कुषाण साम्राज्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kushan samrajy tatkalin tin mahattvapoorn samrajy, poorv men chin, pashchim men parthiyan (pahalav) evn rom samrajy ke madhy men sthit tha. choonki parthiyanon ke rom se sambandh achchhe nahin the, isalie chin se vyapar karane ke lie rom ko kushanon se madhur sambandh banane pade. yah vyapar mahanh 'silkamarg' tatha 'reshamamarg' se sampann hota tha. yah marg tin hisson men bnta tha -(1.) kaispiyan sagar hote hue, (2.) marv se pharat nadi hote hue nil sagar par sthit bandaragah tatha (3.) lal sagar tak jata tha.

kushanakalin vyapar

pratham shatabdi men bharat aur rom ke bich madhur sambandh ka ullekh 'periplas aauf di irithriyan si' namak pustak men milata hai. is pustak men roman samrajy ko niryat ki jane vali vastuon men kalimirch, adarak, resham, malamal, sooti vastr, ratn, moti adi ka ullekh milata hai. ayat ki jane vali vastuon men moonga, loshan, kanch, chandi, sone ka bartan, ranga, sisa, tiptiya ghas, git gane vale ladake ka ullekh milata hai. pratham shatabdi ee. men vyapar mukhyatah sindhu nadi ke muhane par sthit bandaragah 'baravairikam' aur bhadauch se hota tha. dakshin bharat men is samay arikamedu, mujaris, kaveri, pattam jaise pramukh bandaragah the. 'periplas aauf d isithriyan si' pustak men arikamedu bandaragah ka ullekh pedok nam se kiya gaya hai. berigaja (bhadauch) athava bharookachchh pashchimi tat par sthit sarvadhik mahattvapoorn bandaragah aur praveshadvar tha. rom se bharat a rahe logon ki matra par grik itihasakar plini ne duahkh vyakt kiya hai.

chauthi bauddh sngiti

kanishk bauddh dharm ki 'mahayan' shakha ka anuyayi tha. usane bauddh dharm ke prachar ke lie kafi kam kiya. kanishk ke samay men hi bauddh dharm ki chauthi sngiti ka ayojan kiya gaya. yah sngiti kashmir ke 'kundal van' men ayojit ki gee. is sngiti ke adhyaksh vasumitr evn upadhyaksh ashvaghosh the. ashvaghosh, kanishk ka rajakavi tha. isi sngiti men bauddh dharm do bhagon-hinayan aur mahayan men vibhajit ho gaya. is sngiti men nagarjun shamil hue the. isi sngiti men tinon pitakon par tikayen likhi geen, jinako 'mahavibhasha' nam ki pustak men snkalit kiya gaya. is pustak ko bauddh dharm ka 'vishvakosh' bhi kaha jata hai. sngiti ke nirnayon ko tamrapatr par likhakar patthar ki mnjooshaon men rakhakar stoop men sthapit kar diya gaya. kanishk bauddh dharm ka anuyayi hote hue bhi any dharmon ke prati sahishnu tha. isake sikkon par parthiyan, yoonani evn bharatiy devi-devataon ki akritiyan mili hain. kanishk ke sikkon par grik akshar men jin devataon ke nam likhe hain ve is prakar hain- 'hiraiklij', 'sirapij', grik namadhari soory aur chandr, helios aur selini, miiro (soory), arthon (agni), nanaiya, shiv adi. sikkon par mahatma buddh tatha bharatiy devi devataon ki akritiyan yoonani shaili men ukeri gee hain. kushan vnsh ke shasakon men vim kadafaisis, shaiv; kanishk, bauddh; huvishk aur vasudev kushan, vaishnav dharm ke anuyayi the. mathura se kanishk ki ek aisi moorti mili hai, jisamen use sainik veshabhoosha men dikhaya gaya hai. kanishk ke ab tak prapt sikke yoonani evn eerani bhasha men mile hain.

kanishk ke tanbe ke sikkon par use 'balivedi' par balidan karate hue darshaya gaya hai. kanishk ke sone ke sikke rom ke sikkon se kafi kuchh milate the. buddh ke avasheshon par kanishk ne peshavar ke nikat ek stoop evn math nirman karavaya. kanishk kala aur vidvata ka ashrayadata tha. isake darabar ka sabase mahanh sahityik vyakti ashvaghosh tha. isaki rachanaon ki tulana mahanh miltan, gete, kant evn vaaulteyar se ki gee hai. ashvaghosh ne 'buddhacharitr' tatha 'saundaranand', shariputrakaran evn sootralnkar ki rachana ki. isamen buddhacharit tatha saundaranand ko mahakavy ki sngya prapt hai. saundaranand men buddh ke sautele bhaee sundaranand ke sannyas grahan karane ka varnan hai. ashvaghosh ka grnth 'sariputraprakaran' nau anko ka ek natak grnth hai, jisamen buddh ke shishy 'shariputr' ke bauddh dharm men dikshit hone ka natakiy ullekh hai. is grnth ki tulana valmiki ke ramayan se ki jati hai. kanishk ke darabar ki hi ek any vibhooti nagarjun darshanik hi nahin, balki vaigyanik bhi tha. isaki tulana martin loothar se ki jati hai. ise bharat ka 'aeensatain' kaha gaya hai. nagarjun ne apani pustak 'madhyamik sootr' men sapekshata ke siddhant ko prastut kiya. vasumitr ne chauthi bauddh sngiti men 'bauddh dharm ke vishvakosh' 'mahavibhashhgysootr' ki rachana ki. is grnth ko 'bauddh dharm ka vishvakosh'kaha jata hai. kanishk ke darabar ke ek aur ratn chikitsak 'charak' ne aushadhi par 'charakasnhita' ki rachana ki. charak, kanishk ka rajavaidy tha. any viddhanon men parshv, vasumitr, matrivet, sngharakshak adi ke nam ullekhaniy hai. isake sngharas kanishk ke purohit the. vibhashashastr ki rachana vasumitr ne ki thi. kushanon ne bharat men basakar yahan ki snskriti ko atmasath kiya. bharatiy snskriti yoonani snskriti se prabhavit thi. kushan shasakon ne 'devaputr' upadhi dharan ki. kanishk ke samay men hi 'vatsayan ka kamasootr', bharavi ki svapnavasavadatta ki rachana huee. 'svapnavasavadatta' ko snbhavatah bharat ka pratham sampoorn natak mana gaya hai.

yuishi jati ka bharat pravesh

hoonon ke akraman ke karan yuishi log apane prachin abhijan ko chhodakar anyatr jane ke lie vivash hue the, aur isalie madhy eshiya ke kshetr men nivas karane vali vividh jatiyon men ek prakar ki uthal-puthal mach gee thi. yuishi jati ka mool abhijan tibbat ke uttar-pashchim men 'takala maqan' ki marubhoomi ke simant kshetr men tha. us samay hoon log uttari chin men nivas karate the. jab chin ke shaktishali samrat shi-huang-ti (246—210 ee. poo.) ne uttari chin men vishal divar banavakar hoonon ke lie apane rajy par akraman kar sakana asambhav bana diya, to hoon log pashchim ki or badhe, aur us pradesh par toot pade, jahan yuishi jati ka nivas tha. yuishi logon ke lie yah sambhav nahin tha ki ve barbar aur prachand hoon akrantaon ka muqabala kar sakate. ve apane abhijan ko chhodakar pashchim v dakshin ki or jane ke lie vivash hue. us samay sir nadi ki ghati men shak jati ka nivas tha. yuishi logon ke akraman ke karan vah apane pradesh ko chhod dene ke lie vivash huee, aur sir nadi ki ghati par yuishi jati ka adhikar ho gaya. yuishiyon se dhakele jakar hi shakon ne baiktriya aur parthiya par akraman kie aur unaki ek shakha bharat men bhi pravisht huee. shakon ke dvara baiktriya ke yavan rajy ka ant hua, aur parthiya bhi unake adhikar men a jata, yadi raja mithidatas dvitiy unake akramanon se apane rajy ki raksha karane men samarth n hota. parthiya ko jit sakane men samarth n ho pane ke karan hi shakon ki ek shakha sistan hoti huee sindh nadi men pravisht huee thi.

yuishi jati ka baiktriya men pravesh

sir nadi ki ghati se shakon ko nikalakar yuishi jati ke log vahan par abad ho ge the. par ve vahan par bhi der tak nahin tik sake. jin hoonon ke akraman ke karan yuishi log apane mool abhijan ko chhodane ke lie vivash hue the, unhonne unhen sir nadi ki ghati men bhi chain se nahin rahane diya. hoonon ne yahan par bhi unaka pichha kaya, jisase ki shakon ke pichhe-pichhe ve baiktriya men bhi pravisht hue. baiktriya aur usake samipavarti pradeshon par unhonne qabza kar liya, aur vahan apane panch rajy qayam kie. ek chini aitihasik ke anusar -

  1. hiu-mi
  2. shuang-mi
  3. kueee-shuang
  4. hi-too
  5. kao-foo.

pahali sadi ee. poo. se hi yuishi log apane ye panch rajy sthapit kar chuke the. in rajyon men paraspar sngharsh chalata rahata tha. baiktriya ke yavan nivasiyon ke sampark men akar yuishi log sabhyata ke marg par bhi agrasar hone lage the, aur ve us dasha se unnati kar ge the, jisamen ki ve taqalamaqan ki marubhoomi ke samipavarti apane mool abhijan men raha karate the.

kushan

yuishi logon ke panch rajyon men anyatam 'kueee-shuanga' tha. 25 ee. poo. ke lagabhag is rajy ka svami 'kushan' nam ka vir purush hua, jisake shasan men is rajy ki bahut unnati huee. usane dhire-dhire any yuishi rajyon ko jitakar apane adhin kar liya. vah keval yuishi rajyon ko jitakar hi sntusht nahin hua, apitu usane samip ke parthiyan aur shak rajyon par bhi akraman kie.

anek itihasakaron ka mat hai, ki kushan kisi vyakti vishesh ka nam nahin tha. yah nam yuishi jati ki us shakha ka tha, jisane any charon yuishi rajyon ko jitakar apane adhin kar liya tha. jis raja ne panchon yuishi rajyon ko milakar apani shakti ka utkarsh kiya, usaka apana nam kujul kadafaisis tha. paryapt praman ke abhav men yah nishchit kar sakana kathin hai ki jis yuishi vir ne apani jati ke vividh rajyon ko jitakar ek sootr men sngathit kiya, usaka vaiyaktik nam kushan tha ya kujul tha. yah asndigdh hai, ki bad ke yuishi raja bhi kushan vnshi the. raja kushan ke vnshaj hone ke karan ve kushan kahalae, ya yuishi jati ki kushan shakha men utpann hone ke karan - yah nishchit n hone par bhi isamen sandeh nahin ki ye raja kushan kahalate the aur inhin ke dvara sthapit samrajy ko kushan samrajy kaha jata hai.

prachin bharat ke sabhi samrajyon men kushan samrajy ki badi hi mahattvapoorn antarrashtriy sthiti thi. is samay ke anek samrajyon ke bich sthit tha. poorv men chin ka 'svargik samrajy' tha. isake pashchim men parthiyan samrajy tha. roman samrajy ka uday ho raha tha. roman tatha parthiyan samrajyon men paraspar shatruta thi, aur roman ek aisa marg chahate the jahan se rom aur chin ke bich vyapar shatru desh parthiya se guzare bina ho sake. isalie ve kushan samrajy se maitripoorn sambandh rakhane ke ichchhuk the. mahanh 'silk marg' ki tinon mukhy shakhaon par kushan samrajy ka niyntran tha -

  1. kaispiyan sagar se hokar jane vale marg par,
  2. marv[1] se farat (yookrets) nadi hote hue roomasagar par bane bndaragah tak jane vale marg par,
  3. bharat se lal sagar tak jane vale marg par.

parinamasvaroop kushanon ke samay men uttar pashchim bharat us samay ka sarvadhik mahattvapoorn vyaparik kendr ban gaya tha. arthik drishti se kushanakalin bharat atyant samriddh pratit hota hai. keval sampoorn gnga ghati hi nahin apitu madhy eshiya tak vibhinn utkhananon se pata chalata hai ki eesa ki tin shatabdiyon men shaharikaran kafi vikasit ho chuka tha.

uttari bharat ke sanskritik itihas men bhi kushan kal ka mahattvapoorn sthan hai.

kushan bhi shakon ki hi tarah madhy eshiya se nikale jane par qabul-kndhar ki or yahan a gaye the. us kal men yahan ke hindi yoonaniyon ki shakti kam ho gee thi, unhen kushanon ne saralata se parajit kar diya. usake bad unhonne qabul-kndhar par apana rajyadhikar qayam kiya. unake pratham raja ka nam kujul kadaphaisis tha. usane qabul – kndhar ke yavanon (hindi yoonaniyon) ko hara kar bharat ki uttar-pashchimi sima par base hue pahlavon ko bhi parajit kar diya. kushanon ka shasan pashchimi pnjab tak ho gaya tha. kujul ke pashchath usake putr vim taksham ne kushan rajy ka aur bhi adhik vistar kiya. bharat ki tatkalin rajanitik paristhiti ka labh utha kar ye log age badhe aur unhonne hind yoonani shasakon ki shakti ko kamazor kar shung samrajy ke pashchimi bhag ko apane adhikar men kar liya. vijit pradesh ka kendr unhonne mathura ko banaya, jo us samay uttar bharat ke dharm, kala tatha vyaparik yatayat ka ek pramukh nagar tha.[2]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. khurasan ke ilaqe ka ek prasiddh nagar
  2. snbhavatah isi samay se janapad ka nam bhi shoorasen ke sthan par 'mathura' prasiddh ho gaya.

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah