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भारत डिस्कवरी प्रस्तुति
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dakaghar
vivaran 'dakaghar' ek suvidha hai jo patroan ko jama karane (post karane), chhaantane, pahuanchane adi ka kary karati hai. yah ek dak vyavastha ke tahat kam karata hai.
shuruat aangrezoan ne sainy aur khufiya sevaoan ki madad ke maqasad lie bharat mean pahali bar 1688 mean muanbee mean pahala dakaghar khola.
svikriti bharatiy dakaghar ko rashtriy mahatv ke ek alag sangathan ke roop mean svikar kiya gaya aur use 1 aktoobar 1854 ko dakaghar mahanideshak ke sidhe niyantran mean sauanp diya gaya.
sadash‍yata bharat 1876 se 'yoonivarsal posh‍tal yooniyan' (yoo.pi.yoo.) ka aur 1964 se 'eshiya prashaant posh‍tal yooniyan' (e.pi.pi.yoo.) ka sadash‍y hai.
any janakari azadi ke samay desh bhar mean 23,344 dakaghar the. inamean se 19,184 dakaghar gramin kshetroan mean aur 4,160 shahari kshetroan mean the. azadi ke bad dak netavark ka sat guna se jyada vistar hua hai. vartaman mean ek lakh 55 hazar dakagharoan ke sath bharatiy dak pranali vishv mean pahale sthan par hai.

dakaghar (aangrezi: Post Office) ek suvidha hai jo patroan ko jama karane (post karane), chhaantane, pahuanchane adi ka kary karati hai. yah ek dak vyavastha ke tahat kam karata hai. lagabhag 500 sal purani 'bharatiy dak pranali' aj duniya ki sabase vishvasaniy aur behatar dak pranali mean avval sthan par hai. aj bhi hamare yahaan har sal qarib 900 karo d chithiyoan ko bharatiy dak dvara daravaze - daravaze tak pahuanchaya jata hai.

bharatiy dak-vyavastha

aangrezoan ne sainy aur khufiya sevaoan ki madad ke maqasad lie bharat mean pahali bar 1688 mean muanbee mean pahala dakaghar khola. phir unhoanne apane suvidha ke lie desh ke any ilakoan mean dakagharoan ki sthapana karavaee. 1766 mean l aaurd kh‍laiv dvara dak-vh‍yavash‍tha ke vikas ke lie kee kadam uthate hue, bharat mean ek adhunik dak-vyavastha ki nianv rakhi gee. is sambandh mean age ka kam varen hesh‍tiangh‍s dvara kiya gaya, unhoanne 1774 mean kalakatta mean pahale janaral posh‍t aauphis ki sh‍thapana ki. yah ji.pi.o. (janaral posh‍t aauphis) ek posh‍tamash‍tar janaral ke adhin kary karata tha. phir age 1786 mean madras aur 1793 mean banbee presideansi mean 'janaral posh‍t aauphis' ki sthapana ki gee.[1][[chitr:Post-office-lucknow.jpg|left|thumb|dakaghar, lakhanoo]]

akhil bharatiy seva

1837 mean ek adhiniyam dvara bharatiy dakagharoan ke lie ek akhil bharatiy seva ko prarambh kiya gaya aur phir 1854 ke 'posh‍t aauphis adhiniyam' se poori dak pranali ke sh‍varoop mean ek naya badalav aya  aur pahali aktoobar 1854 ko ek mahanideshak ke niyantran mean bharatiy dak-pranali ne adhunik roop mean kam karana prarambh kar diya. us samay bharat mean kul 701 dakaghar the. isi sal 'rel dak seva' ki bhi sthapana huee aur bharat se briten aur chin ke bich 'samudri dak seva' bhi prarambh ki gee. isi varsh desh bhar mean pahala vaidh dak tikat bhi jari kiya gaya.[1]

bharatiy dakaghar ka itihas

koee bhi sansthan dakaghar jitana adami ki ziandagi ke itane qarib nahian pahuanch saka hai. dakaghar ki pahuanch desh ke kone kone tak hai. ek vajah yah bhi hai ki jisake karan sarakari aur gair sarakari sansthaoan ko logoan tak pahuanchane mean hone vali kathinaee ki sthiti mean ye dakaghar jaisi ejeansiyoan ka istemal karate haian. pahali bar bharatiy dakaghar ko rashtriy mahatv ke ek alag sangathan ke roop mean svikar kiya gaya aur use 1 aktoobar 1854 ko dakaghar mahanideshak ke sidhe niyantran mean sauanp diya gaya. is tarah dak vibhag ne sanh 2004 mean 1 aktoobar ko apane 150 varsh poore kiye. bharatiy dak vyavastha kee vyavasthaoan ko jo dakar bani hai. 650 se jyada rajava doan ki dak pranaliyoan, zila dak pranali aur jamiandari dak vyavastha ko pramukh british dak vyavastha mean shamil kiya gaya tha. in tuk doan ko itani khoobasoorati se jo da gaya hai ki aisa pratit hota hai ki yah ek sanpoorn akhandit sangathan hai. [[chitr:Post-office-nehru-park.jpg|thumb|tairata hua dakaghar, neharoo park, shrinagar]] 1766 mean lard klaiv ne desh mean pahali dak vyavastha sthapit ki thi. isake bad 1774 mean varen hestiangs ne is vyavastha ko aur majaboot kiya. unhoanne ek maha dakapal ke adhin kalakatta pradhan dakaghar sthapit kiya. madras aur banbee presideansi mean kramashah 1786 aur 1793 mean dak vyavastha shuroo ki gee. 1837 mean dak adhiniyam lagoo kiya gaya taki tinoan presidensi mean sabhi dak sangathanoan ko apas mean milakar deshastar par ek akhil bharatiy dak seva banaee ja sake. 1854 mean dakaghar adhiniyam ke jarie ek aktoobar 1854 ko maujooda prashasanik adhar par bharatiy dak ghar ko poori tarah sudhara gaya.

dak aur tar

1854 mean dak aur tar donoan hi vibhag astitv mean ae. shuroo se hi donoan vibhag jan kalyan ko dhyan mean rakh kar chalae ge. labh kamana uddeshy nahian tha. 19vian shatabdi ke uttarardh mean sarakar ne phaisala kiya ki vibhag ko apane kharche nikal lene chahie. utana hi kafi hoga. 20vian sadi mean bhi yahi kram bana raha. dakaghar aur tar vibhag ke kriyakalapoan mean ek sath vikas hota raha. 1914 ke pratham vishv yuddh ki shurooat mean donoan vibhagoan ko mila diya gaya.[2] [[chitr:Post-office-banglore-2.jpg|thumb|left|dakaghar, baiangalor]]

sevaoan ka ekikaran

bharatiy rajyoan ke vittiy aur rajanitik ekikaran ke chalate yah avashyak aur aparihary ho gaya ki bharat sarakar bharatiy rajyoan ki dak vyavastha ko ek vistrit dak vyavastha ke adhin lae. aise kee rajy the jinake apane zila aur svatantr dak sangathan the aur unake apane dak tikat chalate the. in rajyoan ke laitar baks hare rang mean range jate the taki ve bharatiy dakagharoan ke lal laitar baksoan se alag nazar aean. 1908 mean bharat ke 652 deshi rajyoan mean se 635 rajyoan ne bharatiy dak ghar mean shamil hona svikar kiya. keval 15 rajy bahar rahe, jinamean haidarabad, gvaliyar, jayapur aur travanakor pramukh haian. 1925 mean dak aur tar vibhag ka b de paimane par punargathan kiya gaya. vibhag ki vittiy sthiti ka jayaja lene ke lie usake khatoan ko dobara vyavasthit kiya gaya. uddeshy yah pata lagana tha ki vibhag karadataoan par kitana bojh dal raha hai ya sarakar ka rajasv kitana badha raha hai aur is disha mean vibhag ki charoan shakhaean yani dak, tar, teliphon aur betar kitani bhoomika nibha rahe haian.[2] thumb|left|dakaghar, kashmiri get

svatantrata sangram ke dauran

un kathin dinoan mean desh ke sath-sath dak vibhag bhi isake asar se achhoota nahian raha. 1857 ke bad vibhag ne agajani aur lootamar ka daur dekha. ek upadakapal aur ek ovarasiyar ki hatya kar di gee, ek ranar ko ghayal kar diya gaya aur bihar, uttar pradesh, uttar pashchimi simaant rajyoan ke kee dakagharoan ko loot liya gaya. uttar pashchimi simaant rajyoan aur avadh mean sabhi sanchar lainoan ko band kar diya gaya tha aur hiansa khatm ho jane ke bad bhi sal bhar tak kee dakagharoan ko dobara nahian khola ja saka. lagabhag paanch mah tak chalane vali 1920 ki dak h dataloan ne desh ki dak seva ko poori tarah thapp kar diya tha. 1942 ke bharat chho do aandolan ke dauran kee dakagharoan aur laitar baksoan ko jala diya gaya tha, aur dak ka ana-jana b di mushkil se ho pata tha. isake karan kee sektaroan mean dak sevaean g dab da gee thian.[2]

sadasyata

[[chitr:Post-office-banglore.jpg|thumb|dakaghar, baiangalor]] bharat 1876 se 'yoonivarsal posh‍tal yooniyan' (yoo.pi.yoo.) ka aur 1964 se 'eshiya prashaant posh‍tal yooniyan' (e.pi.pi.yoo.) ka sadash‍y hai. bharatiy dak 217 se bhi adhik deshoan ke sath sh‍thaliy aur viman seva dvara patroan ka adan-pradan karata hai. bharatiy dak dvara 27 deshoan ke sath maniaaurdar seva ki vh‍yavash‍tha ki gee hai aur 25 deshoan ke sath sirph paisa ane vali ( bhugatan) suvidha upalabh‍dh ki gee hai. jabaki bhootan evan nepal ke sath dotarapha maniaaurdar seva ki vyavastha ki gee hai. 'aantararashtriy ilekh‍tr aaunik maniaaurdar seva' dvara 97 deshoan ke sath ilekh‍tr aaunik maniaaurdar seva chalayi ja rahi hai.[[chitr:Gpo mumbai.jpg|thumb|left| dakaghar, mumbee]]

sabase b di dak pranali

azadi ke samay desh bhar mean 23,344 dakaghar the. inamean se 19,184 dakaghar gramin kshetroan mean aur 4,160 shahari kshetroan mean the. ajadi ke bad dak netavark ka sat guna se jyada vistar hua hai. aj ek lakh 55 hazar dakagharoan ke sath bharatiy dak pranali vishv mean pahale sthan par hai. lagabhag ek lakh 55 hazar se bhi zyada dakagharoan vala bharatiy dak tantr vishv ki sabase b di dak pranali hone ke sath-sath desh mean sabase b da ritel netavark bhi hai. yah desh ka pahala bachat baiank bhi tha aur aj isake 16 karo d se bhi zyada khatedar haian aur dakagharoan ke khate mean do karo d 60 lakh karo d se bhi adhik rashi jama hai. is vibhag ka salana rajasv 1500 karo d se bhi adhik hai.[1]

svaroop

thumb|dakaghar, sansad marg deshabhar mean dedh lakh se zyada dakaghar haian. jisaki sevaean log kee tarikoan se rojamarra ki ziandagi mean istemal karate haian.

b de dakaghar

  1. sab post aauphis
  2. hed post aauphis
  3. janaral post aauphis
  • ye post aauphis sabhi prakar ki sevaean upalabdh karate haian.

chhote dakaghऱ

  1. shakha post aauphis
  2. vibhagettar post aauphis
  • in post aauphisoan mean rojamarra ki jaruratoan ki zaroori sevaean hi upalabdh hoti haian.[3]

dak seva ka vikas

pichhale kee saloan mean dak vitaran ke kshetr mean bahut vikas hua hai aur yah dakie dvara chitthi baantane se spid post aur spid post se ee-post ke yug mean pahuanch gaya hai. post kard 1879 mean chalaya gaya jabaki 'vailyoo peebal parsal' (vipipi), parsal aur bima parsal 1977 mean shuroo kie ge. bharatiy postal ardar 1930 mean shuroo hua. tej dak vitaran ke lie postal iandeks nanbar (pinakod) 1972 mean shuroo hua. tezise badalate paridrishy aur halat ko madde najar rakhate hue 1985 mean dak aur doorasanchar vibhag ko alag-alag kar diya gaya. samay ki badalati avashyakataoan ko dhyan mean rakhakar 1986 mean spid post shuroo huee or 1994 mean metro, rajadhani, vyapar chainal, eepies aur visait ke madhyam se mani aaurdar bheja jana shuroo kiya gaya.[[chitr:Post-office-darjling.jpg|thumb|left|dakaghar, darjiliang]]

sanchar ka majaboot sadhan

[[chitr:Post-office-mumbai.jpg|thumb|dakaghar, mumbee]] dakaghar ne rashtr ko paraspar jo dane, vanijy ke vikas mean sahayog karane aur vichar v soochana ke abadh pravah mean madad ki hai. dak vitaran mean paidal se gho da ga di dvara, phir rel marg se, vahanoan se lekar havaee jahaj tak vikas hua hai. pichhale kee saloan mean dak lane le jane ke tarikoan aur pariman mean badalav aya hai. aj dak yantrikaran aur svachalan par jor diya ja raha hai, jinhean utpadakata aur gunavatta sudharane tatha uttam dak seva pradan karane ke lie apana liya gaya hai. dak sevaoan ke samajik aur arthik kartavy haian jo karobari nazarie se bilakul alag haian. visheshatah vikasashil deshoan mean aisa hi hai. bharosemand dak vyavastha adhunik soochana v vitaran dhaanche ka aham aang hai. isake alava vah arthik vikas aur garibi kam karane mean ek mahatvapoorn sadhan hai.[4]

vistrit gatividhiyaan

bharatiy dak seva ka kshetr chitthiyaan baantane aur sanchar ka karagar sadhan bane rahane tak hi simit nahian hai. apako sunakar hairani ho sakati hai ki shurooati dinoan mean dakaghar vibhag, dak bangaloan aur sarayoan ka rakh rakhav bhi karata tha. 1830 se lagabhag tis saloan se bhi jyada tak yah vibhag yatriyoan ke lie s dak yatra ko bhi suvidhajanak banate the. koee bhi yatri ek nishchit rashi ke agrim par palaki, nav, gho de, gho daga di aur dak le jane vali ga di mean apani jagah arakshit karava sakata tha. vah raste mean p dane vali dak chaukiyoan mean aram bhi kar sakata tha. yahi dak chaukiyaan bad mean dak bangala kahalaeean. 19vian sadi ke akhir mean pleg ki mahamari phailane ke dauran, dakagharoan ko kunain ki goliyoan ke paiket bechane ka kam bhi sauanpa gaya tha.

bharat sanyukt parivaroan aur chhoti amadani vale logoan ka desh hai, jahaan logoan ko chhoti rakamoan ki soorat mean lakhoan roope bhejane p date haian. rupayoan ke len-den ka kam zila mukhyalayoan mean sthit 321 sarakari khajanoan dvara kiya jata tha. 1880 mean maniardar ke dvara chhoti rakamean bhejane ka kam 5090 dakaghar vali vistrit dak ejeansi ko diya gaya aur is tarah zila mukhyalayoan tak jane aur praptakarta dvara pahachan sabit karane ki kathinaiyaan kam ho geean. 1884 mean uchch padoan par asin karmachariyoan ko chho dakar desi dak karmachariyoan ke lie dak jivan bima yojana shuroo ki gee, kyoanki bharat mean kam karane vali bima kanpaniyaan am bharatiy nivasiyoan ka bima karane se katarati thian.[2]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sandarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 dakaghar ki kahani itihas ki jubani (hiandi) IAS. abhigaman tithi: 24 disambar, 2013.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 bharatiy dakaghar ka itihas (hiandi) googal grup. abhigaman tithi: 27 disambar, 2013.
  3. dak seva ka adhikar (hiandi). . abhigaman tithi: 24 disambar, 2013.
  4. bharatiy dakaghar ka itihas (hiandi). . abhigaman tithi: 24 disambar, 2013.

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