भारत का विभाजन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bharat ka vibhajan
bharat ka manachitr
vivaran is vibhajan ke antargat n keval bharatiy up-mahadvip ke do tukade kiye gaye balki bngal ka bhi vibhajan kiya gaya aur bngal ke poorvi hisse ko bharat se alag kar poorvi pakistan (vartaman bangladesh) bana diya gaya.
ghoshana tithi 14 agast, 1947 ko pakistan (muslim rashtr) evn san 15 agast, 1947 ko bharat (ripablik aauf indiya) men karane ki ghoshana laaurd maunt betan ne ki.
mukhy vyakti laaurd mauntabetan, siril raidaklif, mohammad ali jinna, javaharalal neharoo, mahatma gandhi
snbndhit lekh bharatiy rashtriy kangres, muslim lig, hindoo mahasabha, akhandit bngal, akhandit pnjab
any janakari is vibhajan men sabase ahamh vyakti 'siril raidaklif' the jinhen british hukoomat ne bharat-pakistan ke vibhajan rekha ki jimmedari saunpi thi. isilie bharat-pakistan vibhajan rekha ko 'raidaklif rekha' kaha jata hai.
bharat ka vibhajan aur do ne rajyon/rashtron ka nirman san 14 agast, 1947 ko pakistan (muslim rashtr) evn san 15 agast, 1947 ko bharat (ripablik aauf indiya) men karane ki ghoshana laaurd mauntabetan ne ki. is vibhajan men n keval bharatiy up-mahadvip ke do tukade kiye gaye balki bngal ka bhi vibhajan kiya gaya aur bngal ke poorvi hisse ko bharat se alag kar poorvi pakistan (vartaman bangladesh) bana diya gaya. vahin pnjab ka vibhajan kar pakistan ka nirman hua. is vibhajan men relave, fauj, aitihasik dharohar, kendriy rajasv, sabaka barabari se bntavara kiya gaya. bharatiy mahadvip ke is vibhajan men jin mukhy logon ne hissa liya vo the mohammad ali jinna, laaurd maunt betan, siril raidaklif, javaharalal neharoo, mahatma gandhi evn donon sngathanon (bharatiy rashtriy kangres evn muslim lig) ke kuchh mukhy karyakartagan. in sab men sabase ahamh vyakti the siril raidaklif (Cyril Radcliffe) jinhen british hukoomat ne bharat-pakistan ke vibhajan rekha ki jimmedari saunpi thi.
15 agast, 1947 ka akhabar

muslim rashtr ki mang

is vibhajan ka jo mukhy karan diya ja raha tha vo tha ki hindoo bahusnkhyak hai aur azadi ke bad yahan bahusnkhyak log hi sarakar banayenge tab mohammad ali jinna ko yah khyal aya ki bahusnkhyak ke rajy men rahane se alpasnkhyak ke sath nainsafi ya unhen nazarandaz kiya ja sakata hai to unhonne alag se muslim rashtr ki mang shuroo ki. bharat ke vibhajan ki mang varsh dar varsh tej hoti gee. bharat se alag muslim rashtr ke vibhajan ki mang san 1920 men pahali bar uthaee aur 1947 men use prapt kiya. 15 agast 1947 ke din bharat ko hindoo sikh bahusnkhyak evn muslim alpasnkhyak rashtr ghoshit kar diya gaya. 1920 se 1932 men bharat pakistan vibhajan ki ninv rakhi gee. pratham bar muslim rashtr ki mang alama iqabal ne 1930 men muslim lig ke adhyakshiy bhashan men kiya tha. 1930 men hi mohammad ali jinna ne sare akhnd bharat ke alpasnkhyak samuday ko bharose men le liya aur kaha ki bharat ke mukhyadhara ki parti kangres muslim hiton ki anadekhi kar rahi hai. isake bad 1932 se 1942 tak men vibhajan ki bat bahut age tak nikal gee thi, halanki hindoovadi sngathan hindoo mahasabha desh ka vibhajan nahin chahate the parantu vah hindoo aur muslim ke bich ke farq ko banaye rakhana chahate the. san 1937 men hindoo mahasabha ke 19ven adhiveshan men vir savarakar ne apane adhyakshiy bhashan men kaha ki bharat ek sajatiy evn ekajut rashtr ho sakata hai apitu do alag-alag hindoo evn muslim rashtr ke. in sab koshishon ke bavajood bhi 1940 men muslim lig ke lahaur adhiveshan men mohammad ali jinna ne spasht kar diya ki unhen muslim rashtr chahie aur is mudde par lig ne bina kisi hichakichahat ke bola ki hindoo aur muslim do alag-alag dharm hai, alag riti-rivaj, alag snskriti hai aur aise men do alag rashtron ko ekajut rakhana khasakar tab jab ek dharm alpasnkhyak ho aur doosara dharm bahusnkhyak, yah sab karan alpasnkhyak samaj men asntosh paida karega aur rashtr men aur sarakaron ke kary men avarodh paida karega.[1]

kangres ke kaibinet ka bahishkar

1946 men muslim lig dvara 'dayarekt ekshan de' (“Direct Action Day”) bulae jane par jo hua us ghatana se sare rajanitik evn donon samuday ke neta ghabara gaye the. is ghatana ke karan uttar bharat aur khas kar bngal men akrosh badh gaya aur rajanitik partiyon par donon rashtr ke vibhajan ka khatara badh gaya. 16 agast 1946 ke 'dayarekt ekshan de' (“Direct Action Day”) ko “Great kolkata Riot” ke nam se bhi jana jata hai. 16 agast 1946 ko muslim lig ne am hadatal bulaee thi jisamen mukhy mudada tha tha 'kangres ke kaibinet ka bahishkar' aur apani alag rashtr ki mang ki davedari ko aur majaboot karana. 'dayarekt ekshan de' ke hadatal ke dauran kalakatta men dnga bhadak gaya jisamen muslim lig samarthakon ne hinduon evn sikhon ko nishana banaya jisake pratirodh men kangres samarthakon ne bhi muslim lig karyakartaon ke oopar hamala bol diya. usake bad yah hinsa bngal se bahar nikal bihar tak men phail gee. keval kalakatta ke andar men 72 ghnte ke andar men 4000 log mare ge aur qarib 1 ,00 ,000 log beghar ho ge. in sab ke bad bahut se kangresi neta bhi dharm ke nam par bharat vibhajan ke virodh men the. mahatma gandhi ne vibhajan ka virodh karate hue kaha mujhe vishvas hai ki donon dharm ke log (hindoo aur musalaman) shanti aur sohard bana kar ek sath rah sakate hain. meri atma is bat ko asvikar karati hai ki hindoo dharm aur islam dharm donon alag snskriti aur siddhaton ka pratinidhitv karate hain. mujhe is tarah ke siddhant apanane ke lie mera bhagavan anumati nahin deta par abatak angrez apane makasad men kamayab ho chuke the.[1]

indiyan indipendens ekt (Indian Independence Act)

'dayarekt ekshan de' ke hadase ke bad sabako lagane laga tha ki ab akhnd bharat ka vibhajan kar dena chahie. do ne rajyon/rashtron ka vibhajan mauntabeten plan ke anusar kiya gaya. 18 julaee, 1947 ko british snsad dvara “Indian Independence Act” pas kiya gaya jisamen vibhajan ki roop rekha taiyar ki gee thi aur ant 1947 men is ACT ko british snsad adhikarik taur par parit kiya gaya aur bharat evn pakistan ko svatntr rashtr ghoshit kiya gaya.

gandhi ji ki hatya

svadhin bharat ko jin samasyaon ka samana karana pada, ve saral nahin thin. use sabase pahale sampradayik unmad ko shant karana tha. bharat ne janaboojhakar dharm nirapeksh rajy banana pasnd kiya. usane ashvasan diya ki jin musalamanon ne pakistan ko nirgaman karane ke bajay bharat men rahana pasnd kiya hai unako nagarikata ke poorn adhikar pradan kiye jayenge. halanki pakistan janaboojhakar apane yahan se hinduon ko nikal bahar karane athava jin hinduon ne vahan rahane ka phaisala kiya tha, unako ek prakar se dvitiy shreni ka nagarik bana dene ki niti par chal raha tha. laaurd mauntabeten ko svadhin bharat ka pahala gavarnar janaral banaye rakha gaya aur pndit javahar lal neharoo tatha antarim sarakar men unake kangrasi sahayogiyon ne thode se herapher ke sath pahale bharatiy mntrimndal ka nirman kiya. is mntrimndal men saradar patel tatha maulana abulakalam azad ko to sammilit kar liya gaya tha, parantu netaji ke bade bhaee sharatachndr bos ko chhod diya gaya. 30 janavari 1948 ee. ko nathooram godase namak hindoo ne rashtrapita mahatma gandhi ki hatya kar di. sara desh shok ke sagar men doob gaya. nau mahine ke bad, pakistan ke pahale gavarnar janaral muhammad ali jinna ki bhi mrityu ho gayi. usi varsh laaurd mauntabeten ne bhi avakash grahan kar liya aur chakravarti rajagopalachari bharat ke pratham aur antarim gavarnar janaral niyukt hue.

riyasaton ka vilay

adhikansh deshi riyasaton ne, jinake samane bharat athava pakistan men vilay ka prastav rakha gaya tha, bharat men vilay ke paksh men nirnay liya, parantu, do riyasaton- kashmir tatha haidarabad ne koee nirnay nahin kiya. pakistan ne balapoorvak kashmir ki riyasat par adhikar karane ka prayas kiya, parantu aktoobar 1947 ee. men kashmir ke maharaj ne bharat men vilay ki ghoshana kar di aur bharatiy senaon ko vayuyanon se bhejakar shrinagar sahit kashmiri ghati tak jammoo ki raksha kar li gayi. pakistani akramanakariyon ne riyasat ke uttari bhag par apana qabza banaye rakha aur isake phalasvaroop pakistan se yuddh chhid gaya. bharat ne yah mamala snyukt rashtr sngh men uthaya aur snyukt rashtr sngh ne jis kshetr par jisaka qabza tha, usi ke adhar par yuddh viram kar diya. vah aj tak is saval ka koee nipatara nahin kar saka hai. haidarabad ke nizam ne apani riyasat ko svatntrata ka darja dilane ka shadayntr racha, parantu bharat sarakar ki pulis karravaee ke phalasvaroop vah 1948 ee. men apani riyasat bharat men vilayan karane ke lie majaboor ho gaye. riyasaton ke vilay men tatkalin grihamntri saradar ballabh bhaee patel ki mukhy bhoomika rahi. inhen bhi dekhen: tashaknd ghoshana evn lal bahadur shastri

sngh rajyon ka vilay

adhi rat ko svatntrata

bharatiy snvidhan sabha ke dvara 26 navambar 1949 men snvidhan pas kiya gaya. bharat ka snvidhan adhiniyam 26 janavari 1950 ko lagoo kar diya gaya. is snvidhan men bharat ko laukatantrik ganarajy ghoshit kiya gaya tha aur snghatmak shasan ki vyavastha ki gayi thi. daau. rajendr prasad ko pahala rashtrapati chuna gaya aur bahumat parti ke neta ke roop men pndit javaharalal neharoo ne pradhanamntri ka pad grahan kiya. is pad par ve 27 mee 1964 ee. tak apani mrityu tak bane rahe. navodit bharatiy ganarajy ke lie unaka dirghakalin pradhanamntritv bada labhadayi siddh hua. usase prashasan tatha ghareloo evn videsh nitiyon men nirntarata bani rahi. pndit neharoo ne vaideshik mamalon men gut-nirapekshata ki niti apanayi aur chin se rajanayik sambandh sthapit kiye. phrans ne 1951 ee. men chndranagar shantipoorn riti se bharat ka hastantarit kar diya. 1956 ee. men usane any phrench bastiyan (pandicheri, karikal, mahe tatha yunnan) bhi bharat ko saunp din. purtagal ne phrans ka anusaran karane aur shantipoorn riti se apani purtagali bastiyan (gova, daman aur div) chhodane se inkar kar diya. phalasvaroop 1961 ee. men bharat ko balapoorvak in bastiyon ko lena pada.[2] is tarah bharat ka ekikaran poora ho gaya.

chitr vithika

panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 bharat vibhajan aur hakikat (hindi) navabharat taims. abhigaman tithi: 15 faravari, 2013.
  2. 1975 ee. men purtagali shasan ne vastavikata ko samajhakar isako vaidhanik manyata de di hai.

snbndhit lekh

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