संविधान संशोधन- 91वाँ  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

snvidhan snshodhan- 91van
bharat ka snvidhan
vivaran 'bharatiy snvidhan' ka nirman 'snvidhan sabha' dvara kiya gaya tha. snvidhan men samay-samay par avashyakata hone par snshodhan bhi hote rahe hain. vidhayini sabha men kisi vidheyak men parivartan, sudhar athava use nirdosh banane ki prakriya ko hi 'snshodhan' kaha jata hai.
snvidhan lagoo hone ki tithi 26 janavari, 1950
91van snshodhan 2003
snbndhit lekh snvidhan sabha
any janakari 'bharat ka snvidhan' briten ki snsadiy pranali ke namoone par adharit hai, kintu ek vishay men yah usase bhinn hai. briten men snsad sarvochch hai, jabaki bharat men snsad nahin; balki 'snvidhan' sarvochch hai.

bharat ka snvidhan (91van snshodhan) adhiniyam, 2003

  • bharat ke snvidhan men ek aur snshodhan kiya gaya.
  • snvidhan ke anuchchhed 75 men dhara (1) ke bad nimnalikhit dharaen jodi jae, jo ki is prakar hai:

"(1e) mntriparishad men pradhanamntri sahit mntriyon ki kul snkhya sadan ke sadasyon ki kul snkhya ke 15 pratishat se adhik nahin honi chahie.

(1bi) snsad ke kisi bhi sadan ka sadasy jo ki kisi bhi rajanitik dal se snbaddh ho tatha use dasavin anusoochi ke paira 2 ke antargat us sadan ka sadasy banane ke ayogy ghoshit kar diya ho, vah dhara (1) ke tahat mntri ke pad par niyukti ke lie bhi ayogy mana jaega aur yah avadhi use ayogy ghoshit kie jane ki tarikh se shuroo hogi aur us tarikh tak lagoo rahegi jis avadhi tak usaka sadasy ke roop men karyakal samapt nahin hota ya us avadhi ke samapt hone se pahale us tarikh tak, jab vah kahin se snsad ke kisi bhi sadan ke lie hue chunav men khada hua ho, aur use nirvachit ghoshit kiya gaya ho, jo bhi pahale ho".

  • snvidhan ke anuchchhed 164 men dhara (1) ke bad nimnalikhit dharaen jodi jaen:

"(1e) rajy men mntriparishad men mukhyamntri sahit mntriyon ki kul snkhya rajy ki vidhanasabha ke sadasyon ki kul snkhya ke 15 pratishat se adhik nahin honi chahie:

  • basharte rajy men mntriyon ki kul snkhya mukhyamntri sahit 12 se kam nahin ho:

basharte jahan kisi rajy men mntriparishad men mntriyon ki kul snkhya mukhyamntri sahit snvidhan (91van snshodhan) adhiniyam, 2003 lagoo hone ki tarikh ko uparokt 15 pratishat ya pahale upakhnd men nirdisht snkhya se zyada ho, jaisa bhi mamala ho, tab us rajy men mntriyon ki kul snkhya ko is dhara ke pravadhanon ke mutabik nirdharit karane ke lie rashtrapati dvara is bare men sarvajanik adhisoochana jari karane ki tarikh ke chhah mahine ke bhitar is dhara ke pravadhanon ka palan kiya jae.

(1bi) rajy vidhanasabha ya rajy vidhanamndal ke kisi bhi sadan, jahan vidhanaparishad ho, ka sadasy jo kisi bhi rajanitik dal se snbaddh ho tatha jise dasavin anusoochi ke paira 2 ke tahat us sadan ka sadasy banane ke ayogy ghoshit kar diya gaya ho, dhara (1) ke tahat use mntri pad par niyukti ke lie bhi ayogy mana jaega tatha vah avadhi use ayogy ghoshit kie jane ki tarikh se us tarikh tak jari rahegi jab tak usaki us sadasy ke roop men niyukti ki avadhi samapt nahin ho jati ya us avadhi ke samapt hone se pahale, us tarikh se, jab vah rajy vidhanasabha ya vidhanamndal ke kisi bhi sadan ke lie chunav lade, jahan vidhanaparishad ho, jaisa bhi mamala ho, use nirvachit ghoshit kiya jae, jo bhi pahale ho."

  • snvidhan ke anuchchhed 361e ke bad nimnalikhit anuchchhed joda jae, jo is prakar hai:

'261bi- kisi bhi rajanitik dal se snbaddh sadan ka sadasy jise dasavin anusoochi ke paira 2 ke antargat sadan ki sadasyata ke ayogy ghoshit kiya gaya ho, vah us avadhi men kisi labhakari rajanitik pad ke lie bhi ayogy mana jaega. use ayogy ghoshit kie jane ki tarikh se tab tak ke lie, jab tak usaki sadasy ke roop men niyukti ki avadhi samapt nahin ho jati ya us tarikh tak, jab vah sadan ke lie koee chunav lade aur nirvachit ghoshit kiya jae, jo bhi pahale ho.'

  • vyakhya is anuchchhed ke uddeshy se-

(e) 'sadan' ka arth vahi samajha jaega jo dasavin anusoochi ke paira 1 ki dhara (e) men diya gaya hain. (bi) shabd 'labhakari rajanitik pad' se tatpary kisi karyalay men (I) bharat sarakar ya rajy sarakar ke tahat, jahan aise karyalay men vetan ya parishramik bharat sarakar ya rajy sarakar ke sarvajanik rajasv se diya jata ho, jaisa bhi mamala ho, ya (II) aisa snkay, jo nigamit ho ya nahin, poori tarah ya anshik roop se bharat sarakar ya rajy sarakar ke adhin ho tatha aise karyalay ka vetan ya parishramik aise snkay dvara diya jata hai, aise mamalon ko chhodakar jahan aisa vetan ya parishramik pratipoorak ke roop men diya jata ho.

  • snvidhan ki dasavin anusoochi men (e) paira 1 men dhara bi men shabdon tatha snkhya ko "paira 3 ya, jaisa bhi mamala ho, hata diya jae;" (bi) paira 2 ke up-paira (1) men shabdon tatha snkhya "paira 3, 4 tatha 5", ke sthan par "paira 4 tatha 5" likha jae; (si) paira 3 ko hata diya jae.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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