केन्‍द्रीय सड़क अनुसंधान संस्‍थान  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kenh‍driy sadak anusndhan snsh‍than ki sh‍thapana 1948 men vaigyanik tatha audyogik anusndhan parishad ke anh‍targat ek rashh‍triy anusndhan prayogashala ke roop men ki geeI snsh‍than ai es o 9001 pramanikrit sngathan hai jo sadak evn parivahan anusndhan, mahamarg abhiyantri‍ki, kutitam evn rakharakhav, yatayat evn parivahan ayojana, bhoo takaniki tatha setu abhiyantri‍ki kshetron men sevaen pradan karata haiI snsh‍than dvara sadakon, yatayat, paryavaran tatha sadak pahaluon, havaee kshetr kuttim, bhoo sh‍khalan nh‍yoonikaran se snbndhit anusndhan sh‍tar par tatha takaniki sevaen vh‍yavasayik roop men sarvajanik evn niji kshetr ke grahakon ko desh tatha videshon men pradan ki jati haiI

snsh‍than men kafi snkhh‍ya men uchh‍ch yogh‍yata tatha anubhav praph‍t vaigyanik tatha takaniki sh‍taph hai, jinh‍hen vibhinh‍n kshetron men samaroop banta gaya haiI prayogashala men parikshan suvidhaen tatha karyash‍thal anh‍veshan upash‍kar adhunikatam tatha poorn janakari sahit rakhe ge hainI kamh‍ph‍yootaron ka poorn jalatntr hai tatha soochana praudyogiki (ai ti) suvidhaon ka kushalatapoorn prabanh‍dh kiya gaya hai I snsh‍than men prashikshan tatha pun:shh‍charya path़hyakram vibhinh‍n samakalin vishayon par samay samay par snchalit kie jate hainI snsh‍than men push‍takalay evn pralekhan sevaen sarvochh‍ch koti ki hain I

snsh‍than ka itihas

gat 55 varsho ke niranh‍tar sngharsh ke bad sadak tatha parivahan abhiyantri‍ki ke kshetr men vidyaman praudyogiki men sudhar evn navin gatividhiyon ke vikas ke bad itihas likha gaya, vigat sabhi karyon ka lekha jokha uchit dhng se rikard nahin kiya gaya tha aur chhote-chhote karyo ko nazaranh‍daj kiya gaya. kuchh mahath‍vapoorn ghatanaen, jo snsh‍than ki pragati tatha rashh‍tr ke prati samarpit seva ko darshati hain, is prakar hain -

1950-1959 ki mahath‍vapoorn ghatanaen
  • daau. arnash‍t jipkis, prasiddh sadak abhiyanh‍ta, svitajaralainh‍d, poorv prabhari sadak anusndhan vibhag, phaidaral praudyogiki snsh‍than, zyoorikh ko mee 1950 men nideshak niyukh‍t kiya gaya.
  • snsh‍than ki ninv 6 sitambar 1950 ko en. gopalash‍vami ayyngar, parivahan mntri, bharat sarakar ke dvara rakhi gee. snsh‍than ko 11 ki.mi. door dilli - mathura rod par 33 ekad bhoomi anvatit ki gee thi. is din daau. es. es. bhatanagar, nideshak, vaigyanik tatha audyogik anusndhan parishad (si.es.ar.ar.) ne kenh‍driy sadak anusndhan snsh‍than ka adeshapatr rekhankit kiya. 1951 men kenh‍driy sadak anusndhan snsh‍than ne prash‍tavit sthan par ek ash‍thaee bhavan men 15 takaniki tatha 22 anh‍y sadash‍yon sahit kary karana aramh‍bh kiya. mrida, damar, knkrit tatha nirman samagri anusndhan ke kshetr the.
  • bharat ke pradhanamntri pndit javaharalal neharoo ne julaee 1952 men snsh‍than ke mukhh‍y bhavan ka udaghatan kiya. maulana abul kalam azad, shiksha evn snsh‍kriti mntri, upadhh‍yaksh si.es.ai.ar. ne apana abhibhashan diya.
  • pro. es.ar.mehara, kenh‍driy sadak anusndhan snsh‍than ke pratham bharatiy nideshak bane. pro. es.ar. mehara 'pnjab abhiyantri‍ki mahavidyalay' ke prinsipal tatha pi.dabh‍loo.di. anunsadhan prayogashala, karanal, pnjab ke nideshak the.
  • navin push‍takalay bhavan tatha seminar haaul nirmit kiya gaya. anusndhan evn vikas prayogashala upakaran mngavae ge. pas ki 72 bigha zamin men parikshan path banae ge.
  • knkrit tatha masale ke pratirodhak gharshan ka moolh‍yankan karane ke lie parikshan vidhi tatha parikshan upash‍kar vikasit kie ge. ye upalabdhiyan bad men bharat manak bane.
  • 1958 men bharatiy sadak kangres (ai.ar.si.) men adh:sh‍tar snhanan praudyogiki ke anusndhan tatha sunamh‍y kuttim ke abhikalh‍p ki snsh‍tuti ki gee.
  • sadak nirman men nimh‍n koti mridu (saaupht) samagri ka prayog kar praudyogiki vikasit ki gee. bharat men gahan khoj ke pashh‍chat vibhinh‍n prakar ki adh:sh‍tar samagri ki upalabh‍dhata ko darshate hue samochh‍ch rekha manachitr taiyar kiya gaya.
  • rashh‍triy sh‍tar par ardrata pari‍sthiti sarvekshan snchalit kiya gaya tatha bharat ke vibhinh‍n bhagon men adh:sh‍tar sntripti sh‍tar ko darshate hue manachitron ko vikasit kiya gaya.
  • bharat haivi ilaiktrikalh‍s (bi.ech.ee.el) ke lie 180 tan parivahan vahanon ke lie kuttim motaee tatha nirman vidhi taiyar ki gee.
  • urdhh‍vadhar baloo apavah pranali abhikalh‍p tatha nirman vidhi vikasit ki gee jo th‍varan tatabndh saitalamaint men sahayak bani.
  • kachchh bhoomi tatha daladal ke madhh‍yam se poorvi drutagami mahamarg, mumbee ke nirman ke dauran takaniki sarvekshan tatha gunavata niyanh‍tran pradan kiya gaya.
  • gramin bharat men 1950 men bailagadi mal dhone ka pramukh vahan tha. pahie ke lachile abhikalh‍p, yok samh‍park kshetr tatha dhuri bhar vitaran ke madhh‍yam se pashu kndhon par dab ko nh‍yoonatam kiya gaya evn bailagadi ki gati ko asan banaya gaya.
1960-1969 ki pramukh ghatanaen
  • ek chalati-phirati prayogashala sh‍thapit ki gee jo karyash‍thal parikshan ke lie avashh‍yak ban gee. yah navinatam parikshan suvidhayukt thi tatha bahut si pariyojanaon men karyash‍thal khoj snchalit karane men sahayak siddh huee.
  • parivarti bhar ke anh‍targat snsh‍than men sunamh‍y tatha dridh kutihtam uparishayi samarthh‍y bharavahan parikshan adhar suvidha uth‍panh‍n ki gee. 40 tan ke adhikatam bhar ke karan kutihtam pratikriya praph‍t ki gee.
  • eent bharav knkrit kutihtam abhikalh‍p vikasit kiya gaya. kutihtam samarthy par bina kisi kamh‍promais ke abhikalh‍p jh‍yada mitavh‍yayi hai.
  • dridh kutihtam khanh‍don ke abhikalh‍p men knkrit sh‍laib ki upari tatha nichali satah ke bich tapaman anh‍tar ki ek mahath‍vapoorn bhoomika hai. adhik anh‍tar kutitam khanh‍don men tapaman prerit pratibal banata hai. desh men vibhinh‍n sh‍thanon par vibhinh‍n motaee par anh‍tarath‍mak tapaman abhigrahan (kaipachar) karane ke lie adhh‍yayan snchalit kiya gaya. abhikalh‍p motaee par up‍labdhiyan tatha snsh‍tutiyon ko bharatiy sadak kangres (ai.ar.si.) dvara disha nirdesh ke roop men sh‍vikar kiya gaya.
  • barnh‍takh‍le pojolana, portalainh‍d siment sh‍thanapanh‍n samagri ke roop men vikasit ki gee. siment knkrit kutihtam nirman men siment ka 20 pratishat tak pojolana dvara badala ja sakata hai. yah pariyojana snsh‍than dvara tab li gee jab 1960 men desh siment ki bhari kami se joojh raha tha.
  • prabalit knkrit kutihtam tatha nirman praudyogiki ka vikas kiya gaya tatha snsh‍than dvara desh men prachar kiya. is prakar ki kutihtam adhik motaee ki avashh‍kayata ko kam karati hai tatha nirman jodon ko hatati hai evn kutihtam par bhari yatayat pravah ke lie upayukh‍t hai. is praudyogiki ka prayog karate hue eyar philh‍d kutitam ka nirman bhi kiya gaya. upalabdhiyon tatha snsh‍tutiyon ko bad men ai.ar.si. disha nirdesh ke roop men anumodit kiya gaya.
  • snsh‍than ne knkrit nirman paddhati vikasit ki aur bharat men pahali bar eyar philh‍d nirman ke lie isaka prayog kiya gaya. kutihtam upayogita reting inh‍daikh‍s vikasit kiya gaya jo sadak upayogakarta ke aram suvidha tatha vibhinh‍n vikriti prachalon ko jodata hai. is pariyojana ke lie data ek‍tri‍t karane ke lie vish‍trit sarvekshan snchalit kiya gaya.
  • setu avasnrachana tatha ninv par badhati huee paramarsh mang ko dekhate hue 1966 men alag se setu prabhag ki sh‍thapana ki gee. isi varsh ek anh‍y bhari parikshan adhar 12em ka nirman kiya gaya.
  • vishakhapatatanam, chennee, tayootikorin, mngalaur, gova, kandala port kshetr men mridu samudri mrida ke sthirikaran, ninv upachar, yantrikaran tatha sudhar, krishi yogh‍y bhoomi par sadak tatha bhavan nirman par pariyojana kary kiya gaya.
  • 8 agash‍t 1968 ko daau. bi.ech. subh‍barajoo ne agale nideshak ka padabhar samh‍bhala.
1970-1979 ki mukhh‍y ghatanaen
  • bhari varsha ke karan rishikesh joshimath sadak par bhari kshati ke pashh‍chat bhoo-sh‍khalan par paramarsh kary kiya gaya.
  • shimala men bhoo-sh‍khalan ke karan sadakon tatha bhavanon ki kshati ke pashh‍chat anek sudharath‍mak upay snsh‍than ne prash‍tut kie.
  • dilli tatha baingalor ke lie vish‍trit shahari sadak sudhar tatha prabanh‍dh ayojana pradan karane ke lie pariyojanaen lene ke pashh‍chat yatayat tatha parivahan prabhag prakash men aya. yatayat sarakuleshan, chauraha abhikalh‍p, parking, paidal yatri suvidha par anek anh‍y shaharon tatha kash‍bon men adhh‍yayan kie ge.
  • kshatigrash‍t knkrit sadakon tatha havaee pattiyon ki shighr maramh‍mat ke lie praudyogiki vikasit ki gee. is vidhi ke dvara sithetik rejin ka prayog karate hue 8-12 ghanh‍ton men maramh‍mat poori ki ja sakati hai. is takanik par ai.ar.si. ne ek nirdesh pustika prakashit ki.
  • bndhakon ki upayukh‍t shreni nirdharit karane ke lie vibhinh‍n jalavayu sthitiyan parikshan path prayog praramh‍bh kie ge.
  • desh ke shushh‍k, arddhashushh‍k, nam, arddhanam tatha poorv nam kshetron men damar ki vibhinh‍n panch shreniyon jaise 30/40, 40/50 tatha 80/100 ka anh‍t:sh‍travan adhh‍yayan kiya gaya.
  • mastik esh‍phalh‍t aprishh‍than (ghutaee) ke nishh‍padan ka anusndhan darshata hai ki yah kuttim snrachana ko anh‍y paramh‍paragat vidhiyon ki tulana men behatar suraksha tatha vahaniyata de sakata hai. sarvajanik nirman vibhag ke poore desh men sadak chaurahon, phalaeeovar, basash‍taaup tatha setuon par rapatan rodhak satah ke roop men rodi ropit (graphatid) mastik esh‍phalh‍t bichhana shuroo kar diya.
  • kenh‍driy maikenikal anusndhan snsh‍than ke sahayog se gramin kshetron men traikh‍tar ka prayog karane ki praudyogiki ka vikas kiya gaya. vibhinh‍n vahanon/gatimay upash‍karon jaise dish‍k hairo, rotavetar, rotilh‍lar, pani tainkar vikasit kie ge jo gramin kshetron men bahut upayogi tatha mitavh‍yayi pae ge.
  • snsh‍than ne knkrit sadak nirman ke lie kuchh upayogi yntr vikasit kie. inamen sh‍vachalit jod bnd karane ka yntr, satah patti vaibretar, jod nirman yntr hain.
  • maroo tatha retile kshetron ke lie poorv nirmit knkrit bh‍lak kuttim praudyogiki ka vikas kiya gaya. sunamh‍y tatha knkrit kutitam ka nirman jal tatha parivahan ke abhav ke karan maroo kshetron men ath‍yadhik kathin hota hai tatha upayukh‍t abhikalpit poorv nirmit bh‍laauk bichhana behatar vikalh‍p hai. khanh‍don ka abhikalh‍p shatkoniy, sapat satah paranh‍tu tal khokhala rib sahit hai, jo ki anavarat satah banane ke lie sh‍taradi guchh‍chhi (dovelh‍s) ke sath parash‍par jode jate hain.
  • snsh‍than men sadak asamatalata napane ke yntr vikasit kie ge.
  • vai au a p ki yojana 'zilon ka roopantaran' ke anh‍targat snsh‍than ne andhr pradesh men karim nagar zile ko chuna. is chayan prakriya men sivil abhiyan‍triki kshetr ke anh‍targat ane vale utaradayith‍v jaise sadak sudhar, avas, jal apoorti, sh‍vachh‍chhata ith‍yadi sammilit the.
  • vikshep tatha vikriti mapane ke lie snsh‍than ne vibhinh‍n takanikon ka vikas kiya tatha setuon ka nishh‍padan moolh‍yankan ke lie parikshan bhar prayog men lae ge. is kshetr men anh‍tarik parikshan suvidhaen bhi vikasit ki gee.
  • julaee 1977 men pro.si.ji. sh‍vaminathan ne nideshak ka padabhar samh‍bhala.
  • 1978 men yatayat evn parivahan prabhag dvara bamh‍bee mahanagar kshetr ke lie vish‍trit yatayat evn parivahan adhh‍yayan kiya gaya.
  • 1979 men snsh‍than dvara vishh‍v baink dvara prayojit sadak upabhokh‍ta lagat adhh‍yayan praramh‍bh kiya gaya. adhh‍yayan ka uddeshh‍y vibhinh‍n paristhitiyon ke anh‍targat vahan nishh‍padan ke ganitiy maaudal ka vikas karane ke lie vish‍trit data ek‍tri‍t karana tha, jo ki vibhinh‍n vargon ke vahanon ki eedhan khapat ka anuman lagaega. data ka upayog vishh‍v baink ke mahamarg abhikalh‍p tatha rakharakhav (ech.di.em. - 3) ke maaudal ka vikas karane men kiya gaya.
1980-1989 ki mukhh‍y ghatanaen
  • badh pramukh kshetron men gramin sadakon ke nirman ki nee vidhi vikasit ki gee jisamen alh‍p siment udan rakh adhar par alh‍p siment gujh‍jhi dvara anh‍t:snbndhit poorv nirmit knkrit bh‍lak pagadndi ke sath-sath bichhae ge. is prakar pagadndi rash‍te lamh‍be samay tak badh ke pani men doobe rahane par bhi aprabhavit rahe.
  • bharat men buniyadi sadak jalatntr ki sadak jh‍yamitiy tatha satah vishishh‍tataon par adhh‍yayan kiya gaya. adhh‍yayan ke anh‍targat 67 rashh‍triy mahamarg par phaili 31,700 ki.mi. lamh‍baee ka soochikaran sammilit tha. prath‍yek ki.mi. ke lie rookshata, kshaitij vakrata tatha urdhh‍vadhar prophail data ek‍tri‍t karane ke lie yntrikrit kar ka prayog kiya gaya. kuttim sthiti, chaudaee, satah prakar par anh‍y data bhi soochikrit kiya gaya.
  • 1983 men da.em.pi.dhir ne ne nideshak ke roop men padabhar samh‍bhala.
  • 0.27 ki.gra./em2 tak ranh‍dhr jaladab mapane ke lie kaisagrained pijomitar ka sudhara roop vikasit kiya gaya.
  • tri-akshiy sail ka sudhar kiya gaya jisaka prayog kshaitij tatha urdhh‍vadhar donon dishaon men ubhar dab mapane ke lie kiya jata hai.
  • 19 rashh‍tihy havaee adadon ko unaki dhavan-patti (ranave) kuttim dridhikaran ke lie ankalit kiya gaya. bharatiy viman patan (eyaraport) pradhikaran ke anurodh par 1987-89 men pariyojana li gee.
  • vibhinh‍n rajh‍yon tatha rashh‍triy mahamargo par dhuri bhar sarvekshan maikenikal bhar setu ka prayog karate hue poora kiya gaya. is adhh‍yayan ka uddeshh‍y desh ke vibhinh‍n kshetron men vibhinh‍n mahamargo par adhibhar ka nirdharan karana tha.
  • setuon ka bhar vahan kshamata parikshan vibhinh‍n navin vidhiyon ka prayog karate hue kiya gaya. tejapur men 'brahmaputr setu' tatha 'jamh‍moo shrinagar rashh‍triy mahamarg' par ar.si.si. setu ka parikshan kiya gaya.
  • setuon ke ilaiktrik dharan parikshan se ekatri‍t data se ai.ar.si. ke lie (kod aauph prauktis) prakriya snhita banaee gee.
  • bahy poorv-pratibal vidhi ka prayog karate hue puratan thane krik setu ki bhar vahan kshamata ko pun:sh‍thapit kiya gaya.
1990-1999 ki pramukh ghatanaen
  • pro. di.vi. sinh 1990 men snsh‍than ke ne nideshak bane.
  • is dashabh‍di ka prarambh bhootal-parivahan mntralay, bharat sarakar dvara prayojit kuttim nishh‍padan adhh‍yayan se huee. kuttim nishh‍padan snketak data 113 parikshan khanh‍don se pakshik adhar par ek‍tri‍t kiya gaya jisamen rajh‍y tatha mahamargo se namoona adhar par kuchh chuninda ne tatha purane donon khanh‍d sammilit kie ge. bad men anukoolatam rakharakhav tatha punarvas rananiti nirdharit karane ke udadeshh‍y se vibhinh‍n prakar ke nigharshan sh‍tar ke lie alag-alag maaudal vikasit kie ge.
  • snsh‍than ne paaulimar snshodhit damar (piemabi) snghatan vikasit kar inaka petent karavaya. desh men kuchhek uth‍padakon ko uth‍padan ke lie praudyogiki hash‍tanh‍tarit ki gee.
  • bainkalamain bim ka prayog karate hue vikshep transadayoosar yntr ke prayog dvara vikshep data sngrah snchalit kiya gaya jisake snket tath‍kal parikshan ke pashh‍chath snsadhit soochana taiyar karane ke lie maikroprosaisar adharit pranali men dale ge.
  • kary sh‍thal si.bi.ar. mapane tatha ankiy man pradarshit karane ke lie snsh‍than men ek suvahy yntr (portebal divais) vikasit kiya gaya jo ki imh‍paikh‍t taish‍tar ke nam se jana jata hai.
  • kutitam sthiti ankada sngrah vh‍hikal mauntid haee rejolh‍yooshan kaimara ka prayog karate hue banaya gaya. pratibimh‍b (imej) vishh‍leshan saauphtaveyar ka prayog karate hue pranali se kutitam ki (darar, udhein, gadhadhe) snkatapoorn sthiti uth‍panh‍n huee.
  • snsh‍than ke visheshgy (ekh‍sapart) paryavekshan ke anh‍targat adhikatar pahadi kshetron men anh‍t:pashan knkrit khanh‍d kutitam nirmit ki gee. is prakar ki kuttim ke lie niche uchit ninv tatha kinaron se parirodh sahare ki avashh‍kata hoti hai.
  • pro.e.ke.guph‍ta ne 1996 men snsh‍than ke ne nideshak ka padabhar samh‍bhala.
  • vibhinh‍n shaharon men purani sunamh‍y kuttim ka sh‍than knkrit kuttim le rahi hai kh‍yonki ajakal desh men nirman ke lie kachh‍cha mal tatha praudyogiki donon upalabh‍dh hain. snsh‍than knkrit sadak nirman men bade paimane par abhikalh‍p pradata, gunavata niyntrak tatha paryavekshak ke roop men juda hua hai.
  • is dashak men snsh‍than ka ruchipoorn anusndhan kshetr ka vishay raha ki kis prakar apashishh‍t samagri ka nirman men prayog kiya jae. snsh‍than ka prayas tatabndh nirman men udanarakh, talarakh ke prayog ko lokapriy banana hai. yah sarvajanik nirman vibhag men achh‍chhi tarah se sh‍vikrit hai tatha kuchhek mahath‍vapoorn kary hain jaise doosare 'nijamudadin setu' ke lie udanarakh ka tatabndh men prayog, 'okhala phalaeeovar', karnatak men 'rayachoor' sadak ka kuchh khanh‍d.
  • setu abhiyan‍‍triki men ar.si.si. snrachana men snksharan ko nh‍yoonatam karane ke lie sudhare hue parat lep (koting) par khoj, ti-adhar ar.si.si. snrachana ke acharan par adhh‍yayan tatha setuon ke nishh‍padan maaunitaring ke lie, nee takanikon ka vikas karane ke lie niji kshetron men disha nirdesh tatha abhikalh‍p mainual taiyar kie ge.
  • pro.pi.ke. sikadar ne snsh‍than ke agami nideshak ka padabhar 23 akh‍toobar 1998 men samh‍bhala.
2000-2005 ki mahath‍vapoorn ghatanaen
  • sh‍thaniy kshetr jalatntr (lokal eriya netavark) ‘lain’ sh‍thapit kiya gaya . ‘lain’ kaimh‍pas men 200 parsanal kamh‍ph‍yootaron ko jodane ke lie 10/100 MBPs baindavidth ti si pi / ai pi protokol ka prayog karate hue uchh‍ch gati kamh‍ph‍yootar knnh‍driy tatha karyasamooh svich jalatntr hai . lain ke sath sath upayogakarth‍taon ko ee-mel tatha intaranet sevaen pradan ki geen. entivayaras saphtaveyar bhi dala gaya. snsh‍than men ai.ti. suvidhaon ka vish‍tar kiya gaya. vaigyanikon tatha anh‍y sh‍taph sadash‍yon ko kamh‍ph‍yootar, printar tatha sh‍kainar die ge.
  • bhai. soo. pr. (ji.aee.es) prayogashala sh‍thapit ki gee tatha ek alag samooh keval ji.ai.es anuprayog par kary karane ke lie banaya gaya.
  • anusndhan tatha vikas prayoshalaon ke adhunikikaran yojana ko praramh‍bh kiya gaya tatha bahut se adhunikatam tatha sh‍tet aauph art upash‍kar lie ge aur unaka parichalan kiya.
  • pradhanamntri gram sadak yojana (pi.em.ji.es.vaee.) pradhanamntri atal bihari vajapeyi ke dvara praramh‍bh ki gee. is karyakram ka uddeshh‍y varsh 2007 tak 500 tak ki janasnkhh‍ya vale ganvon ke graminon ko motarachalit barahamasi sadakon se samh‍badhh‍data pradan karana tha. snsh‍than ne desh ke vibhinh‍n bhagon men jagarookata lane ke lie prashikshan karyakram snchalit kie tatha is karyakram ko desh bhar men gramin vikas mntralay, rajh‍y sarvajanik nirman vibhag, bharatiy praudyogiki snsh‍than tatha kshetriy abhiyan‍tri‍ki vidyalay ke sath samanvit kiya. snsh‍than ne adhar daaukh‍yoomaintas ko taiyar karana praramh‍bh kiya, anh‍y sngathanon ke sath paramarsh kar vidhi pranali taiyar ki tatha abhikalh‍p mainual tatha saphataveyar ishh‍tatam samh‍badhh‍data nirdharit karane ke lie taiyar kiya. karyanh‍vayan bhag bad men rajh‍y pi.dabh‍loo.di. ko hash‍tanh‍tarit kiya gaya.
  • snsh‍than ne prashikshan tatha mahamarg vikas ke prasar men mahath‍vapoorn bhoomika nibhaee tatha ech.di.em.-4 saauphtaveyar ke madhh‍yam se prabndh praiktis jo ki barmi़gaham vishh‍vavidyalay, yoo.ke. dvara kod ki gee tatha vishh‍v men anekon sivil abhiyan‍triki anusndhan snsh‍thanon ke dvara banaee gee.
  • daaumar par anusndhan jari hai. nee uth‍padan (jainereshan) uchh‍ch nishh‍padan damar tatha mishr abhikalh‍p ke anh‍y prakar vikasit kie tatha udyog ko prash‍tavit kiya gaya.
  • snsh‍than ne 28 pharavari 2004 men bi.aee.es.se aee.es.o. 2001:1994 kh‍yoo.em.es. laisains liya gaya. aee.es.o. praman patr se snsh‍than ko anh‍tarik kary pravah tatha prabanh‍dh ko pun:gathit karane men sahayata mili.
  • vahan ee़ndhan niti par rashh‍triy pariyojana samay rahate poori ki gayi tatha si.es.aee.ar. ke madhh‍yam se bharat sarakar ko snsh‍tuti di gee.
  • kenh‍driy sadak anusndhan snsh‍than ke vaigyanikon ne varsh ke dauran vaigyanik tatha audyogik anusndhan parishad ke hirak jayanh‍ti varsh ke upalaksh men anek karyakram ayojit kie jaise karyashala, golamej, khulamnch, pratiyogitaen ith‍yadi.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

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