bharatakosh ke snsthapak/snpadak ke fesabuk laiv ke lie yahan klik karen.

पण  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

pan prachin bharat men prachalit ek prakar ka sikka, jo chandi tatha tanbe se bana hota tha. 'lakshanadhyaksh'[1] apani dekh-rekh men sikkon ka nirman karavata tha, jabaki 'roopadarshak'[2] adhikari is bat ka nirnay karata tha ki kaun-se sikke chalane layak hain aur kaun-se sikke kosh men jama kar dene chahie.

prakar

chandi ka sikka char prakar ka hota tha-

  1. pan
  2. arddhapan
  3. padapan
  4. ashtabhag pan

pan men 16 masa bhar hota tha, jisamen 11 masa chandi, 4 masa tanba aur shesh ek masa loha, ranga, shisha aur bhnjan men se koee ek hota tha. isi matra men arddhapan, padapan aur ashtabhag pan bhi banaya jata tha.[3]

tanbe se nirmit mashak

pan ke chauthe hisse ka vyapar karane ke lie tanbe ka alag se bhi ek sikka banaya jata tha. isamen 11 masa tanba, 4 masa chandi aur ek masa loha, ranga, shisha evn bhnjan men se koee ek hota tha. isi sikkke ka nam 'mashak' hota tha aur isaka bhar bhi 16 masa hota tha. yah bhi char prakar ka hota tha- 'mashak', 'arddhamashak', 'padamashak' aur 'ashtabhag mashak'. padamashak evn ashtabhag mashak ke lie kakani evn arddhakani sikke banae jate the.

rajy ka labhansh

sau pan par ath pan rajy ka labhansh samajha jata tha, jise 'roopik' kaha jata tha. sau pan par panch pan ka labhansh 'byaji' aur sau pan ke athaven bhag ko 'parikshik' kahate the. yadi koee vyakti jali sikke banata tha ya unhen doosaron ke vyavahar men lata tha to pratyek pan par 25 pan atyay[4] bharana padata tha. parntu sikke banane, bechane, kharidane aur pariksha karane ka adhikar jinhen rajy ki or se mila hua tha, un par yah harjana lagoo nahin hota tha.

kautily ke arthashastr men ullekh

viron ko sammanit karane ki parnpara bahut purani hai. jahan sooramaon ko 'paramavir chakr', 'ashok chakr', 'mahavir chakr', 'kirti chakr', 'vir chakr' aur 'shaury chakr' jaise padakon se alnkrit kar yuddh aur shanti kal men bahaduri ke lie sammanit kiya jata hai, vaise hi prachin kal men bhi hota tha. dakshin bharat men jahan viron ki yad men samadhiyan bana kar unake shaury ka varnan kiya jata tha, vahin uttar bharat men viron ko jagiren, padavi aur dhan dekar puraskrit kiya jata tha.[5] kautily ke arthashastr men to isaka vistar se varnan kiya gaya hai, jisake anusar-

  • shatru ke raja ko marane vale ko ek lakh prachin mudra pan di jati thin.
  • shatru ke pradhan senapati ko marane par 50 hazar pan pradan kar puraskrit kiya jata tha.
  • sena nayak ko marane par das hazar pan pradan kiya jata tha.
  • shatru sena ke hathi marane ya shatru ka rath dhvast karane par panch hazar pan puraskar ke roop men dene ka vidhan tha.
  • shatru snhar men rajy ke nagarik yadi ullekhaniy sahayata karate the to ganv ka lagan maf kar diya jata tha.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. sikkon ka nirman tatha pariksha ka adhikari
  2. sikkon ka parikshan karane vala parikshak
  3. prachin bharat ka samajik evn arthik itihas (hindi) googal buks. abhigaman tithi: 29 julaee, 2014.
  4. harjana
  5. viron ko sammanit karane ki prachin hai hamari parampara (hindi) bharat diphens kavach. abhigaman tithi: 29 julaee, 2014.

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