सौरमण्डल  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(सौरमंडल se punarnirdeshit)
sauramandal
Solar System

brahmand men vaise to kee sauramandal hai, lekin hamara sauramandal / saur parivar ( Solar System ) sabhi se alag hai, jisaka akar ek tashtari jaisa hai. hamare sauramandal men soory aur ve sabhi khagoliy pind jo soory ke charon or chakkar lagate hain, sammalit hain, jo ek doosare se gurutvakarshan bal dvara bndhe hain. kaauparanikas ne sabase pahale yah siddhant diya tha ki sabhi grah soory ke charon or ghoomate hain. sauramandal men soory ka akar sab se bada hai jisaka prabhutv hai, kyonki sauramandal nikay ke dravy ka lagabhag 99.999 dravy soory men nihit hai. sauramandal ke samast oorja ka srot bhi soory hi hai. sauramandal ke kendr men soory hai tatha sabase bahari sima par nepchyun grah hai. nepachyun ke pare plooto jaise baune graho ke alava dhoomaketu bhi ate hain.

sauramandal ek nazar men
grahon ke nam bhoomadhyarekhiy vyas (ki.mi.) grahon ka dravyaman (ki.mi.) paribhraman samay apane aksh par parikraman samay soory ke charon or upagrahon ki snkhya soory se doori (ki.mi.)
budh 4,878 57910 58.6 din 88 din 0 2439
shukr 12,102 108200 243 din 224.7 din 0 6052
prithvi 12,756-12,714 149600 23.9 ghnte 365.26 din 1 6378
mngal 6,787 227940 24.6 ghnte 687 din 2 3397
brihaspati 1,42,800 1.90e27 9.9 ghnte 11.9 varsh 28 71492
shani 1,20,500 1426940 10.3 ghnte 29.5 varsh 30 60268
varun (yoorenas) 51,400 25559 16.2 ghnte 84.0 varsh 21 2870990
arun (nepchyoon) 48,600 1.02e26 18.5 ghnte 164.8 ghnte 8 4497070
yam (plooto) [1] 3,000 1160 6 din aur 9.3 ghnte 248.6 varsh 1 5913520

soory (Sun)

soory sauramandal ka pradhan hai aur isake kendr men sthit ek tara hai. soory ka vyas 13 lakh 92 hazar kilomitar hai, jo prithvi ke vyas ka lagabhag 110 guna hai. soory prithvi se 13 lakh guna bada hai, aur prithvi ko sooryatap ka 2 arab van bhag milata hai. prithvi se soory ki doori 149 lakh ki.mi hai. soory prakash ko prithvi men ane men 8 minit 18 seknd lagate hain. soory se dikhaee dene vali satah ko "prakash mndal" kahate hai. soory ki satah ka tapaman 6000 digri selsias hota hai. isaki akarshan shakti prithvi se 28 guna zyada hai. parimndal (Corona) soory grahan ke samay dikhaee dene vali upari satah hai.. ise soory mukut bhi kahate hain.

sauramandal ke pind

  • antarrashtriy khagolashastriy sngh ( International Astronomical Union — IAU ) ki prag sammelan — 24 agast 2006 ke anusar sauramandal men maujood pindon ko tin shreniyon men banta gaya hai —
  1. pradhan ( paramparagat ) grah ( Major Planets ) — grah - soory se unaki doori ke badhate kram men hain - budh, shukr, prithvi, mngal, brihaspati, shani, arun ( yoorenas ) evn varun ( nepchyoon ) . ( ath grah hain - char parthiv / sthaliy antarik grah aur char vishal gais se bane bahari grah ) shukr soory se sab se qarib hai aur nepachyoon us se sab se door hain.
  2. baune grah ( Dwarf Planet ) — yam ( plooto / Pluto ), eriz (Eris), siriz (Ceres), haaumiya (Haumea), makimaki (Makemake) ( plooto ko pahale khagoliy vaigyanik naven grah ke roop men manate the lekin ab nahin manate hai ) siriz (Ceres) kshudragrah patti men hai aur varun se pare char baune grah yam ( plooto ), haaumiya (Haumea), makimaki (Makemake), aur eriz (Eris).
  3. laghu sauramandaliy pind — 166 gyat upagrah evn any chhote khagoliy pind jisame - kshudragrah patti, dhoomaketu ( puchchhal tare ), ulkayen, barphili kvipar patti ke pind aur grahon ke bich ki dhool shamil hain.
  • chhah graho aur tin baune grahon ki parikrama prakritik upagrah karate hain, jinhen am taur par prithvi ke chndrama ke nam ke adhar par "chandrama" hi pukara jata hai. pratyek bahari grah ko dhool aur any kanon se nirmit chhallon dvara parivrit kiya jata hai.

grah

grah ve khagoliy pind hain, jo ki nimn sharton ko poora karate hain— jo soory ke charon or parikrama karata ho, usamen paryapt gurutvakarshan bal ho, jisase vah gol svaroop grahan kar sake, usake asapas ka kshetr saf ho yani usake asapas any khagolie pindon ki bhid–bhad n ho.

budh (Mercury)

budh grah soory se sabase pahala / pas ka grah hai aur dravyaman men anthava sabase bada grah hai aur gurutvakarshan shakti prithvi ki apeksha ek chauthaee hai. yah saur mndal ka sabase chhota grah hai, jisake pas koee upagrah nahin hai. budh grah ka vyas 4880 kimi jo saur mndal men do chandrama guru ka genimed aur shani ka taeetan vyas men budh se bade hai lekin dravyaman men adhe hain. budh samanyatah nngi ankho se sooryast ke bad ya sooryoday se thik pahale ( do ghnta pahale ) dekha ja sakata hai. budh soory ke kafi samip hone se ise dekhana mushkil hota hai.

shukr (Venus)

shukr prithvi ka nikatatam grah, soory se doosara aur sauramandal ka chhathavan sabase bada grah hai. shukr par koee chunbakiy kshetr nahin hai. isaka koee upagrah ( chndrama ) bhi nahin hai. akash men shukr ko nngi ankho se dekha ja sakata hai. yah akash men sabase chamakila pind hai. shukr grah ko pragaitihasik kal se jana jata. yah akash men soory aur chandrama ke bad sabase zyada chamakila grah / pind hai. budh ke jaise hi ise bhi do namo bhor ka tara ( yoonani : Eosphorus ) aur sham ka tara / akashiy pind ke ( yoonani : Hesperus ) nam se jana jata raha hai. grik khagolashastri janate the ki yah dono ek hi hai. shukr bhi ek antarik grah hai, yah bhi chandrama ki tarah kalaye pradarshit karata hai. gaileliyo dvara shukr ki kalaon ke nirikshan kaauparanikas ke sooryakendri sauramndal siddhant ke satyapan ke liye sabase mazaboot praman diye the.

brihaspati (Jupiter)

  • yah sauramandal ka sabase bada grah hai, jisaka rng pila hai.
  • is grah ko angrezi men Jupiter kahate hain.
  • isamen sarvadhik haidrojan paya jata hai.

mngal (Mars)

saur mndal men mngal grah soory se chauthe sthan par hai aur akar men sataven kramank ka bada grah hai. mngal ko rat men nngi ankhon se dekha ja sakata hai. mngal grah ko yuddh ka bhagavan bhi kahate hain. ise ye nam apane lal rng ke karan mila. prithvi se dekhane par, isako isaki raktim abha ke karan lal grah ke roop men bhi jana jata hai. isaka rng lal, ayaran aksaid ki adhikata ke karan hai. mngal ko pragaitihasik kal se jana jata raha hai. mngal ka nirikshan prithvi ki aneko vedhashalao se hota raha hai lekin badi badi doorabin bhi mngal ko ek kathin lakshy manati hai, yah grah bahut chhota hai. yah grah vigyan phatansi ke lekhako ka prithvi se bahar jivan ke liye chaheta grah hai. lekin lavel dvara dekhi gayi prasiddh nahare aur mngal par jivan parikathao jaisa kalpana men hi raha hai.

shani (Saturn)

yah akar men brihaspati ke bad sauramndal ka doosara sabase bada grah hai. is grah ko angrezi men Saturn kahate hain. yah akash men pile tare ke saman dikhaee padata hai. isaka gurutv pani se bhi kam hai aur shani ke 21 upagrah hai.

arun (Uranus)

yah akar men tisara sabase bada grah hai. ise angrezi men Uranus kahate hain. isaki khoj 1781 ee. men viliyam harsel dvara ki gee thi. isake charon or nau valayon men panch valayon ka nam alpha, bita, gama, delta evn ipsilaaun hain. isamen ghana vayumndal paya jata hai jisame mukhy roop se haeedrojan v any gaise hai.

varun (Neptune)

nee khagoliy vyavastha men yah soory se sabase door sthit grah hai. isaki khoj 1846 ee. men jarman khagolgy jaaun gale aur arbar le veriar ne ki hai. is grah ko angrezi men Neptune kahate hain. yah 166 varshon men soory ki parikrama karata hai tatha 12.7 ghnte men apani dainik gati poora karata hai. nee khagoliy vyavastha men yah soory se sabase door sthit grah hai aur sauramndal ka 8van hai.

prithvi (Earth)

yah akar men 5van sabase bada grah hai aur soory se doori ke kram men tisara grah hai. is grah ko angrezi men Earth kahate hain. yah sauramandal ka ekamatr grah hai, jis par jivan hai. isaka vishuvatiy / bhoomadhyarekhiy vyas 12,756 kilomitar aur dhruviy vyas 12,714 kilomitar hai. prithvi apane aksh par 23 1º/2 jhuki huee hai.

chandrama (Moon)

chandrama (angrezi: Moon) vayumndal vihin prithvi ka ekamatr upagrah hai, jisaki prithvi se doori 3,84,365 ki.mi hai. yah sauramandal ka pachavan sabase vishal prakritik upagrah hai. chandrama ki satah aur usaki antarik satah ka adhyayan karane vala vigyan selenolaauji kahalata hai. is par dhool ke maidan ko shantisagar kahate hain. yah chandrama ka pichhala bhag hai, jo andhakaramay hota hai.

baune grah

yam (Pluto)

yam grah ki khoj 1930 men klad tamavon ne ki thi. roman mithak kathaon ke anusar plooto (grik mithak men hedas) patal ka devata hai. is nam ke pichhe do karan hai, ek to yah ki soory se kafi door hone ki vajah se yah ek andhera grah (patal) hai, doosara yah ki plooto ka nam PL se shuroo hota hai jo isake anveshak parsiyal lavel ke adyakshar hai.[2]

seras (Ceres)

seras ki khoj itali ke khagolashastri piyaji ne kiya tha. aee. e. yoo. ki nee paribhasha ke anusar ise baune grah ki shreni men rakha gaya hai, jahan par ise snkhya 1 se jana jaega.

laghu sauramandaliy pind

kshudr grah (Asteroids)

kshudr grah ya avantar grah -- patharile aur dhatuon ke aise pind hai jo soory ki parikrama karate hain lekin itane laghu hain ki inhen grah nahin kaha ja sakata. inhen laghu grah ya kshudr grah ya grahika kahate hain. hamari saur pranali men lagabhag 100,000 kshudragrah hain lekin unamen se adhikatar itane chhote hain ki unhen prithvi se nahin dekha ja sakata. pratyek kshudragrah ki apani kaksha hoti hai, jisamen ye soory ke ird-gird ghoomate rahate hain. inamen se sabase bada kshudr grah hain 'seres'. italavi khagolavetta piajji ne is kshudragrah ko janavari 1801 men khoja tha. keval 'vestal' hi ek aisa kshudragrah hai jise nngi ankhon se dekha ja sakata hai yadyapi ise seres ke bad khoja gaya tha. inaka akar 1000 kimi vyas ke seras se 1 se 2 inch ke patthar ke tukadon tak hota hai. ye kshudr grah prithvi ki kaksha ke andar se shani ki kaksha se bahar tak hai. inamen se do tihaee kshudragrah mngal aur brihaspati ke bich men ek patte men hai. 'hidalgo' namak kshudragrah ki kaksha mngal tatha shani grahon ke bich padati hai. 'harmes' tatha 'airos' namak kshudragrah prithvi se kuchh lakh kilomitar ki hi doori par hain. kuchh ki kaksha prithvi ki kaksha ko katati hai aur kuchh ne bhootakal men prithvi ko takkar bhi mari hai. ek udaharan maharashtr men lonar jhil hai.[3]

dhoomaketu (Comet)

sauramandal ke chhor par bahut hi chhote–chhote arabon pind vidyaman hain, jo dhoomaketu (Comet)ya puchchhal tara kahalate hain. Comet shabd, grik shabd komētēs se bana hai jisaka arth hota hai Hairy one balon vala. yah isi tarah dikhate hain isaliye yah nam pada. dhoomaketu ya puchchhal tare ( Comet ), chattan ( Rock ), dhool ( Dust ) aur jami huee gaison ( Gases ) ke bane hote hain. soory ke samip ane par, garmi ke karan, jami huee gaisen aur dhool ke kan soory se viparit disha men phail jate hain aur soory ki roshani parivartit kar chamakane lagati hain.

ulka (Meteros)

ulkaen prakash ki chamakili dhari ke roop men dikhati hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 24 agast, 2006 se grah ka darja samapt
  2. patal ka devata aur maut ka navik (hindi) (pi.ech.pi) antariksh. abhigaman tithi: 7 faravari, 2011.
  3. sooraj ke baune bete : kshudragrah (hindi) (pi.ech.pi) sauramndal. abhigaman tithi: 18 faravari, 2011.

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