डाकघर  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

dakaghar
kolakata dakaghar
vivaran 'dakaghar' ek suvidha hai jo patron ko jama karane (post karane), chhantane, pahunchane adi ka kary karati hai. yah ek dak vyavastha ke tahat kam karata hai.
shuruat angrezon ne sainy aur khufiya sevaon ki madad ke maqasad lie bharat men pahali bar 1688 men munbee men pahala dakaghar khola.
svikriti bharatiy dakaghar ko rashtriy mahatv ke ek alag sngathan ke roop men svikar kiya gaya aur use 1 aktoobar 1854 ko dakaghar mahanideshak ke sidhe niyntran men saunp diya gaya.
sadash‍yata bharat 1876 se 'yoonivarsal posh‍tal yooniyan' (yoo.pi.yoo.) ka aur 1964 se 'eshiya prashant posh‍tal yooniyan' (e.pi.pi.yoo.) ka sadash‍y hai.
any janakari azadi ke samay desh bhar men 23,344 dakaghar the. inamen se 19,184 dakaghar gramin kshetron men aur 4,160 shahari kshetron men the. azadi ke bad dak netavark ka sat guna se jyada vistar hua hai. vartaman men ek lakh 55 hazar dakagharon ke sath bharatiy dak pranali vishv men pahale sthan par hai.

dakaghar (angrezi: Post Office) ek suvidha hai jo patron ko jama karane (post karane), chhantane, pahunchane adi ka kary karati hai. yah ek dak vyavastha ke tahat kam karata hai. lagabhag 500 sal purani 'bharatiy dak pranali' aj duniya ki sabase vishvasaniy aur behatar dak pranali men avval sthan par hai. aj bhi hamare yahan har sal qarib 900 karod chithiyon ko bharatiy dak dvara daravaze - daravaze tak pahunchaya jata hai.

bharatiy dak-vyavastha

angrezon ne sainy aur khufiya sevaon ki madad ke maqasad lie bharat men pahali bar 1688 men munbee men pahala dakaghar khola. phir unhonne apane suvidha ke lie desh ke any ilakon men dakagharon ki sthapana karavaee. 1766 men laaurd kh‍laiv dvara dak-vh‍yavash‍tha ke vikas ke lie kee kadam uthate hue, bharat men ek adhunik dak-vyavastha ki ninv rakhi gee. is sambndh men age ka kam varen hesh‍tingh‍s dvara kiya gaya, unhonne 1774 men kalakatta men pahale janaral posh‍t aauphis ki sh‍thapana ki. yah ji.pi.o. (janaral posh‍t aauphis) ek posh‍tamash‍tar janaral ke adhin kary karata tha. phir age 1786 men madras aur 1793 men bnbee presidensi men 'janaral posh‍t aauphis' ki sthapana ki gee.[1]
dakaghar, lakhanoo

akhil bharatiy seva

1837 men ek adhiniyam dvara bharatiy dakagharon ke lie ek akhil bharatiy seva ko prarambh kiya gaya aur phir 1854 ke 'posh‍t aauphis adhiniyam' se poori dak pranali ke sh‍varoop men ek naya badalav aya  aur pahali aktoobar 1854 ko ek mahanideshak ke niyntran men bharatiy dak-pranali ne adhunik roop men kam karana prarambh kar diya. us samay bharat men kul 701 dakaghar the. isi sal 'rel dak seva' ki bhi sthapana huee aur bharat se briten aur chin ke bich 'samudri dak seva' bhi prarambh ki gee. isi varsh desh bhar men pahala vaidh dak tikat bhi jari kiya gaya.[1]

bharatiy dakaghar ka itihas

koee bhi snsthan dakaghar jitana adami ki zindagi ke itane qarib nahin pahunch saka hai. dakaghar ki pahunch desh ke kone kone tak hai. ek vajah yah bhi hai ki jisake karan sarakari aur gair sarakari snsthaon ko logon tak pahunchane men hone vali kathinaee ki sthiti men ye dakaghar jaisi ejensiyon ka istemal karate hain. pahali bar bharatiy dakaghar ko rashtriy mahatv ke ek alag sngathan ke roop men svikar kiya gaya aur use 1 aktoobar 1854 ko dakaghar mahanideshak ke sidhe niyntran men saunp diya gaya. is tarah dak vibhag ne sanh 2004 men 1 aktoobar ko apane 150 varsh poore kiye. bharatiy dak vyavastha kee vyavasthaon ko jodakar bani hai. 650 se jyada rajavadon ki dak pranaliyon, zila dak pranali aur jamindari dak vyavastha ko pramukh british dak vyavastha men shamil kiya gaya tha. in tukadon ko itani khoobasoorati se joda gaya hai ki aisa pratit hota hai ki yah ek snpoorn akhndit sngathan hai.

tairata hua dakaghar, neharoo park, shrinagar

1766 men lard klaiv ne desh men pahali dak vyavastha sthapit ki thi. isake bad 1774 men varen hestings ne is vyavastha ko aur majaboot kiya. unhonne ek maha dakapal ke adhin kalakatta pradhan dakaghar sthapit kiya. madras aur bnbee presidensi men kramashah 1786 aur 1793 men dak vyavastha shuroo ki gee. 1837 men dak adhiniyam lagoo kiya gaya taki tinon presidensi men sabhi dak sngathanon ko apas men milakar deshastar par ek akhil bharatiy dak seva banaee ja sake. 1854 men dakaghar adhiniyam ke jarie ek aktoobar 1854 ko maujooda prashasanik adhar par bharatiy dak ghar ko poori tarah sudhara gaya.

dak aur tar

1854 men dak aur tar donon hi vibhag astitv men ae. shuroo se hi donon vibhag jan kalyan ko dhyan men rakh kar chalae ge. labh kamana uddeshy nahin tha. 19vin shatabdi ke uttarardh men sarakar ne phaisala kiya ki vibhag ko apane kharche nikal lene chahie. utana hi kafi hoga. 20vin sadi men bhi yahi kram bana raha. dakaghar aur tar vibhag ke kriyakalapon men ek sath vikas hota raha. 1914 ke pratham vishv yuddh ki shurooat men donon vibhagon ko mila diya gaya.[2]

dakaghar, baingalor

sevaon ka ekikaran

bharatiy rajyon ke vittiy aur rajanitik ekikaran ke chalate yah avashyak aur aparihary ho gaya ki bharat sarakar bharatiy rajyon ki dak vyavastha ko ek vistrit dak vyavastha ke adhin lae. aise kee rajy the jinake apane zila aur svatntr dak sngathan the aur unake apane dak tikat chalate the. in rajyon ke laitar baks hare rng men rnge jate the taki ve bharatiy dakagharon ke lal laitar bakson se alag nazar aen. 1908 men bharat ke 652 deshi rajyon men se 635 rajyon ne bharatiy dak ghar men shamil hona svikar kiya. keval 15 rajy bahar rahe, jinamen haidarabad, gvaliyar, jayapur aur travanakor pramukh hain. 1925 men dak aur tar vibhag ka bade paimane par punargathan kiya gaya. vibhag ki vittiy sthiti ka jayaja lene ke lie usake khaton ko dobara vyavasthit kiya gaya. uddeshy yah pata lagana tha ki vibhag karadataon par kitana bojh dal raha hai ya sarakar ka rajasv kitana badha raha hai aur is disha men vibhag ki charon shakhaen yani dak, tar, teliphon aur betar kitani bhoomika nibha rahe hain.[2]

dakaghar, kashmiri get

svatntrata sngram ke dauran

un kathin dinon men desh ke sath-sath dak vibhag bhi isake asar se achhoota nahin raha. 1857 ke bad vibhag ne agajani aur lootamar ka daur dekha. ek upadakapal aur ek ovarasiyar ki hatya kar di gee, ek ranar ko ghayal kar diya gaya aur bihar, uttar pradesh, uttar pashchimi simant rajyon ke kee dakagharon ko loot liya gaya. uttar pashchimi simant rajyon aur avadh men sabhi snchar lainon ko bnd kar diya gaya tha aur hinsa khatm ho jane ke bad bhi sal bhar tak kee dakagharon ko dobara nahin khola ja saka. lagabhag panch mah tak chalane vali 1920 ki dak hadatalon ne desh ki dak seva ko poori tarah thapp kar diya tha. 1942 ke bharat chhodo andolan ke dauran kee dakagharon aur laitar bakson ko jala diya gaya tha, aur dak ka ana-jana badi mushkil se ho pata tha. isake karan kee sektaron men dak sevaen gadabada gee thin.[2]

sadasyata

dakaghar, baingalor
bharat 1876 se 'yoonivarsal posh‍tal yooniyan' (yoo.pi.yoo.) ka aur 1964 se 'eshiya prashant posh‍tal yooniyan' (e.pi.pi.yoo.) ka sadash‍y hai. bharatiy dak 217 se bhi adhik deshon ke sath sh‍thaliy aur viman seva dvara patron ka adan-pradan karata hai. bharatiy dak dvara 27 deshon ke sath maniaaurdar seva ki vh‍yavash‍tha ki gee hai aur 25 deshon ke sath sirph paisa ane vali ( bhugatan) suvidha upalabh‍dh ki gee hai. jabaki bhootan evn nepal ke sath dotarapha maniaaurdar seva ki vyavastha ki gee hai. 'antararashtriy ilekh‍traaunik maniaaurdar seva' dvara 97 deshon ke sath ilekh‍traaunik maniaaurdar seva chalayi ja rahi hai.
dakaghar, mumbee

sabase badi dak pranali

azadi ke samay desh bhar men 23,344 dakaghar the. inamen se 19,184 dakaghar gramin kshetron men aur 4,160 shahari kshetron men the. ajadi ke bad dak netavark ka sat guna se jyada vistar hua hai. aj ek lakh 55 hazar dakagharon ke sath bharatiy dak pranali vishv men pahale sthan par hai. lagabhag ek lakh 55 hazar se bhi zyada dakagharon vala bharatiy dak tntr vishv ki sabase badi dak pranali hone ke sath-sath desh men sabase bada ritel netavark bhi hai. yah desh ka pahala bachat baink bhi tha aur aj isake 16 karod se bhi zyada khatedar hain aur dakagharon ke khate men do karod 60 lakh karod se bhi adhik rashi jama hai. is vibhag ka salana rajasv 1500 karod se bhi adhik hai.[1]

svaroop

dakaghar, snsad marg

deshabhar men dedh lakh se zyada dakaghar hain. jisaki sevaen log kee tarikon se rojamarra ki zindagi men istemal karate hain.

bade dakaghar

  1. sab post aauphis
  2. hed post aauphis
  3. janaral post aauphis
  • ye post aauphis sabhi prakar ki sevaen upalabdh karate hain.

chhote dakaghऱ

  1. shakha post aauphis
  2. vibhagettar post aauphis
  • in post aauphison men rojamarra ki jaruraton ki zaroori sevaen hi upalabdh hoti hain.[3]

dak seva ka vikas

pichhale kee salon men dak vitaran ke kshetr men bahut vikas hua hai aur yah dakie dvara chitthi bantane se spid post aur spid post se ee-post ke yug men pahunch gaya hai. post kard 1879 men chalaya gaya jabaki 'vailyoo peebal parsal' (vipipi), parsal aur bima parsal 1977 men shuroo kie ge. bharatiy postal ardar 1930 men shuroo hua. tej dak vitaran ke lie postal indeks nnbar (pinakod) 1972 men shuroo hua. tezise badalate paridrishy aur halat ko madde najar rakhate hue 1985 men dak aur doorasnchar vibhag ko alag-alag kar diya gaya. samay ki badalati avashyakataon ko dhyan men rakhakar 1986 men spid post shuroo huee or 1994 men metro, rajadhani, vyapar chainal, eepies aur visait ke madhyam se mani aaurdar bheja jana shuroo kiya gaya.
dakaghar, darjiling

snchar ka majaboot sadhan

dakaghar, mumbee

dakaghar ne rashtr ko paraspar jodane, vanijy ke vikas men sahayog karane aur vichar v soochana ke abadh pravah men madad ki hai. dak vitaran men paidal se ghoda gadi dvara, phir rel marg se, vahanon se lekar havaee jahaj tak vikas hua hai. pichhale kee salon men dak lane le jane ke tarikon aur pariman men badalav aya hai. aj dak yntrikaran aur svachalan par jor diya ja raha hai, jinhen utpadakata aur gunavatta sudharane tatha uttam dak seva pradan karane ke lie apana liya gaya hai. dak sevaon ke samajik aur arthik kartavy hain jo karobari nazarie se bilakul alag hain. visheshatah vikasashil deshon men aisa hi hai. bharosemnd dak vyavastha adhunik soochana v vitaran dhanche ka aham ang hai. isake alava vah arthik vikas aur garibi kam karane men ek mahatvapoorn sadhan hai.[4]

vistrit gatividhiyan

bharatiy dak seva ka kshetr chitthiyan bantane aur snchar ka karagar sadhan bane rahane tak hi simit nahin hai. apako sunakar hairani ho sakati hai ki shurooati dinon men dakaghar vibhag, dak bngalon aur sarayon ka rakh rakhav bhi karata tha. 1830 se lagabhag tis salon se bhi jyada tak yah vibhag yatriyon ke lie sadak yatra ko bhi suvidhajanak banate the. koee bhi yatri ek nishchit rashi ke agrim par palaki, nav, ghode, ghodagadi aur dak le jane vali gadi men apani jagah arakshit karava sakata tha. vah raste men padane vali dak chaukiyon men aram bhi kar sakata tha. yahi dak chaukiyan bad men dak bngala kahalaeen. 19vin sadi ke akhir men pleg ki mahamari phailane ke dauran, dakagharon ko kunain ki goliyon ke paiket bechane ka kam bhi saunpa gaya tha.

bharat snyukt parivaron aur chhoti amadani vale logon ka desh hai, jahan logon ko chhoti rakamon ki soorat men lakhon roope bhejane padate hain. rupayon ke len-den ka kam zila mukhyalayon men sthit 321 sarakari khajanon dvara kiya jata tha. 1880 men maniardar ke dvara chhoti rakamen bhejane ka kam 5090 dakaghar vali vistrit dak ejensi ko diya gaya aur is tarah zila mukhyalayon tak jane aur praptakarta dvara pahachan sabit karane ki kathinaiyan kam ho geen. 1884 men uchch padon par asin karmachariyon ko chhodakar desi dak karmachariyon ke lie dak jivan bima yojana shuroo ki gee, kyonki bharat men kam karane vali bima knpaniyan am bharatiy nivasiyon ka bima karane se katarati thin.[2]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 dakaghar ki kahani itihas ki jubani (hindi) IAS. abhigaman tithi: 24 disambar, 2013.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 bharatiy dakaghar ka itihas (hindi) googal grup. abhigaman tithi: 27 disambar, 2013.
  3. dak seva ka adhikar (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 24 disambar, 2013.
  4. bharatiy dakaghar ka itihas (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 24 disambar, 2013.

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