हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

a
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vivaran 'a' devanagari varnamala ka pratham varn aur pratham svar hai.
bhashavigyan ki drishti se knthh‌y hrasv (jisaka dirgh roop ‘a’ hai), madhy, avrittamukhi, ardhavivrit aur mool svar hai.
anunasik roop an (jaise- ‘angana’, ‘andhera’).
matra ‘a’ ka koee matra-chihh‌n nahin hota apitu kisi vynjan ke bad ‘a’ judane par keval ‘halh‌’ chihh‌n (‌h) hat jata hai (jaise—kh‌+a = k, khh‌+a = kh, hh‌+a = h).
vyakaran [ snskrit (dhatu) akh + d ] pulling- vishnu, shiv, brahma, vayu, agni, vishv, amrit.
vishesh 'a' ibrali bhasha ke alephh‌, yoonani ke alpha aur latini, italiy tatha angrezi ke e ke samakaksh hai.
snbndhit lekh a, i, ee, o, au
any janakari 'a' ka prayog avyayibhav samas ke roop men bhi hota hai. nanh tatpurush samas men nakar ka lop hokar keval akar rah jata hai; arini ko chhodakar svar ke poorv 'a' ka anh‌ ho jata hai.

a snskrit tatha bharat ki samast pradeshik bhashaon ki varnamala ka pratham akshar hai. ibrali bhasha ka alephh‌, yoonani ka alpha aur latini, italiy tatha angrezi ka e isake samakaksh hai. 'a' devanagari varnamala ka pratham varn aur pratham svar hai. bhasha vigyan ki drishti se ‘a’ knthh‌y hrasv (jisaka dirgh roop ‘a’ hai), madhy, avrittamukhi, ardhavivrit aur mool svar hai.

vishesh-
  1. [ snskrit (dhatu) akh + d ] pulling- vishnu, shiv, brahma, vayu, agni, vishv, amrit.
  2. ‘a’ ka anunasik roop an hai (jaise- ‘angana’, ‘andhera’ adi men prayukt).
  3. any svaron ke matra-chihh‌n hote hain parntu ‘a’ ka koee matra-chihh‌n nahin hota apitu kisi vynjan ke bad ‘a’ judane par keval ‘halh‌’ chihh‌n (‌h) hat jata hai (jaise—kh‌+a = k, khh‌+a = kh, hh‌+a = h).
  4. uchcharan ki drishti se ‘a’ ke 6 bhed hain- udatt, anudatt aur svarit hone se 3 bhed aur unake ‘niranunasik’ (anunasik –rahit) aur anunasik hone se kul 6 bhed hai. prachin snskrit vaiyakaran ‘a’ ke ‘hrasv’, ‘dirgh’ aur ‘plut’ bhed manate hain, aur isalie ‘a’ ke 8 bhed kahate hain. hindi men ‘dirgh a’ arthath‌ ‘a’ ek prithakh svar mana jata hai aur ‘plut a’ (arthath‌ ‘aaa) ka hindi men kabhi-kabhi hi prayog hota hai.
  5. hindi men ‘a’ ke mukhyat: 3 roop hi adhik prachalit hain- ‘a’, anunasik roop ‘an’ tatha anusvar yukt roop ‘a’. yah dhyan dene yogy hai ki anunasik roop ‘an’ ka chihh‌n ‘n’ hai jise ‘ardhachndrabindu’ ya ‘chndrabindu’ kaha jata hai.
  6. ‘an’ ke anusvar yukt ‘a’ hai usaka prayog vahin samajhana chahie jahan vah y, r, l, v, sh, sh, s ya h se pahale ae (jaise—ansh,ans). anusvar ka vastavik chihh‌n ‘n’ hai jo sabhi svaron ke sath a sakata hai (ekansh, vinsh). any vynjanon se pahale ‘an’ ka prayog nh‌, nh‌, nh‌, nh‌, mh‌ arthath kavarg adi panchon vargon ke antim varnon ke sthan par lekhan-suvidha, tnkan-suvidha, ya mudran-suvidha ke lie kiya jata hai. udaharanarth, ank, anjan, anda, andha, ambarish, ko kramash: ank, anjan, anda, andha, anbarish likha ja sakata hai parntu ‘a’ men lagi bindi ‘anusvar’ nahin hai, apitu pncham varn ka pratik hain- yah dhyan rakhane yogy hai. is mahattvapoorn bat ka gyan n hone, ya usaka dhyan n rakhane, ke karan hindi ke asnkhy vidyarthi adi hi nahin, lekhak aur koshakar bhi bhramit rahe hain aur aj bhi hain. yah janana mahattvapoorn hai ki ‘ant’ poornat: sahi hai aur ‘anh‌t’ bhi usi ke saman hai parantu ‘ant’ ke keval suvidha ke lie likha jata hai, bhasha–drishti se ‘ant’ shabd ko ‘anusvar-yukt a vala’ nahin kaha ja sakata.
  7. ukt bat ko any svaron tatha svar-yukt vynjanon ke sandarbh men bhi janana chahie tatha shabdakosh, anukramanika ityadi men us par dhyan dena chahie. snskrit ke shabdakoshon men is par dhyan dene se koshon ka shabd-kram shuddh hai parntu hindi ke adhikatar koshakar bhramit rahe hain aur unake shabdakram men ‘andolan’, ‘knth’, ‘snt', ko anusvar-yukt manakar ek jagah sthan diya jata hai aur ‘andolan’, kanth’, ’sant’ ko doosari jagah, jabaki in shabdon ke sthan kramash: nh‌, nh‌, nh‌,… dhvani ke anusar sunishchit rahane chahie. abhi tak ke prasiddh hindi shabdakoshon men ‘akaradi kram’ ke sthan par ‘ankaradikram’ raha hai jo ashuddh, truti poorn aur bhramak hai.
  8. ‘akar’ arthath‌ ‘a’ ka ek vyapak upayog mahattvapoorn hai. vynjan ke shuddh roop (kh‌, khh‌ adi) ka uchcharan akele karana samanyat: kathin ya asambhav hai. at: vynjan ka svar-sahit uchcharan hi svabhavik roop se kiya jata hai, at: ‘kh‌’, ko ‘k’, ‘khh‌’ ko ‘khh‌’, ...’ bolane men vynjan ke ant men ‘a’ jud hi jata hai. vynjanon ka is prakar akarant uchcharan hindi bhashi kshetron ki visheshata hai. snskrit vaiyakaran bhi ‘kh‌’, ‘khh‌’, ...’ ki dhvaniyon ko kramash: kakar, khakar... hi kahate hain (kh‌kar, khh‌kar,…nahin).[1]

uchcharan

panini ke anusar isaka uchcharan knth se hota hai. uchcharan ke anusar snskrit men isake atharah bhed hain:-

sanunasik
hrasv udatt anudatt svarit
dirgh udatt anudatt svarit
plut udatt anudatt svarit
niranunasik
hrasv udatt anudatt svarit
dirgh udatt anudatt svarit
plut udatt anudatt svarit

hindi tatha any bharatiy bhashaon men a ke pray do hi uchcharan hrasv tatha dirgh hote hain. keval parvatiy pradeshon men, jahan door se logon ko bulana ya snbodhan karana hota hai, plut ka prayog hota hai. in uchcharanon ko kramash a, a2 aur a3 se vyakt kiya ja sakata hai. dirgh karane ke lie a ke age ek khadi rekha jod dete hain jisase usaka akar a ho jata hai. snskrit tatha usase snbaddh sabhi bhashaon ke vynjan men a samahit hota hai aur usaki sahayata se hi unaka poorn uchcharan hota hai. udaharan ke lie, k= kh‌+ a; kh= khh‌+ a, adi. vastav men sabhi vynjanon ko vyakt karane vale aksharon ki rachana men a prastut rahata hai. a ka pratik khadi rekha. athava a hai jo vynjan ke dakshin, madhy ya oopari bhag men vartaman rahati hai, jaise k (kh + a) men madhy men hai; kh (khh + a) , g (gh+ a) , gh (ghh+ a) men dakshin bhag men tatha n (nh‌+ a) , chh (chhh‌ + a) , t (th + a) adi men oopari bhag men hai. 'a' svar ki rachana ke bare men varnoddharatntr men ullekh hai. ek matra se do rekhaen milati hain. ek rekha dakshin or se ghoomakar oopar snkuchit ho jati hai; doosari baeen or se akar dahini or hoti huee matra se mil jati hai. isaka akar pray is prakar sngathit ho sakata hai. chauthi shati eesa poorv ki brahmi se lekar navin shati ee. ko devanagari tak isake kee roop milate hain.

'a' ka prayog

a ka prayog avyay ke roop men bhi hota hai. nanh tatpurush samas men nakar ka lop hokar keval akar rah jata hai; arini ko chhodakar svar ke poorv a ka anh‌ ho jata hai. nanh tatpurush men a ka prayog nimnalikhit chhah vibhinn arthon men hota hai-

  1. sadrishy- abrahman. isaka arth hai brahman ko chhodakar usake sadrish doosara varn, (kshatriy, vaishy adi).
  2. abhav- apap. pap ka abhav.
  3. anyatv- aghat. ghat chhodakar doosara padarth, pat, pith adi.
  4. alpata- anudari. chhote pet vali.
  5. aprashasty- akal. bura kal, vipatkal adi.
  6. virodh- asur. sur ka virodhi, rakshas adi.

isi tarah a ka prayog snbodhan (a! ), vismay (a:), adhikshep (tiraskar) adi men hota hai.

tatsadrishyamabhavashch tadanyatvn tadalpata.
aprashastyn virodhashch narnthashath prakirtita..

vishesh mahattv

a (pulling, sngya) arth men vishnu ke lie prayukt hota hai. kahin-kahin akar se brahma ka bhi bodh hota hai. tntrashastr ke anusar a men brahma, vishnu aur shiv tatha unaki shaktiyan vartaman hain. tntr men a ke paryay srishti, shriknth, megh, kirti, nivritti, brahma, vamadyaj, sarasvat, amrit, har, narakati, lalat, ekamatrik, knth brahman, vagish tatha pranavadi bhi pae jate hain. pranav ke (a+ u+ m) tin aksharon men a pratham hai. yog sadhana men pranav (o3mh‌) aur visheshat usake pratham akshar a ka vishesh mahatv hai. chitt ekagr karane ke lie pahale poore o3mh‌ ka uchcharan n kar usake bijakshar a ka hi jap kiya jata hai. aisa vishvas kiya jata hai ki isake jap se sharir ke bhitari tattv kaph, vayu, pitt, rakt tatha shukr shuddh ho jate hain aur isase samadhi ki poornavastha ki prapti hoti hai.[2]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi shabdakosh khand-1 prishth 1
  2. a (hindi) bharatakhoj. abhigaman tithi: 27 janavari, 2014.

snbndhit lekh

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