अध्यक्ष  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

adhyaksh adhunik roop men adhyaksh (spikar) ke pad ka pradurbhav madhy yug (13vin aur 14vin shatabdi) men inglaind men hua tha. un dinon adhyaksh raja ke adhin hua karate the. samrath ke mukabale men apane pad ki svatntr satta ka prayog to unhonne dhire-dhire 17vin shatabdi ke bad hi arnbh kiya aur tab se british lokasabha (haus aauv kamans) ke mukhy pratinidhi aur pravakta ke roop men is pad ki pratishtha aur garima badhane lagi. is british snsad men adhyaksh ke mukhy krity (k) sabha ki baithakon ka sabhapatitv karana,
(kh) samrath aur lard sabha (haus aauv lardh‌s) ityadi ke prati isake pravakta aur pratinidhi ka kam karana aur
(g) isake adhikaron aur visheshadhikaron ki raksha karana hai.

any deshon ne bhi gret-briten ke namoone par snsadiy pranali apanaee aur un sabamen thoda british adhyaksh ke dhng par hi adhyaksh pad kayam kiya gaya.

bharat men adhyaksh pad

bharat ne bhi svatntr hone par snsadiy shasanapaddhati apanaee aur apane snvidhan men adhyakshapad ki vyavastha ki. kintu bharat men adhyaksh ka pad vastut: bahut purana hai aur yah 1921 se chala a raha hai. us samay adhishthata (prisaiding aphisar) vidhanasabha ka 'pradhan' (president) kahalata tha. 1919 ke snvidhan ke antargat purani kenndriy vidhanasabha ka sabase pahala pradhan sar phredarik hvait ko, snsadiy prakriya aur paddhati men unake vishesh gyan ke karan, manonit kiya gaya tha, kintu usake bad shri vitthalabhaee patel aur unake bad ke sab 'pradhan' sabha dvara nirvachit kie ge the. in adhishthataon ne bharat men snsadiy prakriya aur karyasnchalan ki ninv dali, jo anubhav ke anusar badhati gee aur jise vartaman snsad ne apanaya.

lokasabha adhyaksh

bharatiy snsad ka nimn sadan (lovar haus) ka adhyaksh samany nirvachanon ke bad pratyek nee snsad ke arnbh men sadasyon dvara apane men se nirvachit kiya jata hai. vah dubara nirvachan ke lie khada ho sakata hai. sabha ke adhishthata ke roop men usaki sthiti bahut hi adhikarapoorn, gauravamayi aur nishpaksh hoti hai. vah sabha ki karyavahi ko viniyamit karata hai aur prakriya snbndhi niyamon ke anusar isake vichar-vimarsh ko age badhata hai. vah un sadasyon ke nam pukarata hai jo bolana chahate hon aur bhashanon ka kram nishchit karata hai. vah auchity prashnon (paints aauv ardar) ka nirnay karata hai aur avashyakata padane par unake sare vinirnay (roolings) deta hai. ye nirnay antim hote hain aur koee bhi sadasy unako chunauti nahin de sakata. vah prashnon, prastavon aur snkalpon, vastut: un sabhi vishayon ki grahta ka bhi nirnay karata hai jo sadasyon dvara sabha ke sammukh lae jate hain. use vadavivad men asngat aur avanchhaniy baton ko rokane ki shakti hai aur vah avyavasthapoorn acharan ke lie kisi sadasy ka 'nam' le sakata hai. use sabha aur usake sadasyon ke visheshadhikaron ko bhng karane vale kisi bhi vyakti ko dnd dene ki shakti hai. vah vibhinn snsadiy samitiyon ke kary ki dekhabhal karata hai aur avashyakata padane par unhen nirdesh deta hai. sabha ki shakti, karyavahi aur garima ke snbndh men vah sabha ka pratinidhi hota hai aur usase yah asha ki jati hai ki vah sab prakar ki dalabndi aur rajaniti se alag rahe. sabha men adhyaksh sarvochch adhikari hota hai. kintu use lokasabha ke tatkalin samast sadasyon ke bahumat se parit snkalp dvara apane pad se hataya ja sakata hai.

rajyasabha adhyaksh

bharatiy snsad ka uchch sadan (apar haus) ke adhishthata ko 'sabhapati' kahate hain, kintu vah usaka sadasy nahin hota. adhyaksh aur sabhapati ke kary men unaki sahayata karane ke lie kramash: upadhyaksh aur upasabhapati hote hain. bharat men rajy-vidhanamndal bhi thode bahut isi dhng par banae ge hain; unamen antar keval yah hai ki uttar sadan ke sabhapati unake sadasyon men se nirvachit kie jate hain.



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh


adhyaksh (hindi) bharatakhoj. abhigaman tithi: 26 navnbar, 2013.

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh


varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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