वैष्णवन की वार्ता  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

mahaprabhu vallabhachary ji ke pushti sampraday men in vartaon ka bada mahattv hai. inamen pushti-sampraday ke bhakton ki, jinamen hindi ke ath pramukh kavi bhi sammilit hain, jivaniyan snkalit hain.

  • 'chaurasi vaishnavan ki varta' men vallabhachary ke shishyon ki kathaen snkalit hain aur
  • 'do sau bavan vaishnavan ki varta' men gosvami vitthalanath ke shishyon ki kathaen snkalit hain.

in vartaon ke rachayita ke sambandh men vidvanon men matabhed hai. samanyat: inake rachayita gosvami gokulanath mane jate hain. achary ramachandr shukl ne apane prasiddh granth 'hindi sahity ka itihas' ke snvath 1986 ke snskaran men ise gokulanathakrit mana hai. ve likhate hain, 'ye donon vartaen vallabhachary ke pautr aur vitthalanath ke putr gokulanath ki likhi hai'[1] parantu sambhavat: jab daau. dhirendr varma ka 'hindustan' patrika ke aprail sanh 1932 ke ank men is mat ka sapraman virodh prakashit hua to achary shukl ne bhi apani sammati men snshodhan kar likha... 'inamen se pratham achary shri vallabhachary ke pautr aur vitthalanath ke putr gokulanathaji ki likhi kahi jati hai, par gokulanath ke kisi shishy ki likhi jan padati hai, kyonki isamen gokulanath ka kee jagah bade bhakt bhav se ullekh hai' [2] hindi sahity ke pratham phansisi itihasakar garsa d tasi ne inhen gokulanath krit mana hai. mishrabandhuon ne bhi tasi ka samarthan kiya hai.


daktar dhirendr varma ko 'chaurasi vaishnavan ki varta' ko gokulanathakrit manane men vishesh apatti nahin jan padati, kintu 'do sau bavan vaishnavan ki varta' ko ve gokulanathakrit manane men jhijhakate hain. unaka kathan hai, 'chaurasi varta' tatha do sau bavan varta' ke is samay ke dakor ke snskaran pramanik hain kintu inake mukhaprishth par inake gokulanathakrit hone ka ullekh nahin hai. 'chaurasi varta' 'chaurasi varta men koee aise vishesh ullekh dekhane men nahin ate hain, jo isake gokulanathakrit hone men sandeh utpann karate hon kintu 'do sau bavan varta' men anek aisi baten milati hain, jinase isaka gokulanath krit hona atyant sndigdh ho jata hai' [3] sabase pahali bat to yah hai ki is varta men anek sthalon par gokulanath ka nam is tarah aya hai, jis tarah koee bhi lekhak apana nam nahin likh sakata. udaharanarth- 'jab kahate kahate ardh ratr biti tab, shri gusaee ji paudhe. govind svami ghar koon chale. tab shribalakrishn ji tatha shri gokulanath ji tatha shriraghunath ji tinon bhaee vaishnavan ke mandal men virajate hain. jab govind svami ne jay ke dandavat kari. tab shrigokulanath ji ne poochhe jo shrigusaeeji ke yahan kaha prasng chalaton hato.' aise anek gokulanathaji ke prati adar-soochak ullekh 'vartaon' men milane ke karan daau. dhirendr varma aur bad men pn. ramachandr shukl ko sndeh hua ki inake rachayita gosvami gokulanath nahin ho sakate. ghatanaon men aitihasik ullekhon se bhi unake gokulanath krit hone men sndeh dridh ho jata hai. 'do sau bavan vaishnavan ki varta' men aisa pahala sthal shri gusaeen ji ki sevak ladabaee tatha dharabaee shirshak 199 vin varta men hai. ve kadachit veshyaen thin. unhonne apane jivan bhar ki kamaee "nav laksh rupaya" pahale vitthalanath ko tatha kuchh dinon bad unake putr gokulanath ko arpan karana chaha, kintu donon ne asuri dhan samajhakar angikar nahin kiya. 'tab gokulanath ke adhikari ne gokulanath ke poochhe bina ek chhat men dravy bichhay ke oopar kakar daray ke choono lagay diyo so va chhat men rahyo ayo. pher sath varsh pichhe aurngajeb badashah ki julmi ke samay men mlechchh lok lootave koon aye tab shri gokul men sun sab log bhag gaye aur mandir sab khali ho ge. koee manushy ganv men rahyo nahin tab ganv men jitane mandir hate sab mandiran ki chhat khuday dari.'

praman

  • ukt ghatana se da. varma ne yah nishkarsh nikala hai ki itihasakar smith ke anusar aurngazeb ne mandir tudavane ki niti sanh 1669 men prarambh ki aur khoj ke anusar gokulanath ka samay sanh 1551 se 1647 ee. tak mana gaya hai. is tarah gokulanath krit granth men aunragajeb ke rajy ki is ghatana ka ullekh sambhav nahin hai. is ullekh se yah bhi dhvani nikalati hai ki varta kadachit aunragajeb ke rajyakal ke bad likhi gayi hai.
  • doosara sthal gusaee ji ke sevak 'gngabaee kshatrani' shirshak 51vin varta men hai, usamen gngabaee ka janm-samay "sole se atthaees aur bhootaladas satre so chhattis" ullikhit hai. gngabaee ka shrinath ji ke sath mevad jane ka ullekh 'shri govardhananath ji ke pragatay ki varta' shirshak men is prakar aya hai, 'miti asadh sudi 15 shukl snvath 1726 ke pahili pahar ratri shrivallabhaji maharaj payan siddh karae, arogae. pichhe rath hake chale nahin tab shri gosvami binati kiu tab shri ji ka agya ki jo gngabaee ko gadi men baithay ke sng lai chalau." yah ghatana bhi is praman ke anusar 1669 ee. men hi padati hai. gngabaee ke sambandh men nishchit ullekh se bhi yahi siddh hota hai ki 'do sau bavan vaishnavan ki varta' gokulanath krit nahin ho sakati . *tisara praman da. varma ne vartaon ke vyakaranik roop ka diya hai aur yah nishkarsh nikala hai ki ek hi lekhak apani do kritiyon men vyakaran ke in chhote-chhote roopon men is tarah bhed nahin kar sakata.
  • yadyapi da. varma ne 'chaurasi vaishnavan ki varta' ke gokulanathakrit hone men vishesh sandeh vyakt nahin kiya, par achary shukl use" gokulanath ke pichhe unake kisi gujarati shishy ki rachana" manate hain. hindi ke kuchh anveshak to samagr 'varta sahity' ko hi apramanik manate hain. isake viparit dvarikadas parikh aur kanthamani shastri use pramanik siddh karate hain. in donon vidvanon ke tarkon ke adhar par prabhudayal mital ne uparyukt vidvanon ki shnkaon ka samadhan karane ka prayatn kiya hai. ve donon 'vartaon' ko gokulanathakrit manate hai; donon granthon ko gokulanath ke mukh se ni:srit pravayane manate hain jo "bad men hariray dvara sampadit hokar chaurasi aur do sau vaishnavan ki varta ke roop men prasiddh hue. "aisa gyat hota hai ki chaurasi varta vale pravachan pahale lipibaddh kiye gaye aur do sau bavanavale bad ko. in pravachanon ki mool pratiyan bhi likhit roop men idhar-udhar mil jati hain. unaka mat hai, "sambhavat: kisi gujarati lekhak ki lipibaddh chaurasi varta ki pustak shukl ji ne dekhi hogi, jisake karan unaki ukt dharana ho gayi hogi." 'varta' ke pathak se yah chhipa nahin hai ki usamen gokulanath ki apeksha gosaee ji ke jyeshth putr giridhar ki vishesh prashnsa milati hai. yadi yah pustak gokulanath ke kisi shishy ki likhi hoti to usamen aisa hona sambhav nahin tha, kyonki gokulanath ke shishy apane guru se badhakar kisi ko bhi nahin manate hain. do sau bavan varta men gokulanath ka nam is prakar ullikhit hua hai ki yah unaki rachit gyat nahin hoti. is tark ke sambandh men mital ka kathan hai ki hariray ne unake sampadan men prasngavash gokulanath ke pravachan hi hain.

do sau bavan varta men gokulan ke bad ki ghatanaon ke ullekh ke sambandh men unaka kahana hai ki unaka samavesh hariray ne apane 'bhav-prakash' men kiya tha. unhonne prasng ki poornata aur bhavon ki spashtata ke lie anek ghatanaen apane anubhav ke adhar par vartaon ki tippani svaroop 'bhav-prakash ' men vyakt ki thin. ye ghatanaen gokulanath ke pravachan athava vartaon ke angaroop se nahin likhi gayin, at: unako gokulanath ki kriti samajhana thik nahin hai. ve hariray ke shabd hain, jinake lie gokulanath uttaradayi nahin hain. hariray ka dehavasan sn0 1772 men hua tha. at: unake samay men ghatit aunrngajeb ke mandir todane athava any isi prakar ki ghatanaon se vartaon ki pramanikata men sandeh nahin hona chahie. hariray ke bad ke lekhakon ki asavadhani se mool varta aur bhav-prakash ka sammishran ho gaya hai, jisake karan hariray dvara likhi huee gokulanath ke bad ki ghatanaen bhi gokulanath ki likhi huee si gyat ho sakati hain.

vyakaranik vibhinnata

'chaurasi' aur 'do sau bavan vartaon' ke roopon ki vyakaranik vibhinnata ke sambandh men unaka kathan hai ki chaurasi varta ke mool pravachanon ko pahale lipibaddh kiya gaya tha aur do sau bavan ke pravachanon ko bad men. phir in pravachanon ko bhinn-bhinn vyaktiyon ne bhinn-bhinn samay men lipibaddh kiya tha aur yah lipi-pratilipi ka gram bahut samay tak chalata raha. pratyek lekhak ne apani ruchi aur vidyabuddhi ke karan bhi 'vartaon' ke roopon men kuchh ulat-pher kar diya hoga. isalie donon varta- pustakon ki vyakaranasambandhi vibhinnata koee ashchary ki bat nahin hai. vartaon ki prachinata ke sambandh men unhonne anek praman prastut kiye hain. uname se katipay is prakar hain-

  1. chaurasi varta ki prapt pratiyon men sn0 1617 ki chaitr shukl 5 likhi huee prati sabase prachin hai, jo kankarauli men surakshit hai. yah prati gokulanath ke dehavasan ke 11 mahine poorv unaki vidyamanata men gokul men likhi gayi thi. is prati ko da. dinadayal gupt adi vidvanon ne prachin aur pramanik mana hai. is prati se siddh hota hai ki vartaen sn0 1617 tak likhit roop men prasiddh ho chuki thin.
  2. vartaon par gokulanath ke samakalin shishy hariray ka 'bhav prakash' prapt hai. isase siddh hota hai ki vartaon ki rachana 'bhav prakash' se pahale ho chuki thi. 'bhav prakash' ki rachana ka anuman sn0 1721 ke bad aur sn0 1750 ke poorv kiya gaya hai. sn0 1752 ki likhi huee chaurasi aur 'ashtasakhan ki varta' ki snyukt prati 'patan' se prapt ho chuki thin isase siddh hota hai ki sn0 1752 tak 'bhav prakash' ki rachana ho chuki thi. hariray ji gokulanath ke atirikt kisi samany vyakti ki rachana par shayad 'tika' ka shram nahin karate.
  3. vartaen pushti-sampraday men 'guru-vaky' ke saman shraddhaspad mani jati hain. yadi unaki rachana sadharan vaishnav dvara hoti to aisi sambhav n tha.
  4. gokulanath ke samakalin devakinandan krit 'prabhucharitr chintamani' men vartaon ka ullekh hai. shri nathabhatt ne sn0 1727 ke lagabhag chaurasi varta ka 'snskrit manimala' namak granth men snskrit men anuvad kiya hai.
  5. hariray ke shishy vitthalanath bhatt ne sn0 1729 men 'sampraday kalpadrum' men gokulanath ke rache granthon men vartaon ka ullekh kiya hai.

uparyukt pramanon se 'chaurasi varta' ka gokulanath ke samay men rachit hona siddh ho jata hai, par 'do sau bavan vaishnavan ki varta' ki mool ya atiprachin prati n upalabdh ho sakane se usaki pramanikata abhi sandigdh bani huee hai. vartaon ka sahityik mahattv isalie hai ki unamen satrahavin shati ke prachin brajabhasha-gady ka roop milata hai aur unase kee vaishnav kaviyon ke jivan-charitr par prakash bhi padata hai. krishn-bhakt-sahity ki samajik, dharmik aur rajanitik prishthabhoomi samajhane ke lie bhi inaka adhyayan upayogi siddh ho sakata hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi sahity ka itihas(pri0 481
  2. snskaran 2014,pri0 371).
  3. daktar dhirendr varma 'vicharadhara', dvitiyasnskaran, pri0 113).

[sahayak granth-

  1. vicharadhara : da. dhirendr varma;
  2. ashtachhap: mital aur da. dinadayal gupt;
  3. hindi sahity ka itihas : ramachandr shukl:
  4. hindi sahity ka alochanatmak itihas : daau. ramakumar varma
  5. prachin varta rahasy (dvitiy bhag), vidya vibhag, kankaroli.]

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah