भोपाल गैस त्रासदी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bhopal gais trasadi
bhopal gais trasadi
vivaran 'bhopal gais trasadi' bharat men ghatit sabase badi gaisiy durghatana thi. is durghatana men bhopal ke hazaron nirdosh log mare ge aur kafi snkhya men log apngata aur andhepan ke shikar hue.
durghatana tithi 02 aur 03 disambar san 1984
rajy madhy pradesh
shahar bhopal
karak mithail aiso sainait
mritak snkhya jis rat durghatana ghati, tin hazar vyakti usi rat mar ge aur is ghatana ke bad guzare tin hafton men aur 07 se 10 hazar vyaktiyon ki mrityu ho gee. durghatana ke bad mare kul mritakon ki snkhya kam se kam 18 hazar bataee jati hai.[1]
any janakari is gaisiy durghatana se hazaron log buri tarah prabhavit hue. ve n sirf zaharili gais se hi pidit hue, balki unhen karakhane ke pas base ilakon se apane gharabar chhodane pade. bahut-se log sthaee taur par bimariyon se grast ho ge.

bhopal gais trasadi (angrezi: Bhopal disaster) bharat men madhy pradesh rajy ke bhopal shahar men ghatit vah badi durghatana thi, jisamen hazaron logon ne apani jan gnva di. 02 aur 03 disambar san 1984 ko bhopal men ek bhayanak audyogik durghatana huee. ise hi "bhopal gais kand" ya "bhopal gais trasadi" ke nam se jana gaya. bhopal sthit 'yooniyan karbaid' namak knpani ke karakhane se 'mithail aiso sainait' (mik) namak ek zaharili gais ka risav hua, jisase kitanashak banaya jata hai. is gais ke risav se lagabhag 15000 se adhik logon ki jan gee tatha bahut sare log anek tarah ki sharirik apngata se lekar andhepan ke shikar hue.

'yooniyan karbaid' ki sthapana

bahurashtriy kampani 'yooniyan karbaid' ke mukhy karyakari adhikari varen endarasan ne vishv ke any desh, pranton, pradeshon ki tarah bhopal men bhi ek atynt adhunik, suraksha aur utpadan ke shirsh mayanon par khara utarate rasayanik kitanashak utpadan ki mahatvakanksha vala karakhana sthapit kiya tha. yooniyan karbaid ki behatarin kitanashak utpadan pranali bazar ke sath samnjasy sthapit nahin kar paee aur isake karakhane ko anumanit arthalabh ki apeksha arthik nukasan uthana pada, jisaka knpani ki utpadan pranali, suraksha manakadnd aur upakaranon ke anurakshan par pratikool prabhav pada.[2]

mithayal aiso sayanaid ka risav

03, 1984 ki ratri ko yooniyan karbaid ke utpadan niyntran kaksh men baithe sthaee karmachariyon ko kuchh rasayanik risav ki shnka huee. upasthit karmachari ne tatkal hi bhoomigat rasayan bhndaran taink ka nirikshan kiya to unhen vahan rasayan 'mithayal aiso sayanaid' ka mamooli-sa risav mila, jise unhonne dainik surakshit rasayan risav ke chhitaput roop men liya. par dekhate hi dekhate is rasayanik risav ne vikaral roop le liya. kuchh hi der men mithayal aiso sayanaid ke ghatak vashpon ne bhopal shahar ke vayumndal men pravesh le liya. apatakalin samay ki gnbhirata ne karmachariyon ko majaboor kiya ki shighr hi apatakalin suraksha pranali ka upayog kar samasya ka nidan kiya jae.

risav rokane ke prayas
  1. sabase pahale vahan karyarat karmachariyon ne rasayanik vent skrabar ka istemal kiya, jisaka kam asurakshit gais ko kshariy jal men gholakar vayumndal men jane se rokana hai; par mithayal aiso sayanaid ke aniyntrit gais risav ke vishal badal isase aprabhavit rahe.
  2. yooniyan karbaid ne aisi vyavastha ki thi ki yadi kisi karanavash vent skrabar asaphal hota hai to tatpashchath ‘prajjvalan kalam’ men pravesh kar rahi is bhayanak gais ko eedhan ke roop men jalakar vayumndal men jane se roka ja sake. par yah prayas bhi viphal raha.[2]
  3. tisara tatha antim prayas jal agnishaman ke simit laghu snsadhanon ke jal chhidakav ke roop men raha aur yah prayas bhi viphal raha.

mritak ankada

yooniyan karbaid kampani, bhopal

dekhate hi dekhate mithayal aiso sayanaid ke ghatak vashpon ne riyayashi kshetron men apana prakop dikhana shuroo kar diya. logon ke phephadon, anton, ankhon men yah jaharila rasayan sama gaya. masoom bachche, boodhe, javan sabhi ulti, ankhon men jalan, sans lene men dikkat ki ghatak samasya se joojhane lage. nirdosh janata ne akaran tadap-tadap kar pran tyagana shuroo kar diya. upachar karane vale chikitsak ko kabhi amoniya gais, kabhi phosjin gais ke risav ki galat aur ati kroor suchana di gee, jisane upacharadhin logon aur chikitsak donon ko gumarah kiya.

'yooniyan karbaid kampani' ke karakhane se risi gais ki vajah se mare ge logon ki thik-thik snkhya aj bhi vibhinn sroton ke anusar bhinn-bhinn bataee jati hai. bas, itana hi maloom hai ki jis rat durghatana ghati, tin hazar vyakti usi rat mar ge aur is ghatana ke bad guzare tin hafton men aur 07 se 10 hazar vyaktiyon ki mrityu ho gee. durghatana ke bad mare kul mritakon ki snkhya kam se kam 18 hazar bataee jati hai. kuchh any sroton ke anusar, durghatana ke bad kam se kam tis hazar vyakti maut ki god men chale ge. isake alava lakhon log is durghatana se buri tarah prabhavit hue. ve n sirf zaharili gais se hi pidit hue, balki unhen karakhane ke pas base ilakon men apane gharabar chhodane pade. bahut-se log sthaee taur par bimariyon se grast ho ge. isake alava is vishay men to koee adhyayan hi nahin kiya gaya hai ki ane vali pidhiyon par is durghatana ka kya anuvanshik asar pad raha hai. lekin durghatana ke bad bhopal ke ilake men manasik taur par aur sharirik taur par vikalang paida hone vale bachchon ki snkhya men bhari vriddhi ho gee. rediyo spootanik ke visheshgy baris valakhonski ke anusar- "pichhali sadi ke nauven dashak ke ant men yooniyan karabaid ne adalat ke bahar samajhauta karake is durghatana ke piditon ko 47 karod daaular ka muavaja diya, jo usake viruddh kie ge davon ka sirf 14 pratishat raqam ke barabar hai. har pidit vyakti men is dhanarashi ko barabar-barabar banta jae to ek vyakti ko ek hazar se bhi kam daaular milate hain. yah muavaja behad kam hai. us durghatana ke kuparinamon ko aj tak door nahin kiya gaya hai aur unaka aj tak sthaniy janata ke svasthy aur jivan par nakaratmak asar pad raha hai."[1]

durghatana ke karak

kampani sthit taink nn. 610

doosari or rajanitik galiyaron men halachal chalu ho gee, jo bas dikhave matr ki thi. varen endarasan ko bharat ate hi giraphtar kar liya gaya aur apane hi gest haus men use kisi shahi mehaman ki tarah rakha gaya. kuchh hi dinon men jamanat lekar vah apane svadesh laut gaya. yahan yah janana har bharatiy ke lie avashyak ho jata hai ki akhir is durghatana ne itana vikaral roop kaise le liya. ek videshi snstha ne lakh pratibandh ke bad bhi gupt roop se jo janch ki, usame nimnalikhit karak samane aye-

  1. 'mithayal aiso sayanaid' ka bhandaran taral roop men prashitan (thande) madhyam men kiya jata hai, par arthik nukasan ke chalate ise anadekha kar diya gaya tha.
  2. kshamata se adhik 'mithayal aiso sayanaid' ka bhandaran. jis samay durghatana huee, tab kampani ke pas 42 tan mithayal aiso sayanaid ka bhndar tha, jabaki suraksha manakon ke anusar 30 tan mithayal aiso sayanaid ka bhandaran hi hona chahiy tha.
  3. mithayal aiso sayanaid ki prakati ke anusar yadi isamen koee ashuddhata mishrit ho jae to yah khataranak ekzothirmik pratikriya ka roop le leta hai. yahi hua bhi, kyonki arthik bajat ke niyntran ke chalate prabndhan ne mentenains suparavaeejar ko nikal diya tha aur ek hi upakaran kee prakriyaon men istemal hone laga, jisane kisi tarah pani aur ayaran jng ko mithayal aiso sayanaid taink ke bhitar pahuncha diya.[2]
  4. upakaran niyntrak naitrojan valv ka kharab hona.
  5. rasayanik vent skrabar, prajjvalan kalam, jal agnishaman yntron ki kshamata ka kamazor aur kharab hona.

daauktar deth

bhopal gais trasadi men mrit ek balak

yoon to sarakari ankada sadhe tin hazar lashon tak pahuncha, lekin gairasarakari ankada kahata hai ki marane vale das hazar se jyada the. jahar ke asar se log aj tak mar rahe hain aur age bhi marenge, lekin yooniyan karbaid ka shaitan taink nnbar 610 aj bhi vahin khada hai. is taink ka dhakkan 'bi.ech.ee.el.' (BHEL) ke injiniyaron ne bnd to kar diya, lekin mithayal aeeso sayanaid ka shaitan ab bhi azad hai aur bhopal ki ragon men daud raha hai. kahate hain isane ab tak 40 hazar janen li hain. age aur kitani janen lega koee nahin janata. jo bemaut mare ge, jinake apane unase juda ho ge, unhen akhiri insaph kabhi milega bhi ya nahin, koee nahin janata. lekin tarikh ke kale pannon men bhopal ki vah jaharili rat hamesha ke lie darj rahegi. 4000 se adhik lashen shahar ki sarajamin par bichhi thin. un khauphanak palon ke sabase bade gavah hain- daauktar deth. bhopal ke log unako isi nam se janate hain.[3]

daauktar deth ke lie bhi un dard ke lamhon ko dobara jina asan nahin ki kaise pahale manavata par gais ka kahar par toota tha. us roj ek hi din men unhonne 780 lashon ka postamaaurtam kiya. ek haphte men 3 hazar lashon ke sath chiraphad karane ke bad maut unaki ankhon ke samane nachati thi. vibhag men tin-char log the. sarakar se paramishan li ki sabaka postamaaurtam nahin karenge. ve hi aise shakhs hain, jinhonne pahali bar duniya ko yooniyan karbaid ke kilar taink nnbar 610 ka sach bataya tha; kyonki kilar taink nnbar 610 se nikali gais ka vishleshan kiya gaya to usamen se ve padarth mile jo lashon par bhi paye gaye the. matalab gais kahin aur se nahin, usi taink se aee thi.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 bhopal gais trasadi ki tisavin varshi (hindi) rediyo spootanik. abhigaman tithi: 28 janavari, 2016.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 bhopal gais trasadi-sharmanak rashtriy durghatana (hindi) jagaran jnkshan. abhigaman tithi: 28 janavari, 2016.
  3. jab hil utha deshah bhopal gais kand (hindi) aeebien bhaskar. abhigaman tithi: 28 janavari, 2016.

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