isaki soochana lene ki bhi phursat nahin thi. praja men kasht aur asantosh badhata gaya. ant men vah shahabuddin dvara bandi banakar gazani le jaya jata hai, jahan chndabaradaee ke snketon se gauri ko bindhakar svayn bhi mar jata hai. is prakar raso hamare patan aur gam ki kahani hai.

kathanak ki shithilata

rason men kathanak ki shithilata, vishrrinkhalata tatha asantulit yojana bhi atyadhik khatakati hai. kathanak ka jo ek kshin tantu hai, vah bhi bich-bich men vivah, mrigaya adi ke uba dene vale lambe varnanon ke karan toot jata hai. kathanak men sunishchit yojana tatha samanupatik snghatan ke abhav ka karan kadachit yah bhi hai ki usake vartaman roopantar men mool rachana ke atirikt prakshep bhi atyadhik pariman men hue hain. at: 'prithviraj raso' utkrisht koti ke mahakavyon ki shreni men rakhen jane ke yogy nahin jan padata.

ramachndr shukl ke anusar

ramachandr shukl ne 'hindi sahity ka itihas' men likha hai - 'prithviraj raso dhaee hazar prishthon ka bahut bada grnth hai jisamen 69 samay (sarg ya adhyay) hain. prachin samay men prachalit pray: sabhi chhndon ka vyavahar hua hai. mukhy chhnd hain kavitt (chhappay), dooha, tomar, trotak, gaha aur arya. jaise kadnbari ke snbndh men prasiddh hai ki usaka pichhala bhag ban ke putr ne poora kiya hai vaise hi raso ke pichhale bhag ka bhi chnd ke putr 'jalhan' dvara poorn kiya jana kaha jata hai.' raso ke anusar jab shahabuddin gauri prithviraj ko kaid karake gajani le gaya tab kuchh dinon pichhe chnd bhi vahin ge. jate samay kavi ne apane putr jalhan ke hath men raso ki pustak dekar use poorn karane ka snket kiya. jalhan ke hath men raso ko saunpe jane aur usake poore kie jane ka ullekh raso men hai -

pustak jalhan hatth dai chali gajjan nripakaj.
raghunathacharit hanumntakrit bhoop bhoj uddh riy jimi.
prithirajasujas kavi chnd krit chndannd uddh riy timi

kathanak

prithviraj raso men aboo ke ygykund se char kshatriy kulon ki utpatti tatha chauhanon ke ajamer men rajasthapan se lekar prithviraj ke pakade jane tak ka savistar varnan hai. is grnth ke anusar prithviraj ajamer ke chauhan raja someshvar ke putr aur arnoraj ke pautr the. someshvar ka vivah dilli ke tunvar (tomar) raja anngapal ki kanya se hua. anngapal ki do kanyaen thin sundari aur kamala. sundari ka vivah kannauj ke raja vijayapal ke sath hua aur is snyog se jayachnd rathaur ki utpatti huee. doosari kanya kamala ka vivah ajamer ke chauhan someshvar ke sath hua jinake putr prithviraj hue. anngapal ne apane nati prithviraj ko god liya jisase ajamer aur dilli ka raj ek ho gaya.

snyogita ka svaynvar

jayachnd ko yah bat achchhi n lagi. usane ek din rajasooy ygy karake sab rajaon ko ygy ke bhinn-bhinn kary karane ke lie nimntrit kiya aur is ygy ke sath hi apani kanya snyogita ka svaynvar racha. rajasooy ygy men sab raja ae par prithviraj nahin ae. isapar jayachnd ne chidhakar prithviraj ki ek svarnamoorti dvarapal ke roop men dvar par rakhava di. snyogita ka anurag pahale se hi prithviraj par tha, at: jab vah jayamal lekar rngabhoomi men aee tab usane prithviraj ki moorti ko hi mala pahana di. is par jayachnd ne use ghar se nikalakar gnga kinare ke mahal men bhej diya. idhar prithviraj ke samnton ne akar ygy vidhvns kiya. phir prithviraj ne chupachap akar snyogita se gndharv vivah kiya aur ant men ve use har le ge. raste men jayachnd ki sena se bahut yuddh hua, par snyogita ko lekar prithviraj kushalatapoorvak dilli pahunch ge. vahan bhogavilas men hi unaka samay bitane laga, rajy ki raksha ka dhyan n rah gaya.

aitihasikata ka abhav

bal ka bahut kuchh hras to jayachnd tatha aur rajaon ke sath ladate-ladate ho chuka tha aur bade-bade samnt mare ja chuke the. achchha avasar dekh shahabuddin chadh aya, par har gaya aur pakada gaya. prithviraj ne use chhod diya. vah bar-bar chadhaee karata raha aur ant men prithviraj pakadakar gajani bhej die ge. kuchh kal ke pichhe kavi chnd bhi gajani pahunche. ek din chnd ke ishare par prithviraj ne shabdabedhi ban dvara shahabuddin ko mara aur phir donon ek-doosare ko marakar mar ge. shahabuddin prithviraj ke bair ka karan yah likha gaya hai ki shahabuddin apane yahan ki ek sundari par asakt tha, jo ek-doosare pathan saradar husainashah ko chahati thi. jab ye donon shahabuddin se tng hue tab harakar prithviraj ke pas bhag ae. shahabuddin ne prithviraj ke yahan kahala bheja ki un donon ko apane yahan se nikal do. prithviraj ne uttar diya ki sharanagat ki raksha karana kshatriyon ka dharm hai, at: in donon ki ham barabar raksha karenge. isi bair se shahabuddin ne dilli par chadhaiyan kin. yah to prithviraj ka mukhy charitr hua. isake atirikt bich-bich men bahut-se rajaon ke sath prithviraj ke yuddh aur anek rajakanyaon ke sath vivah ki kathaen raso men bhari padi hain. oopar likhe vrittant aur raso men die hue snvaton ka aitihasik tathyon ke sath bilkul mel n khane ke karan anek vidvanon ne prithviraj raso ko prithviraj ke samasamayik kisi kavi ki rachana hone men poora sndeh kiya hai aur use solahavin shatabdi men likha hua ek jali grnth thaharaya hai. raso men chngej, taimoor adi kuchh pichhe ke nam ane se yah sndeh aur bhi pusht hota hai. prasiddh itihasgy rayabahadur pndit gaurishnkar hirachnd ojha 'raso' men varnit ghatanaon tatha snvaton ko bilkul bhaton ki kalpana manate hain.[2]

kavy visheshataen

'prithviraj raso' vir ras ka hindi ka sarvashreshth kavy hai. hindi sahity men vir charitron ki jaisi vishad kalpana is kavy men mili vaisi bad men kabhi nahin dikhaee padi. pathak rachana bhar men utsah ki ek umadati huee sarita men bahata chalata hai. kannauj yuddh ke poorv snyogita ke anurag aur virah tatha ukt yuddh ke anntar prithviraj chauhan aur snyogita ke milan aur keli vilas ke jo chitr rachana men milate hain, ve atynt akarshak hain. any rason ka bhi kavy men abhav nahin hai. rachana ka varnanavaibhav asadharan hai; nayak nayika ke snbhog samay ka shadhritu varnan kahin kahin par snshlisht prakriti chitran ke sundar udaharan prastut karata hai. bhasha-shaili sarvatr prabhavapoorn hai aur varny vishay ke anuroop kavy bhar men badalati rahati hai. rachana ke in samast gunon par drishtipat kiya jae to vah ek sundar mahakavy pramanit hota hai aur ni:sndeh adhunik bharatiy aryabhasha sahity ke adi yug ki vishisht kriti thaharati hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. raso kavy : viragathayen (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 15 mee, 2011.
  2. hindi sahity ka itihas, viragatha kal (snvath 1050 - 1375) adhyay 3, lekhak - ramachandr shukl
  • snkshipt prithviraj raso: sn. hajariprasad dvivedi tatha namavar sinh, sahity bhavan li., prayag;
  • prithviraj raso : sn. kaviray mohan, sahity snsthan, snsthan, rajasthan vishv vidyapith, udayapur.
  • prithviraj-vijay : sn. gaurishnkar hirachnd ojha, ajamer ;
  • surjan charit mahakavy (chndrashekhar krit) sn. da. chndradhar sharma, hindoo vishvavidyalay, varanasi;

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