आनुपातिक प्रतिनिधान  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

anupatik pratinidhan shabd ka abhipray us nirvachan pranali se hai jisaka uddeshy lokasabha men janata ke vicharon ki ekataon tatha vibhinnataon ko ganitaroopi yatharthata se pratibinbit karana hai. 19vin shatabdi ke snsadiy anubhav ne parnparagat pratinidhitv ki pranali ke kuchh svabhavik doshon par prakash dala. saral bahutamat tatha apekshakrit matadhikiy paddhati (sinpul mejariti aind riletiv mejariti sistam) ke antargat pratyek nirvachanakshetr men ek ya anek sadasy bahumat ke adhar par chune jate hain. arthath‌ is pranali men is bat ko koee mahatv nahin diya jata ki nirvachit sadasyon ke prapt maton tatha kul maton men kya anupat hai.

bahudha aisa dekha gaya hai ki alpasnkhyak jatiyan pratinidhan pane men asaphal rah jati hain tatha bahusnkhyak adhikadhik pratinidhitv pa jati hain. kabhi-kabhi alpasnkhyak matadata bahusnkhyak pratinidhiyo ko bhejane men saphal ho jate hain. pratham mahayuddh ke uparant inglaind men haus aauv kamns ke nirvachan ke itihas se hamen isake kee drishtant milate hain; udaharanarth, sanh‌ 1918 ke chunav men snyukt dalavalon (kolishanist) ne apane virodhiyon se chaugune sthan prapt kie jab ki unhen keval 48 pratishat mat mile the. isi prakar 1935 men sarakari dal ne lagabhag ek karod maton se 428 sthan prapt kie jab ki virodhi dal 90.9 lakh mat pakar bhi 184 sthan prapt kar saka. isi tarah 1945 ke chunav men majoor dal ko 1.2 karod maton dvara 392 sthan mile, jab ki anudar dal (knzaravetibz) ko 80.5 lakh maton dvara keval 189. isake atirikt yadi ham un vyaktiyon ki snkhya ginen (k) jo keval ek hi ummidavar ke khade hone ke karan apane matadhikar ka upayog nahin kar sake; (kh) jinaka pratinidhi nirvachan men har gaya aur unake die hue mat vyarth ge; (g) jinhonne apane mat ka upayog isalie nahin kiya ki koee aisa ummidavar nahin mila jisaki niti ka ve samarthan karate; (gh) jinhonne apana mat kisi ummidavar ko keval isalie diya ki usamen kam dosh the, to yah pratit hoga ki vartaman nirvachanapranali vastav men janata ko pratinidhi dene men adhikatar asaphal rahati hai. inhin doshon ka nivaran karane ke lie anupatik pratinidhan ki vibhinn vidhiyann prastut ki gee hain.

anupatik pratinidhan ka samany vichar 19vin shatabdi ke madhy men utpann hua, jab ki upayogitavad ke prabhav ke antargat sudharakon ne yantrik upayon dvara lokasnsthaon ko adhik saphal banane ka prayas kiya. anupatik pratinidhan ka vichar pahale pahal 1753 men phransisi rashtr-vidhan-sabha men prastut kiya gaya. parntu us samay is disha men koee kadam nahin uthaya gaya. 1820 men phransisi ganitgy garagaun (Gorgonne) ne rajanitik ganit par ek lekh 'nirvachan tatha pratinidhan ke shirshak se ainals aauv maithemetiks men chhapa. usi varsh inglaind nivasi tamas rait hil namak ek adhyapak ne ekal snkramaniy pranali sngil transafarebil vot) se milati julati ek yojana prastut ki aur usaka ek gairasarakari snstha ke chunav men prayog bhi hua. 1839 men is vidhi ka sarvajanik prayog dakshini astreliya ke nagar ediled men hua tha. svitzaralaind men 1842 men jiniva ki rajyasabha ke sammukh viktor kanasideran ne soochipranali (list sistam) ka prastav rakha.

1844 men snyukt rajy, amarika men tamas gilapin ne 'laghusnkhyak jatiyon ka pratinidhan' (an d riprezenteshan aauv mainaritiz tu aikt vid d mejariti in ilekted asenbaliz) nam ki ek pustika prakashit ki, jisamen unhonne bhi anupatik pratinidhan ki soochipranali ka varnan kiya. 12 varsh ke uparant denamark men vahan ke arthamntri karl andre dvara ayojit nirvachanapranali ke adhar par matapatr ka prayog karate hue ekal snkramaniy paddhati ke adhar par pratham sarvajanik nirvachan hua. parntu samanyat: yah pranali tamas heyar ke nam se jodi jati hai. tamas heyar inglaind nivasi the jinhonne apani do pustakon arthath‌ mashinari aauv gavarnament (1856) tatha tritaiz an di ilekshan aauv riprazentetivaz (1859) men vistarapoorvak is pranali ka ullekh kiya. aur jab jan stuart mil ne apani pustak riprezentetiv gavarnament men is prastut pranali ki 'rajyashastr tatha rajaniti men sabase mahatvapoorn sudhar' kahakar prashnsa ki tab vishv ke rajanitigyon ka dhyan isi or akrisht hua. tamas heyar ke maulik ayojan men samay-samay par vibhinn parivartan hote rahe hain.

anupatik pratinidhitv vibhinn roopon men apanaya gaya hai, tathapi in sabamen ek samanata avashy hai, jo is pranali ka ek anivary ang bhi hai ki is pranali ka prayog bahusadasy nirvachanakshetron (milti-menbarakanstituensi) ke bina nahin ho sakata.

anupatik pratinidhan pranali ke do mukhy roop hain, arthath‌ soochipranali tatha ekal snkramaniy matapranali. soochipranali kuchh her pher ke sath yoorop ke adhikatar deshon men prachalit hai. samanyat: is pranali ke antargat vibhinn rajanitik dalon ki soochiyon ko unake prapt kie ge maton ke anusar sadasy die jate hain. is pranali ki vyakhya sabase uttam roop se jarmani ke 1930 ke vaimar vidhan ke antargat jarman sasndh ke nimn sadan rishtag ki nirvachan paddhati se ki ja sakati hai jise baden ayojana ke nam se snbodhit kiya jata hai. is ayojana ke anusar rishtag ki kul snkhya niyat nahin thi varanh‌ nirvachan men dale ge maton ki kul snkhya ke anusar ghatati-badhati rahati thi. pratyek 60,000 maton par, jise kota kahate the, ek pratinidhi chuna jata tha. jarmani ko 35 chunavakshetron men bant diya gaya tha aur inako milakar 17 chunav bhagon men. pratyek rajanitik dal ko tin prakar ki soochiyan prastut karane ka adhikar tha : sthaniy soochi, pradeshiy soochi tatha rashtriy soochi. pratyek matadata apana mat pratinidhi ko n dekar kisi n kisi rajanitik dal ko deta tha. pratyek nirvachan-kshetr men mataganana ke uparant pratyek rajanitik dal ko sthaniy soochi ke oopar pratham ummidavar se utane pratinidhi de die jate the jitane kul prapt maton ke anusar kota ke adhar par milen; taduparant pratyek pradesh men sthaniy kshetron ke shesh maton ko jodakar phir pratyek dal ko pradeshiy soochi se vishesh sadasy de die jate hai aur isi prakar sare pradeshiy kshetron men shesh maton ko phir jodakar rashtrasoochi se kota ke anusar vishesh sadasy aur isapar bhi yadi shesh mat rah jaen to 30,000 maton se adhik par ek vishesh sadasy us dal ko aur mil jata tha. is prakar badenapranali ne anupatik pratinidhan ke is siddhant ko ki 'koee bhi mat vyarth n jana chahie' ka tarkik nishkarsh tak palan kiya. is pranali ki sabase badi kami yah hai ki matadataon ko pratinidhiyon ke chunav men vyaktigat svatntrata nahin hoti.

ekal snkramaniy mat ya heyar pranali ke anusar pratinidhiyon ka nirvachan samany soochi dvara hota hai, nirvachan ke samay pratyek matadata, ummidavaron ke nam ke age apani ruchi ke anusar 1, 2, 3, 4 ityadi snkhya likh deta hai. ganana se pratham charan kota ka nishkarsh karana hai. kota ko prapt karane ke lie dale ge maton ki kul snkhya ko nirvachanakshetr ke niyat sadasyon ki snkhya men ek jodakar, bhag karake, taduparant parinamaphal men ek jod diya jata hai, arthath‌ :

kota = maton ki kul snkhya
niyat pratinidhi snkhya+1

sabase pahale un ummidavaron ko nirvachit ghoshit kiya jata hai jo kota prapt kar lete hain. yadi isase samast sthanon ki poorti nahin hoti tab poorvanirvachit sadasyon ke kota se adhik maton ko unake matadataon men unaki ruchi ke anusar bant diya jata hai. yadi isapar bhi sthanon ki poorti nahin hoti, tab kam se kam mat pae hue ummidavar ke maton ko jab tak bantate rahate hain jab tak kul sthanon ki poorti nahin ho jati. anubhav se pratit hota hai ki ekal snkramaniy pranali matadataon ko nirvachan men svatntrata tatha pratyek samooh ko snkhya ke anusar pratinidhitv pradan karati hai. isaki yah bhi visheshata hai ki rajanitik dal nirvachan men anuchit labh nahin utha sakate, parntu alochakon ka kahana hai ki yah nirvachan samany matadataon ki buddhi se pare hai.

apane gunon ke karan anupatik pratinidhitv ka badi shighrata se prachar hua hai. pratham mahayuddh ke pahale bhi yoorop ke bahut se deshon men soochipranali ka lokasabha ke nirvachan men adhikatar prayog hone laga tha. denamark men to 1855 men hi snsadh ke uchch bhavan ke nirvachan ke lie isaka prayog arnbh ho gaya tha. taduparant 1891 men svitzaralaind ne pradeshik snsadon ke lie ise apanaya aur 1895 men belajiyam ne sthaniy chunavon ke lie tatha 1899 men snsadh ke lie. sviden ne 1907 men, denamark ne 1915 men, halaind ne 1917 men, svitzaralaind ne 1918 men aur narve ne 1919 men is pranali ko poorn roop se sab chunavon ke lie lagoo kar diya. pratham mahayuddh ke uparant yoorop ke samast ne vidhanon men kisi n kisi roop men anupatik pratinidhan ko sthan diya gaya.

angreji bhashi deshon men adhikatar ekal snkramaniy pranali ka prayog hua hai. briten men yah pranali 1918 se parlament ke vishvavidyalayon ke pratinidhiyon ke nirvachan men istemal hoti rahi hai aur inglaind ke girje ki rashtrasabha ke lie, skatalaind men 1919 se shiksha snbndhi snsthaon ke lie, uttari ayaralaind men 1920 se parliment ke donon sadanon ke sadasyon ke chunav ke lie. ayaralaind ke vidhan ke anusar sare chunav isi pranali dvara hote hain. dakshini aphrika men isaka prayog sinet tatha kuchh sthaniy chunavon men hota hai. kaineda men bhi sthaniy chunav isi adhar par hote hain. snyukt rajy, amarika men abhi tak is pranali ka prayog sthaniy chunavon ke atirikt any chunavon men nahin ho paya hai.

dvitiy mahayuddh ne is andolan ko aur age badhaya; udaharanarth, phrans ke chaturth ganatntriy vidhan ne samany soochi ko apani nirvachanavidhi men sthan diya. taduparant silon, barma aur indonishiya ke ne vidhanon ne ekal snkramaniy matapranali ko apanaya hai. bharatavarsh men lok-pratinidhan-adhiniyamon tatha niyamon (pipuls riprezentetiv aikts aind reguleshan) ke antargat lagabhag sare chunav ekal snkramaniy matapranali dvara hi hote hain. anupatik pratinidhan pranali ke paksh aur vipaksh men bahut se tark vitark die ja sakate hain. isamen to sndeh nahin ki saidvantik tatha vyavaharik drishti se yah pranali yadi yatharth roop men lagoo ki jae to apane uddeshy men saphalata prapt kar sakati hai. nissndeh yah samaj ke sabhi pramukh samoohon (groops) ke pratinidhitv ki raksha karati hai. aise deshon men jahan jatiy tatha samajik alpasnkhyak samooh hain, is pranali ka vishesh mahatv hai.

alochakon ka yah kathan ki yah pranali ulajhi huee hai, kuchh tarkayukt nahin pratit hota. pratham to yah pranali svayn hi ek prakar ki rajanitik shiksha ka sadhan hai, aur jahan tak ulajhan tatha vishamata ka prashn hai, usako nipun tatha suyogy adhikari ki niyukti se door kiya ja sakata hai. anupatik pratinidhan ki ek alochana yah bhi hai ki yah rajanitik dalon ki snkhya men vriddhi ko protsahan deti hai, parinamasvaroop snsadh men kisi ek dal ka bahusnkhyak hona kathin ho jata hai, jisase adhikansh mntrimndal snyuktadaliy tatha phalasvaroop asthayi hote hain.[1] parntu belajiyam tatha svitzaralaind jaise deshon ke rajanitik anubhavon se yah tark niradhar pratit hota hai, kyonki kisi desh ki rajanitik dalapaddhati itani us desh ki nirvachanapaddhati par nirbhar nahin karati jitani us desh ki samajik, arthik, dharmik, jatiy, bhasha snbndhi tatha rajanitik paristhitiyon par.[2]



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 376-77 |
  2. sn.grn.-kamans, je.ar. : proporshanal riprezenteshan; phinar, ech. : d kes argest pi.ar.; hog, si. jiaind tatha ji.ech. hailet : proporshanal riprezenteshan; haravil, ji.pi.ar. : riprezeteshan, its denjars aind difekts; hamaphriz, je.ech. : proporshanal riprezenteshan.

snbndhit lekh

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