सभा और समिति  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

sabha aur samiti prachin bharat men janatantrik snsthaen thin. vaidik yug ki anek janatantrik snsthaon men 'sabha' aur 'samiti' kafi mahattvapoorn thin. atharvaved[1] men in donon ko prajapati ki do putriyan kaha gaya hai. isase yah pratit hota hai ki tatkalin vaidik samaj ko ye snsthaen apane vikasit roop men prapt huee thin. usaka tatpary sabhasthal aur sabha ki baithak, donon hi se tha.

svaroop

atharvaved ke uparyukt uddharan se spasht hai ki 'sabha' aur 'samiti' ka alag-alag astitv tha. sabha men brahmanon, abhijat logon or dhani mani varg ke vyaktiyon ka jor sadharan vyaktiyon se snbhavat: adhik tha. usake sadasyon ko 'sujat' arthath kulin kaha gaya hai.[2] 'maitrayanisnhita'[3] ke ek sndarbh se gyat hota hai ki sabha ki sadasyata striyon ke lie unmukt nahin thi. yah kaha ja sakata hai ki samoohik roop men sabha ka mahatv bahut adhik tha. usake sadasyon ko 'sabhasad', adhyaksh ko 'sabhapati' aur dvararakshak ko 'sabhapal' kahate the. sabhasadon ki badi pratishtha hoti thi, kintu vah pratishtha khokhali nahin thi aur sabhasadon ki yogyataen nishchit thin.

grnthon ka ullekh

  • ek bauddh jatak ke anusar vah sabha sabha nahin, jahan snt log n hon aur ve snt nahin jo dharm ka bhashan n karate hon. pun: ve hi log snt kahalane ke adhikari the, jo rag, dvesh[4] aur moh ko chhodakar dharm ka bhashan karate hon-
"n sa sabha yatth n snti snto, n te snton ye n bhananti dhammn. ragn ch doshn ch pahay mohn dhamm bhananta v bhavanti snte."[5]
  • sabhasadon ke lie ye gun atynt apekshit the aur kuchh her-pher ke sath 'valmiki ramayan'[6] tatha 'mahabharat' men bhi unhen ginaya gaya hai, yatha-
n sa sabha yatr n santi vriddha:, n te vriddha: ye n vadanti dharmamh. naasau dharmon yatr n satyamasti, n tatsatyn yachchhalenanuviddham.."
  • nyay ka ichchhuk vyakti sabhachar aur sabha se chhoota hua abhiyukt doshamukt, prasann aur sannd kaha gaya hai. nyay vitaran ke atirikt sabha men arthik, dharmik aur samajik prashnon par bhi vichar hote the. kabhi-kabhi log vahan ikatthe hokar jue ke khel dvara apana manornjan bhi kiya karate the.

ant

sabha ka yah svaroop uttar vaidik kal ka ant hote hote (600 ee. poo.) samapt ho gaya. rajyon ki simaen badhin aur rajaon ke adhikar vistrit hone lage. usi kram men sabha ne rajasabha arthath raja ke darabar ka roop dharan kar liya. dhire-dhire usaki niyntratmak shakti jati rahi aur sath hi sath use janatntratmak svaroop ka bhi ant ho gaya. rajasabha men ab keval rajapurohit, rajyadhikari, kuchh mntri aur raja athava rajy ke kuchh kripapatr hi shesh rah ge.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. satavan, 13.1
  2. rigved, saptam 1.4
  3. chartuth 7.4
  4. athava dosh u pap
  5. jatak, phaausabaaul ka roman lipi snskaran, jild 5, prishth 509
  6. uttar kand, 3.33

snbndhit lekh

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