तिरुवेंची  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

tiruvenchi kochin ke nikat prachin keral ki pratham aitihasik rajadhani ke roop men ullekhaniy hai. tiruvenchi ka vartaman nam 'krnganaur' hai. devi bhagavati ka mndir aur ek girija ghar, shayad pratham shati ee. men nirmit, ab yahan ke avashisht smarak hain.[1]

  • tiruvenchikulam men perumal samraton ki rajadhani hua karati thi.
  • inhin samraton men se ek 'kulashekhar perumal' ne prasiddh vaishnav 'mahakavyaprabndhamh' ki rachana ki thi.
  • eesa poorv kee shatiyon tak yah sthan dakshin bharat ka bada vyaparik kendr tha.
  • tiruvenchi men misr, babul, yoonan, rom aur chin ke vyapariyon tatha yatriyon ke samooh barabar ate rahate the.
  • isi sthan par 68 ya 69 ee. men romanon ke dvara nishkasit yahoodiyon ne sharan li thi.
  • isi sthan ko shayad roman lekhakon ne 'mujiris' (murachipatan ya parichopattan) likha hai.
  • tiruvenchi se marich ya kali mirch ka rom samrajy ke deshon ke sath bhari vyapar tha.
  • 'murachipattan' (pathantar surabhipattan) ka ullekh mahabharat, sabhaparv[2] men hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. aitihasik sthanavali |lekhak: vijayendr kumar mathur |prakashak: rajasthan hindi grnth akadami, jayapur |prishth snkhya: 404 |
  2. mahabharat, sabhaparv 31, 68

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah