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janaganana pratik chihn 2011

janaganana ka shabdik arth hai manushyon ki ganana, kintu adhunik arth men janaganana kisi kshetr ya desh ke gram, nagar ya upakshetron ke nivasiyon ki snkhya tatha tatsnbndhi vibhinn tathyon jaise ayu, ling, shiksha, karyakalap, nivas, ashriton tatha dharm adi ki snkhya ke atirikt krishi, udyog dhndhon, pashu dhan, khanij evn any prakritik tatha jan-sadhanon ka samasamayik vaigyanik vivaran prastut karati hai. at: 'janaganana' snsar ke lagabhag sabhi sabhy deshon men sadharan avadhik ganana matr hi nahin, pratyut nivasiyon ki snkhya tatha tatsnbndhi any tathyon ka samasamayik vivaran prastut karane vali rashtriy snstha ho gee hai, jisapar prashasanik evn ayojana snbndhi sarakari nitiyan nirdharit hoti hain.

itihas

sarvapratham janaganana ka prachalan snsar ke kis kshetr ya desh men hua, isaka aitihasik praman upalabdh nahin hai, kintu itihasakaron ka mat hai ki isaka prachalan ati prachin kal se snsar ke vibhinn bhagon men raha hai, yadyapi isaka roop avyavasthit tha. snsar ke vibhinn kshetron men jab jatiy ya parivarik sngathan tha, tab neta ko apane varg tatha pashudhan ka pata rahata tha. vipatti ke dinon men snpoorn varg ki guhar hoti thi aur bhojadi ke avasaron par sab nimntrit hote the. poorvavaidik kal men bharat men ary log apani jatiyon, kuru, yadu adi men bnte the aur raja ko poori jati ka pata rahata tha. mahabharat men kauravon aur pandavon ne apane apane sainyadal ki ganana dvara apani apani shakit ka akalan aur yuddhayojan kiya tha.

sensas (Census)

sensas (Census-janaganana) shabd rom ke prachin shabd sensar (Censor) se bana hai, jabaki roman rajyasevak, jinhen sensar (Censor) kahate the, sarakari nirdeshanusar prati panchave varsh rajy ke parivaron tatha pratyek parivar ke sadasyon ki snkhya tatha arthik aur samajik tathyon ka vivaran prastut karate the. isaka prarnbh sarviyat taliyas namak rom ke chhathe raja (578-534 ee.poo.) ne kiya tha. aaugastas ne eesa se panch varsh poorv is riti ko snpoorn rom samrajy men prachalit kar diya.

pranali tatha tathyik svaroop adhunik janaganana ka svaroop atynt vishad hota ja raha hai. isamen kisi desh ke pratyek vyakti, parivar, gram, muhalla, nagar, vibhinn prashasakiy kshetron aur snpoorn kshetr ke manushyon tatha unaki avasiy, arthik, samajik, dharmik, shaikshik, jatiy, rajanitik tathyon, ant: kshetriy, ant:prantiy ya antararashtriy gamana-gaman, bekari adi vivaranon ka samavesh rahata hai. ye sab tathy nirntar parivartanashil hain, at: prati panch ya das varshon pashchath‌ ye ankade lie jate hain, jisase tathyon men parivartanakram ke anusar sarakari niti aur yojanaon tatha vibhinn madon men, amadani kharch ki yojanaon men bhi, avashyakatanusar snshodhan tatha parivartan kiya ja sake.

janaganana ka svaroop

janaganana ka svaroop prastut karane ke lie vibhinn deshon men uddeshyanusar vibhinn pranaliyan upayog men laee jati hain. ganana ki pradhanataya do pranaliyan prachalit hain ek yatharth (de facto), doosari ayatharth (de Jure). yatharth pranali ke anusar nirdharit janaganana ke samay vyakti ko usake tatkalik avas ya thaharav ke sthan par hi pariganit kar diya jata hai, yadyapi vastut: usaka sthayi ya lagabhag sthayi avas doosare kshetr men sthit rahata hai. ayatharth pranali men vyakti ko janagananakalik thaharav par nahin, pratyut usake sthayi ya mukhy nivasasthan ki ginati men sammilit kiya jata hai. at: jise desh ya kshetr ki janata adhik chal nahin hai, vahan to ek gananank se kary snpann ho jata hai, parntu udyogapradhan deshon men adhik logon ke nirntar chal hone se ganana-snbndhi samasy durooh ho jati hai. is dooroohata ko kam karane ke lie ganana ki ek nishchit avadhi nirdharit karake janata se us kal men sthanantaran n karane ki apil ki jati hai, taki yatharth ganana ho sake, aur is prakar ankade doosari pranali ke saman ho jate hain. aisa n hone par yatharth ganana men prachur trutiyan a jati hain aur ganana ka uddeshy nirarthak ho jata hai, jaise kisi nagar men ek lakh nivasi hain or vahan avasiy kathinaee hai. yadi ganana kal men yatharthn pranali dvara keval 50 hazar hi gine jate hain, to vahan ki avasiy kathinaee ka pata nahin chal paega. dvitiy pranali bhi dosharahit nahin hai. udaharansvaroop, bharat ke parvatiy nagaron men sthayi tatha grishmakalin janasnkhya men bahut hi antar rahata hai aur yadi grishmakal men ganana ki jati hai, to yatharth janasnkhya ka pata hin nahin chalata. vaise hi bade nagaron ke kendriy sthanon men din (karyalay k samay) aur ratri ki janasnkhya men paryapt antar rahata hai. is prakar donon pranaliyan dosharahit nahin hai. kuchh deshon men aisi trutiyon ko door karane ke lie kuchh upay prayukt hote hain.

bharatiy janaganana doosari pranali ke anusar snpann hoti hai, kintu parvatiy bhramanasthalon ki janasnkhya ke sahi akalan ke lie grishm ev jade donon rituon men ganana ki jati hai. niche kuchh deshon ki pranaliyon ka vivaran diya jata hai:

briten ki janaganana dasavarshiy hai aur yatharth pranali dvara snpann hoti hai. grihapati dvara prashnavali bhari jati hai. talika men vyakti ka nam, grihapati se snbndh, ayu, ling, vaivahik (Married status) avastha, man bap ka jivit ya mrit hona, janmasthan, rashtriyata, shikshastar, vyavasay, audyogik svaroop, malik, vetan bhogi ya apana dhndha karane vala, sthan, jivit sntanon ki snkhya tatha ayu aur 16 varsh se kam umravali sauteli sntanen. phrans aur jarmani men pnchavarshiy tatha amarika evn itali men dasavarshiy janaganana hoti hai.

janasnkhya khata

janasnkhya khata dasavarshiy ya pnchavarshiy janagananaon ki duroohata ke nivaran ke lie kuchh deshon men janasnkhya khata ka prachalan prarnbh ho gaya hai, jisamen pratyek vyakti ke snbndh ka vividh vivaran samavisht hota hai. isamen kisi vyakti se snbndhit vivaranon men hone vale kramik parivartanon ka suvidhapoorvak ullekh hota rahata hai aur is prakar desh ya kshetr ke kul nivasiyon ka vishad samasamayik vivaran nirntar taiyar rahata hai. lekin yah asnbhav-sa maloom hota hai. adhikansh vyaktiyon ke arthik, samajik, dharmik, rajanitik sthiti men itane parivartan hote hain ki sabaka nirntar ullekh karate rahana atynt durooh aur bahuvyayasadhy kary hai. aise parivartanakramon ki thik thik upalabdhi bhi asnbhav hai. halaind, sviden, beljiyam adi men kuchh had tak isaka upayog ho raha hain. bharat men bhi vyaktigat khate ka prachalan hua hai lekin usaka kshetr abhi vyapak nahin hai.

vishesh vivaran

adhunik janagananaon men bhi kuchh avashyak tathyon ka samavesh nahin ho pata, jinaka samavesh adhunik adhyayanashastron men anveshanatmak karyon ke lie adhik upayogi ho sakata hai. sarakari nitiyon ko nirdisht karane men bhi unase sahayata prapt hogi. udaharan svaroop, kisi vyakti ke kul shil ka gyan, vivah ke pahale ya bad ke anuchit yaun snbndh, kisi stri ke kaumaryavastha athava vivahitavastha ki bhroon-hatyaen, any asamajik ya samaj virodhi kary (loot, hatya, papadi) athava guptangon ya any angon ki bimari adi ka vivaran samajashastr, manovigyan, chikitsashastr, adi ke anveshanatmak karyon ke lie atyavashyak hai. aise vyaktigat ya parivarik vivaran gopaniy hote hain, jinaka rahasyodghatan avanchhit hota hai. rahasyodghatan ka bhayanivaran karane par aur pratyek gram ya nagar snbndhi aise tathyon ki kul snkhya dikhalane par snbhavat: aise vivaran prapt ho sakenge.

ankan prakriya

adhunik janaganana men vibhinn prakar ke vishad ankadon ka vaigyanik ankan, pratichayan (Sampling) tatha vivaran prastut karane ka kary atynt durooh ho gaya hai. is kary men samayabhav ke karan kshiprata, shuddhi evn vaigyanikata atyavashyak hai, jisase vibhinn karyon ke lie ankadon evn vivaranon ka upayog kiya ja sake. amarika jaise deshon men ankashastr tatha vaidyutiki ke adhunik siddhanton par nirmit yntron ke upayog dvara ankan, ganana, pratichayan adi kary ati kshiprata tatha kushalata ke sath snpann hote hain. amarika men ek adhunikatam yntr se yah kary hota hai, jise yoonivaik (Univac) kahate hain.

bharatiy janaganana

bharatiy dakatikat men janaganana

barma (vartaman myanmar) (1936) tatha pakistan ke alag hone jane par bhi bharatiy janaganana snsar men chin ke bad brihattam hai. bharat ke madras, pnjab, uttar pradesh adi rajyon men 19vin sadi ke poorvardh men hi vividh tathyon par adharit gananaen prastut huee thin, kintu vastut: 1865-72 ee. ke kal men desh ke adhikansh bhag men ayojit janaganana ho saki. kintu isase kee bade deshi rajy haidarabad, kashmir, madhy bharat, rajapootana tatha pnjab ke rajy labhanvit nahin hue the. yah ganana apoorn bhi thi aur avagaman ke adhunik sadhanon se vnchit atnrvarti vany tatha marukshetron men apoorn dhng se ankade prastut kie ge the. vastut: bharat se tathyaparak evn adhunik dhng ki sarvatha ayojit janaganana 17 pharavari, 1881 ko snpann huee. phir bhi isamen kashmir, sikkim tatha kuchh any chhote bhag nahin lie ja sake. us samay eest-indiya knpani ki kort aph dayarektar ne 1856 men hi bharat men das sal janaganana ka nirnay liya tha, par 1857 ke svatntrata sngram ke toofan ne isako uda diya. 1864 men punah shuroo huee aur rajyon men kahin-2 prayog bhi hue. prayogon ki saphalata ke bad 1881 men janaganana huee. 1881 se 1961 ee. tak ath janagananaen snpann ho chuki hain, jo pratyek dashak ke pratham varsh men li jati hain. 1891 men kashmir evn sikkim bhi sammilit kie ge. tritiy janaganana 1901 ee. ke pratham march ko snpann huee, jisamen rajapootane ka bhil kshetr tatha andaman nikobar dvipasamooh bhi sammilit kie ge. is bar janaganana ki talika taiyar ki gee thi aur pratham bar yahan parchi pranali ka prayog arnbh hua.

british prashasan ki niti

british prashasan ne pahali janaganana ke bad lndan men kaha tha, hamane pahali bar bharat ke pratyek jan ko pahachana hai. sabhi pedon par nishan lagaya hai, pratyek palatoo janavaron ko gina hai, yah sabhi karane ke pichhe sirph ek lakshy tha ki phoot dalo aur raj karo unhonne janaganana men mahajab v jati ko samajik vargikaran ka mukhy adhar banaya. hindoo ko bhi islam aur eesaee ke barabar men rakha. british hukoomat ne pahali bar 1901 men samajik uchchata ka siddhant bhi pratipadit kiya. is sinddhat ke adhar par unhonne jatiyon oonch-nich ki khaee paida ki aur us khaee se nikali jati adharit mahasabhaen. 1931 tak to yah niti angrejon ko thik lag rahi thi. 1935 ka gavarnamet aph indiya ekt isi ki den hai. khas yah hai ki is ekt ke 80 pratishat se adhik hisse ko hamare snvidhan men shamil kar liya gaya, us ekt men esati, esasi ke lie arakshan ka siddhant shamil tha. jab desh azad ho gaya to hamare snvidhan nirmataon aur netaon ne angrejo ki ‘phoot dalo’ niti se hatate hue janaganana se jati ka kalam hata diya aur ek lakshy rakha ki ham hindustan ko jati vihin samaj banaenge.

svatntrata ke bad

svatntrata-prapti (1947) ke pahale ki janagananaon men angrez shasakon ne ankadon ko kramabaddh rakhane ki cheshta nahin ki aur vibhinn rajanitik uddeshyon ki poorti ke lie kabhi snpraday, kabhi bhasha, kabhi jati adi ke anusar talikaen tatha prashnavaliyan banati thin. inake atirikt koee sthayi vibhag ya karyalay n hone ke karan yenaken prakaren janaganana snpann karaee jati thi. svatntrata-prapti ke bad saradar vallabh bhaee patel ne janaganana ke mahatv ko samajhate hue ek sthayi ganana adhiniyam (Census act) parit karaya aur ek pramukh janaganana adhikari ke adhin janaganana karyalay snghatit hua. 1951 ki janaganana ke lie pahale se hi usaka vishad praroop, vibhinn kshetriy karyalayon aur karyakartaon ka nirdharan, ganana talika tatha desh ki vibhinn bhashaon ev sthaniy boliyon men parche taiyar kar lie ge. desh ko ganana pramndal evn ganana pramndalon ki ganana khndon men bant liya gaya. svatntr bharat ki pratham janaganana men 5,93,518 ganak, 80,006 nirikshak tatha 8,954 kary adhikari lage the.

1951 ki janaganana

1951 ki janaganana ke kuchh pramukh tathy is prakar hain :--

  • pratyek vyakti ki ginati keval ek bar huee aur adhikansh vyaktiyon ki ginati unake samany nivas sthan (usual place of residence) par huee.
  • parche (Census slip) ke atirikt pratyek nagarik snbndhi vivaran rakhane ke lie rashtriy nagarik pnjika (National register of citizens) prarnbh ki gee.
  • pratyek gram, muhalle, ya nagar ke nivasiyon ki snkhya, ling, shiksha star, tatha ajivika ke ath sadhanon char krishi tatha char akrishgyiy karyon men lage logon ki alag alag talika prastut ki gee. vishad prashnavali ka roop is prakar hain :--
  1. nam, grihasvami se snbndh, janmasthan, ling, ayu aur vaivahik tathy;
  2. parivarik arthik svaroop sadasyon ke vyavasay ki sthiti (Employment status), ajivika ke pramukh tatha gaun (yadi hon) sadhan;
  3. rashtriyata, dharm, 'vishesh samooh' ki sadasyata (jaise pichhada varg, anusoochit jatiyan), matribhasha, dvibhashikata (yadi hai), shikshan star, aur desh parivartan vivaran (displacement).

bharat ki 1961 ki janaganana 1951 ki janaganana se bhi adhik vishad evn vyapak hai. yah 5 march, 1961 ko snpann huee. bharatiy janaganana ke itihas men pratham bar 1961 men 'grih' ke ikaee manakar usake avasiy ya any karyon (functions of a house or use of a house), divar tatha chhat nirman ke saman, kamaron ki snkhyaen, grihasvamitv ka vivaran adi tathyon ka samavesh kiya gaya hai. isake atirikt 1961 men nau sadhanon ke lie soochanaen prapt ki gee. 1961 ki janaganana men nimnankit pnjikaen prastut ki gee :--

  1. bhag 1 janaganana ka samany vivaran, gaun sarani. isake atirikt 1951-61 ee. ki dashabdi ke janm maran ke ankade,
  2. bhag 2 saraniyan,
  3. bhag 2 (k) samany janasnkhya sarani aur pramukh ganana vishayak snkshipt pnjikaen,
  4. bhag 2 (kh) samany janasnkhya ki arthik sarani.
  5. bhag 2 (g) sanskritik aur sthanantaran sarani.
  6. bhag 3 parivarik arthik sarani, parivar ke sadasyon ki snkhya or sadasyiy vivaran
  7. bhag 4 grih tatha snsthapan sarani evn vivaran
  8. bhag 5 vishesh saraniyan (pichhadi jatiyan or anusoochit jatiyan) evn any jatiy vivaran .
  9. bhag 6 gramin kshetron ke sarvekshan.
  10. bhag 7 hastakalaon ka sarvekshan;
  11. bhag 8 janaganana ka prashasakiy vivaran (bikri ke lie nahin),
  12. bhag 9 manachitravali.
  13. bhag 10 das lakh tatha usase adhik janasnkhyavale nagaron ki vishesh vivaranapnjika.

any prakar ke vivaran snyukt rajy tatha kuchh any deshon men in gananaon ke atirikt kuchh vivaran bhi die jate hain, jo vibhinn prashasanik evn ayojan karyon ke lie atyavashyak hain.

rajanitik mahatv

rajanitik parivartanon ka janasnkhya se ghanishth snbndh hai. is prakar niyatakalin janaganana ka sootrapat hi rajanitik karanon se sarvapratham snyukt rajy amarika men hua. vahan pratyek rajy se sab sarakar men jane vale pratinidhiyon ki snkhya tatha kararopan ki matra nirdharit karane ke lie is kism ki ganana sarvapratham 1990 men ki gee aur tab se prati das varsh bad yah ganana li jati hai. bharat men angreji shasanakal men saiman kamishan aur golamez sammelanon ke bad hone vale parivartan, sanpradayikata ka phaisala, bharat sarakar ka sanh‌ 1935 ka adhiniyam adi kafi had tak 1921 aur 1931 ki janaganana riport par adharit the. is prakar 1947 ka 'redakliph phaisala', visheshakar bngal aur pnjab ka vibhajan 1941 ki janaganana ke adhar par hua. isi prakar 1953 men bhasha ke adhar par andhr rajy ka nirman aur sanh‌ 1960 men brihath‌ bnbee rajy ka gujarat aur maharashtr ke do pradeshon men vibhajan sanh‌ 1951 ki janaganana ke adhar par hua. chunav ke samay vibhinn nirvachit kshetron ka bntavara bhi janaganana riport par adharit hota hai. sarakar ki sari vaigyanik tatha shasan snbndhi karyavahi janaganana se prapt soochanaon par adharit hoti hai.

arthik mahatv

janaganana se prapt ankadon ka arthik kshetr men kafi mahatv hai. in ankadon ke adhar par hi sarakar ane vali pidhi ke lie shiksha, svasthy, aur any nagarik suvidhaon ko dene ki yojana banati hai, pratyek janaganana riport ke sath ayu talikaen bhi di rahati hain, jisase sarakar anuman lagati hai ki amuk samay rozagar dhoondhane valon ki snkhya itani hogi aur usi ke anusar rozagar vyavastha ka prabndh karati hai. aj niyojan aur poorn rozagar ke yug men isaka bada mahatv hai. isake atirikt desh men prati vyakti ausat ay tatha vastr adi any vastuon ka upabhog aur desh ke logon ke rahan-sahan ke star ka anuman bhi janaganana se prapt ankadon ke adhar par lagaya jata hai. isi ke adhar par kendriy tatha rajy sarakarn apana salana bajat banati hain aur janata par kar lagati hain. inhin ankadon ke adhar par yah bhi pata lagaya ja sakata hai ki desh men janasnkhya tatha khady padarthon ke utpadan, donon men kis men tivratar gati se vriddhi ho rahi hai. yadi janasnkhya ki vriddhi ki dar adhik tez hai to yah desh ke lie chintajanak vishay hoga. phir sarakar ko bhavishy men durbhiksh ki snbhavana se bachane ke lie bndh karana padega aur janasnkhya niyntran ki avashyakata ho sakati hai par ankadon ke adhar par nishkarsh nikalate samay paryapt savadhani baratani chahie.


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