परिवार  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

parivar vishay soochi

mukhyat: parivar ke antargat pati, patni aur unake bachchon ka samooh mana jata hai, parntu vishv ke adhikansh bhagon men parivar ka arth ek sammilit roop se nivas karane vale rakt snbndhiyon ka vah samooh hai jisamen vivah aur dattak pratha (god lene) dvara parivar ki svikriti prapt vyakti bhi sammilit hote hain.

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'manav samaj men parivar ek buniyadi tatha sarvabhaumik ikaee hai. yah samajik jivan ki nirntarata, ekata evn vikas ke lie avashyak prakary karata hai. adhikansh parnparik samajon men parivar samajik, sanskritik, dharmik, arthik evn rajanitik gatividhiyon evn sngathanon ki ikaee rahi hai. adhunik audyogik samaj men parivar prathamik roop se sntanontpatti, samajikaran evn bhavanatmak sntosh ki vyavastha se snbndhit prakary karata hai.'[1]

parivar se abhipray

vishv ke sabhi samajon men shishu ka janm aur palan poshan ka uttaradayitv parivar ka hi hota hai. shishuon ko snskar dene aur samaj ke achar, vyavahar aur niyamon men dikshit karane ka dayitv mukhyat: parivar ka hi hota hai. isi parampara aur niyam ke dvara samaj ki sanskritik virasat aur snskriti ek pidhi se doosari pidhi ko svabhavik roop se hastantarit hoti rahati hai.

'bharat men khasakar ganvon men parivar bade hain. lekin shaharon men parivar chhote hain. shaharon men bachche ko man bap ke sath chhote se makan men rahana padata hai. kuchh parivaron men bachcha apane chacha, chachi, man, pita ke sath rahata hai. parantu in sabhi parivaron men man bachche ke bich sabase adhik najadiki rishta hai. bachche ke vikas men bhi man ki hi sabase zyada badi bhoomika rahati hai. bachcha paida hone ke bad se man ke anchal men rahate huye bhi sikhana shuroo kar deta hai. man ki loriyan use sirf sulati hi nahin usake andar prarnbh se hi sunane, dhyan dene aur samajhane ki kshamata bhi vikasit karati hain. doosari or man-pita ya baba-dadi, nana-nani dvara sunayi gayi kahaniyan usaka naitik,charitrik vikas karane ke sath hi usake andar manaviy moolyon ki ninv bhi dalati hain. isiliye man ko pahali shikshak bhi kaha jata hai.' [2]

parivar ka adhar

parivar ke sadasyon ki samajik maryada aur sima parivar se hi nirdharit hoti hai. nar nari ke yaun snbndhon ka adhar mukhyat: parivar ke antargat parivar ki sima men nihit hota hai. vartaman men audyogik sabhyata se utpann janasnkul samaj aur nagar ko yadi isake antargat na lekar chhod diya jae to vyakti ka parichay mukhyat: usake parivar aur kul par adharit hi hota hai.

parivar ke prakar

vishv ke vibhinn pradeshon aur vibhinn kalon men rachana, akar, snbndh, aur kary ki drishti se parivar ke anek bhed kiye hain, parntu parivar ke uparyukt kary sarvadeshik, sarvakalik aur sanatan hain. parivar men desh, kal, pratha aur paristhiti ke karan ek ya ek se adhik pidhiyon ka, ek ya ek se adhik dnpatiyon (pati-patniyon) ka samooh hona snbhav hai. kisi bhi parivar ke sadasy ek nishchit parivarik anushasan vyavastha ke antargat pati - patni, bhaee - bahan, dada (pitamah) - pota (pautr), chacha - bhatija, sas - putravadhu jaise anek snbndhon men bndha rahata hai jisamen kartavyon evn adhikaron se paraspar baddh, any doosare samajik samoohon se alag ek abhinn aur ghanishtatam antarng samooh ke roop men ek sath rahate hain.

parivar men karyavibhajan

parivar ke antargat stri aur purush ke madhy kary ka vibhajan bhi sadaiv se nishchit, paramparik aur sarvakalik hai. striyon ka adhikansh samay samanyat: ghar men hi vyatit hota hai. parivar ke sadasyon ka bhojan banana, shishuon ki dekhabhal aur palan poshan, ghar ki svachchhta ka dhyan rakhana, vastron ki silaee adi anek aise kam hain jo parivar ki stri ke lie hote hain. purush ke lie hamesha se bahari kary aur adhik shramasadhy kary nishchit hain - jaise kheti, vyapar, udyog, pashuon ka palan, shikar aur yuddh adi. parntu stri purush ka yah kary vibhajan sab samajon men saman nahin hai. isake lie koee samany soochi bhi banana bahut hi kathin hai kyonki kuchh samajon men striyan bhi kheti aur shikar jaise purushon ke karyon men saman roop se bhag leti hain.

parivar snstha ka vikas

vivah ka parivar ke svaroopon se gahan snbndh hai. 'levis margan' jaise vikasavadiyon ka mat hai ki manav samaj ki prarnbhik avastha men vivah pratha prachalit nahin thi aur samaj men poorn kamachar ka prachalan tha. isake bad samay ke sath sath dhire dhire samajik vikas ke kram men 'yooth vivah', jisamen kee purushon aur kee striyon ka samoohik roop se pati patni hona), 'bahupati' vivah, 'bahupatni' vivah aur 'ek patni' ya 'ek pati' ki vyavastha samaj men vikasit huee. vastut: 'bahuvivah' aur 'ekapatni' ki pratha asabhy evam sabhy donon hi samajon men paee jati hai. at: yah mat susnt pratit nahin hota. manav shishu ke palan poshan ke lie ek dirgh avadhi apekshit hai. pahale shishu ki balyavastha men hi doosare any chhote shishu utpann hote rahate hain. garbhavastha aur prasooti ke samay men mata ki dekh-rekh ka hona avashyak hai. pashuon ki bhanti manushy men rati ki koee vishesh ritu nishchit nahin hai. at: snbhavana hai ki manav samaj ke arnbh men ya to poora samuday hi ya keval pati patni aur shishuon ka samooh hi parivar kahalata tha.

parivar ka svaroop

manav sambndhon par kary kar rahe vaigyanikon ko koee aisa samaj nahin mila jahan vivah ke snbndh parivar men hi hote hon, is karan se parivar chahe pitrisattatmak hon ya matrisattatmak, parivar men patni ya pati ko atirikt sadasyata pradan ki hi jati hai. yugal parivar ya ekaki parivar men pati aur patni milakar apani prithakh ghar - grihasthi sthapit karate hain, parntu adhikanshat: samajon men parivar 'brihattar kautunbik samooh' ka ang hi mana jata hai aur jivan ke vibhinn prasngon men parivar ke sadasyon par ghanisht snbadh ke atirikt 'brihattar kautubik samooh' ka bhi niyntran hota hai. amerika jaise udyog pradhan deshon men kutunbiyon ke sammilit evn bade parivar ke sthan par yugal parivar ya ekal ki bahulata ho gee hai. amerika ka samaj pitrisattatmak hai, kintu vahan ka yugal parivar kisi ek 'brihattar kutunb' ka ang nahin mana jata. ekal ya yugal parivar men pati patni aur unake avivahit shishu sammilit mane jate hain. sammilit parivaron men inake atirikt vivahit bachche aur unaki sntan, vivahit bhaee athava bahan aur unake bachche ek sath rah sakate hain. sammilit parivar men rakt snbndhiyon ki manyata bhinn bhinn samajon men bhinn bhinn hai. bharat men ek sammilit parivar men sadharanat: 10 se lekar 12 tak sadasy hote hain, kintu kuchh parivaron men sadasyon ki snkhya 50 - 60 ya 100 tak bhi hoti hai. 'samaj ke kee bade snyukt parivaron se milane par ek bat samane aee ki in parivaron men vyakti se zyada ahamiyat parivar ki hoti hai. vahan vyaktigat pahachan koee mudda nahin hota. parivar men kuchh bndishen hoti hain, jinaka parivar ke sabhi sadasyon ko anivary roop se palan karana padata hai. samajashastri manate hain ki bade़ snyukt parivaron ko sahi dhng se chalane ke lie logon ko khud se zyada parivar ko mahattvapoorn manana padata hai.'[3]

vivah, vnshavali, svamitv aur shasanadhikar ke vibhinn roopon ke adhar par parivaron ke vibhinn roop aur prakar ho jate hain.

matrisattatmak parivar

matristhaniy parivar men pati apani patni ke ghar ka sthayi ya asthayi sadasy banata hai, matristhaniy parivar sadharanat: matrivnshiy hote hain. bahudha parivar ki snpatti ka svamitv matristhaniy parivar men nari ko prapt hai. matrisattatmak parivaron men mama ya mata ka any sabase bada raktasnbndhi (purush) ghar ka mukhiya hota hai.

pitrisattatmak parivar

pitristhaniy parivar men patni pati ke ghar jakar rahati hai. pitristhaniy parivar pitrivnshiy hote hain. bahudha parivar ki snpatti ka svamitv pitristhaniy parivar men purush ko prapt hai. pitrisattatmak parivaron men sadharanat: pita athava ghar ka sabase bada purush ghar ka mukhiya hota hai.

snpatti ka uttaradhikari

pray: snpatti ka uttaradhikari parivar ki jyeshth sntan hoti hai. parntu yah avashyak niyam nahin hai. bharat ki garo jaisi janajati men sabase chhoti ladaki hi parivarik snpatti ki svamini hoti hai. anek samajon men parivar ke sabhi stri ya purush sadasyon men svamitv nihit rahata hai aur kuchh parivaron men purush tatha stri donon ko snpatti ka saman uttaradhikar prapt hai. parivar ka shasan adhikanshat: samajon men purushon ke pas hota hai. antar bas itana hi hai ki pitrisattatmak parivaron men sadharanat: pita athava ghar ka sabase bada purush aur matrisattatmak parivaron men mama ya mata ka any sabase bada raktasnbndhi (purush) ghar ka mukhiya hota hai. at: snsar ke adhikansh bhagon ke samajon men purush ki pradhanata paee jati hai.

parivar ka prachalit svaroop

vishv men danpaty jivan men pray: 'ekapatni' parivar hi sabase adhik prachalit hai, kintu anek samajon men purushon ko ek se adhik patniyan rakhane ki bhi chhoot prapt hai. isake viparit toda aur khas janajatiyon men aur tibbat ke kuchh pradeshon men bahupati pratha, ek prakar ke yooth vivah ki pratha aj bhi prachalit hai. isi prakar bharat men khasi, garo aur amarika men hopi, haidiya jaisi janajatiyan bhi hain jo matristhaniy aur matrivnshiy hain. vivah ke in roopon men parivar ki rachana aur svaroop men antar pad jata hai.

parivar par audyogik kranti ka prabhav

adhunik audyogik kranti ke phalasvaroop parivar ki rachana aur karyon men gnbhir parivartan aye hain. pahale sabhi samajon men parivar samaj ki sabase mahattvapoorn, maulik aur sngathit snstha thi. jivan ke adhikansh vyapar parivar ke madhyam se hi snpann hote the. in audyogik samajon men parivar ab utpadan ki ikaee nahin rah gayi hai, kary vibhakt ho gaye hain, jaise - bachchon ke shikshan ka kary shikshan snsthaon ne liya hai, bhojan v rasoee ka kary vyavasayik bhojanalayon, jalapanagrihon men chala gaya hai. manornjan ke lie prithakh sngathan sthapit ho ge hain, samajik suraksha ka uttaradayitv rajy ke pas chala gaya aur dharm ke ghatate hue prabhav ke karan dharmik krityon ka sthan gaun ko gaya hai. pati - patni ka adhikansh samay ghar ke bahar vyatit hota hai. phir bhi parivar bana hua hai aur usake dvara kuchh mahattvapoorn kary snpann hote hain, jo parivar ka 'sthayi' ya 'avashisht kary' kahalata hai.

kabilaee parivar

janajatiyon men, jo samajik vikas kram men adim avastha ke adhik nikat hain, vivah aur parivar ke lagabhag sabhi roop milate hain. in parivaron men vikas ke kram ke adhar se poorvapar kram nirdharit karana snbhav nahin hai. kndamool aur shikar par basar karanevale andamani adimavasiyon men ekapatnitv ka niyam hai aur ve pitrivnshiy tatha pitristhaniy hain. uttari amarika ke khetihar hopi kabile men ekapatnitv ya ekapatitv ki pratha hai kintu ve matrivnshiy aur matristhaniy hai. adhikansh janajatiyon men parivar ka snyukt roop hai, parntu jahan pati patni alag ghar men rahate hain, ve bhi ek brihattar parivar ka hi ang hote hain aur is parivar ki sammilit sampatti, arthik kriyaon, dharmik krityon tatha anek parivarik adhikaron evn kartavyon adi se judi ek prithakh ikaee bhi hoti hai. vnshavali ke do prakaron men se koee kabila ya janajati ya to pitrivnshiy hoti hai ya matrivnshiy. jo kabile matrivnshiy hain ve pray: matristhaniy bhi hain, jahan pati parivar ka sthayi ya asthayi sadasy hota hai.

kabilon men nari ka sthan

garo kabile men to vah agntuk matr hai, jo rat bhar ka mehaman hota hai. kintu matrivnshiy aur matristhaniy kabile bahut kam hain. bahupatitv kabile to aur bhi kam hain. pitrivnshiy kabilon men hi bahupati pratha paee gee hai aur inamen nari ka sthan purush ki apeksha hin hai. pitristhaniy kabilon men purush ko ek se adhik patni rakhane ki pray: anumati hai, kintu aisa bahut kam hota hai. vishisht tatha shaktishali vyakti hi aisa kar pate hain. aisi avastha men patniyan ek ghar men bhi rahati hain aur pas pas bane alag alag gharon men bhi. yooth vivah apane shuddh roop men kisi bhi kabile men nahin milata. jaunasar babar men bhratuk bahupati pratha hai. vahan sage bhaee kabhi kabhi ek se adhik patniyan rakh lete hain aur ve sab bhaiyon ki samoohik patniyan hoti hain, jo ek grihasthi tatha parivar ka ang hoti hain.

shaktishali varg purush

matrivnshiy aur matristhaniy kabilon men bhi shasak v shaktishali varg purush hi hai, kintu nari ke adhikaron tatha pratishtha ki drishti se pitrivnshiy aur pitristhaniy kabilon ki apeksha in kabilon men nari ki sthiti pray: achchhi hai. kee pitrivnshiy kabilon men bhi nar aur nari ka mahatv saman hi hai, kintu adhikansh kabilon men purush ki apeksha usaka mahatv kam hai.

vivah vichchhed aur punarvivah

kabilon men vivah vichchhed aur punarvivah ka purana niyam hai aur is snbndh se stri aur purush ko pray: saman adhikar hain. vastav men adhikansh kabile pitrivnshiy hain aur nari ko vivah ke bad purush ke parivar, kutunb aur basti men jana padata hai, jahan pati ke mata, pita, bhaee tatha any rakt snbndhi aur mitr hote hain. vahan use pati ke parivar ka ang banakar parivar ke bade logon ke anushasan men rahana hota hai aur pati ke kulachar ka palan karana hota hai. vivah vichchhed ki avastha men nari ko apane mata pita ki sharan leni padati hai. matristhaniy kabilon men parivar adhik sthayi dikhaee deta hai. yah rakt snbndhiyon ka ek naisargik samooh jan padata hai. bahut kam kabile aise hain jahan ladake ya ladakiyon ke lie vivah ke poorv brahmachary palan ka niyam ho. kuchh kabilon men vivah ke poorv parikshan kal ki vyavastha bhi payi jati hai. jaunasar babar ke khason men abhyagaton ke svagat men parivar ki avivahit ladakiyon ko snbhog ke lie prastut karane ki pratha hai. isase yah spasht hai ki parivar ka astitv nar nari ki vasana tripti ke lie nahin, varanh parivar dvara use maryadit kiya jata hai.

bharatiy parivar

bharat mukhyat: ek krishi pradhan desh hai. yahan ki parivarik rachana krishi ki avashyakataon ko dhyan men rakhakar ki gayi hai. isake atirikt bharatiy parivar men parivar ki maryada aur adarsh parnparagat hai. vishv ke kisi any samaz men grihasth jivan ki itani pavitrata, sthayipan, aur pita - putr, bhaee - bhaee aur pati - patni ke itane adhik v sthayi snbndhon ka udaharan prapt nahin hota. vibhinn kshetron, dharmon, jatiyon men sampatti ke adhikar, vivah aur vivah vichchhed adi ki pratha ki drishti se anek bhed pae jate hain, kintu phir bhi 'snyukt parivar' ka adarsh sarvamany hai. snyukt parivar men snbndhi pati - patni, unaki avivahit sntanon ke ati rikt adhik vyapak hota hai. adhikatar parivar men tin pidhiyon aur kabhi kabhi isase bhi adhik pidhiyon ke vyakti ek hi ghar men, anushasan men aur ek hi rasoeeghar se snbndh rakhate hue sammilit snpatti ka upabhog karate hain aur ek sath hi parivar ke dharmik krityon tatha snskaron men bhag lete hain. musalamanon aur eesaiyon men snpatti ke niyam bhinn hain, phir bhi snyukt parivar ke adarsh, parnparaen aur pratishtha ke karan inaka sampatti ke adhikaron ka vyavaharik paksh parivar ke snyukt roop ke anukool hi hota hai. snyukt parivar ka karan bharat ki krishi pradhan arthavyavastha ke atirikt prachin parnparaon tatha adarsh men nihit hai. ramayan aur mahabharat ki gathaon dvara yah adarsh jan jan preshit hai.

parivar ki sthirata

krishi kary ne sarvatr hi parivarik jivan ki sthirata pradan ki hai. at: bharatiy samaj men parnpara se utpadan kary, upabhog, aur suraksha ki moolabhoot ikaee parivar hai. apavadon ko chhod den to bharatiy samaj pitrivnshiy, pitristhaniy aur pitribhakt hai. yahan purush ki apeksha nari ka mahatv kam mana jata hai. snpatti par nari ka bahut simit adhikar mana gaya hai. kintu ghar grihasthi ke anek mamalon men usaki mahatta svikrit hai.

ek vivah ki manyata

sadharanat: ek vivah ki manyata prachalit hai, parntu purush ko ek se adhik vivah karane ka adhikar prapt hai. parnparagat adarsh ke anusar 'vidhava vivah' ka nishedh kiya jata hai, kintu vidhur ka punarvivah ho sakata hai. 'pativrat dharm' ki bahut mahima hai aur samaj men prashnsa ki drishti se dekha jata hai.

pooja ka mahatv

pitar pooja ka bhi bhari mahatv hai. pitri karmakand jate hain aur mrit pitaron ki pooja ka bhi vidhan hai. uchch jatiyon ko chhodakar any sabhi jatiyon men vivah vichchhed aur vidhava vivah prachalit hai, parntu jab koee jati apani maryada ko ooncha karana chahati hai to in donon prathaon ka nishedh kar deti hai.

vayovriddh purush mukhiya

ghar ka sabase adhik vayovriddh purush, yadi vah karyanivritt n ho gaya ho to snyukt parivar ka karta dharta athava mukhiya mana jata hai. kahin kahin use malik ya svami bhi kahate hain. yah purush karta any vayovriddh athava vayask sadasyon ki salah se ya bina salah ke hi parnpara ke adhar par parivar men kary ka vibhajan, utpadan, upabhog adi ki vyavastha karata hai aur parivar tatha usake sadasyon se snbndhit samajik mahatv ke kary aur kary paddhati ka nirnay karata hai.

vayovriddh nari mahila varg ki mukhiya

ghar ki sabase vayovriddh nari parivar ke mahila varg ki mukhiya hoti hai aur jo bhi kary mahilaon ki zimmedari hote hain, unaki dekhabhal aur vyavastha karane ka prayas karati hai, jaise - bhojan taiyar karana, bachchon ka palan poshan tatha silaee, kataee adi ki vyavastha karana in mahilaon ka mukhy kary hai. adhikatar mahilaen kheti ke ya vyavasay ke kuchh sadharan karyon men bhi purushon ka hath bntati hain.

snyukt parivar

snyukt parivar men chacha, taoo ki vivahit sntan, unake vivahit putr, pautr adi bhi ho sakate hain. sadharanat: pita ke jivan men usaka putr parivar se alag hokar svatntr grihasthi nahin basata hai. yah abhedy parnpara nahin hai, kabhi kabhi apavad bhi paye jate hain. aisa bhi samay ata hai jab rakt snbndhon ki nikatata ke adhar par ek snyukt parivar do ya anek snyukt athava asnyukt parivaron men vibhakt ho jata hai. asnyukt parivar bhi kalakram men snyukt parivar ka hi roop le leta hai aur snyukt parivar ka kram bana rahata hai.

samajashastri sushila jain kahati hain ki 'snyukt parivaron men pyar ka dayara bada hota hai. bachchon ko sabhi ka lad-pyar milata hai. zahir hai ki unaka manasik vikas zyada hoga. parivar men bade-bujurg hone ki vajah se bachchon men snskar jaldi a jate hain. parivar men yadi koee vidhava hai, to usaki dekhabhal keval snyukt parivar men hi ho sakati hai. pyar aur samman bachchon ko yahan bachapan se mil jate hain.[4]

snyukt parivar men parivartan

bharat ke samaj men snyukt parivar pranali bahut prachin hai, yadyapi isake antarik svaroop men bahurvivah, uttaradhikar aur snpatti ke adhikar ke niyamon men, samayanusar parivartan hota raha hai. audyogik kranti ne pashchaty deshon men parnparagat snyukt parivar ka svaroop hi bhng kar diya hai jisaka karan badhate hue yntrikaran ke phalasvaroop vyakti ko parivar se bahar mili ajivika, suraksha aur unnati ki suvidhaon ko karan bataya jata hai. bharat men bhi audyogik kranti ke phalasvaroop nee arthavyavastha aur naye audyogik tatha arthik sngathanon ka arnbh hone ke karan parivar snstha ka vighatan prarambh ho chuka hai.

manovaigyanik batate hain ki ekal parivaron men pati-patni ke bich chhoti-chhoti baton par aham takarane lagate hain. unake bich ke manamutav ko door karane ke lie unake pas koee tisara vyakti nahin hota hai. aksar aise mamalon men talak ki naubat a jati hai. janakar manate hai ki talak ke zyadatar mamale ekal parivaron se ate hain. isake alava atmahatya aur manasik avasad se jude zyadatar mamale bhi ekal parivaron ki den hain. manovaigyanik kahate hain ki akele rahane vale vyakti hamesha ek agyat dar se bhayabhit rahate hain aur kee bar yah dar itana badh jata hai ki natija atmahatya ke roop men samane ata hai.[5]

yatayat aur snchar ke naye sadhan upalabdh ho rahe hain, nagarikaran bhi bahut tezi se ho raha hai. pashchaty vicharadhara aur pashchaty shiksha diksha aur adarshon ka prabhav bhi parivar ke svaroop ko prabhavit kar raha hai. visheshakar svadhinata ke bad vivah, uttaradhikar, dattakagrahan aur sanpattik adhikar ke vishay men jo qanoon banaye ja rahe hain unhen parivar ki snyukt pranali ke lie hanikarak samajha jata hai. isi prakar ayakar ke niyam bhi isake pratikool padate hain. vayask matadhikar rajanitik lokatntr bhi snyukt parivar ke ekasattatmak aur vyashtiparak astitv par prahar kar rahe hain. aisi avastha men jab arthavyavastha aur utpadan ke sadhanon men bhi moolabhoot parivartan ho raha hai, parivar ke shasan, rachana aur karyon men parivartan hona avashynbhavi hai aur vah dikhayi bhi de raha hai. abhi yah kahana kathin hai ki parivar ka snyukt roop samapt ho raha hai. nagaron aur gramon men snyukt parivar pahale se kam ho ge hain. parivartan ke snbndh men vidvanon men mukhyat: do prakar ki vicharadharaen hai -

  1. ek vichar ke anusar paristhiti ke prabhavasvaroop parivar men katipay parivartan hone par bhi usaka snyukt roop nasht nahin ho raha hai.
  2. doosare vichar ke anusar audyogik sabhyata bharat men bhi snyukt parivar ko bahut kuchh usi ekal parivar ke roop men prachalit karegi jo amarika tatha yoorop men prachalit hai. vartaman parivarik vighatan aur parivartanon ko is vikasakram ki arnbhik avastha bataya jata hai.

bharat men matrisattatmak parivar

bharat ke malavar pradesh men nayar aur tiya jati men matri sthaniy tatha matrivnshi parivar vartaman tak rahe hain. aise parivaron men pati apane bachchon ke ghar men ek asthayi agntuk hota hai. usake bachchon ki dekhabhal usaka mama karata hai aur usake bachche apani man ke parivar ka nam grahan karate hain. parivar ka roop snyukt hai, jisamen man ki aur usaki putri athava pautriyon ki sntan hoti hai. in parivaron men ghar ka mukhiya matripakshiy purush hota hai. asam rajy ke garo aur khasi janajatiyon men bhi matrivnshiy aur matristhaniy parivar ki pratha hai.

bharat men bahupati parivar

uttar pradesh ke jaunasar babar men khas nam ki janajati men aur as pas ke kuchh kshetron men bahupati pratha hai. parivar men sab bhaiyon ki ek patni aur kabhi-kabhi ekadhik samoohik patniyan heti hain. nilagiri ki toda janajati men bhi bahupati pratha hai, kintu yahan ek stri ke patiyon men bhaiyon ke atirikt any vyakti bhi ho sakate hain. gair janajatiy samaj men kahin bhi bahupati pratha nahin milati.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. bharat men parivar (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el). . abhigaman tithi: 22 apral, 2011.
  2. parivar men bachcha (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 22 apral, 2011.
  3. parivar men badalav ki bayar (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 22 apral, 2011.
  4. parivar men badalav ki bayar (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 22 apral, 2011.
  5. parivar men badalav ki bayar (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 22 apral, 2011.

snbndhit lekh