संविधान संशोधन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

snvidhan snshodhan
bharat ka snvidhan
vivaran 'bharatiy snvidhan' ka nirman 'snvidhan sabha' dvara kiya gaya tha. snvidhan men samay-samay par avashyakata hone par snshodhan bhi hote rahe hain. vidhayini sabha men kisi vidheyak men parivartan, sudhar athava use nirdosh banane ki prakriya ko hi 'snshodhan' kaha jata hai.
snvidhan lagoo hone ki tithi 26 janavari, 1950
nirmanakarta snvidhan sabha
pratham adhyaksh sachchidanand sinha
snshodhan prakriya snvidhan ke gun-avagun parakhane ki kasauti snshodhan ki prakriya hai. kuchh deshon ke snvidhan ka snshodhan vidhi-nirman ki sadharan prakriya ke anusar hi hota hai. aise snvidhanon ko 'namaniy' ya 'saral snvidhan' kahate hain.
any janakari 'bharat ka snvidhan' briten ki snsadiy pranali ke namoone par adharit hai, kintu ek vishay men yah usase bhinn hai. briten men snsad sarvochch hai, jabaki bharat men snsad nahin; balki 'snvidhan' sarvochch hai.

bharat ka snvidhan 26 janavari, 1950 ko lagoo hua tha. isaka nirman 'snvidhan sabha' ne kiya tha, jisaki pahali baithak 9 disambar, 1946 ko huee thi. snvidhan sabha ne 26 navambar, 1949 ko snvidhan ko angikar kar liya tha. snvidhan sabha ki pahali baithak avibhajit bharat ke lie bulaee gee thi. 4 agast, 1947 ko snvidhan sabha ki baithak punah huee aur usake adhyaksh sachchidanand sinha niyukt hue the. sinha ke nidhan ke bad daau. rajendr prasad snvidhan sabha ke adhyaksh bane. faravari, 1948 men snvidhan ka masauda prakashit hua. 26 navambar, 1949 ko snvidhan antim roop men svikrit hua aur 26 janavari, 1950 ko lagoo hua.

sarvochchata

'bharat ka snvidhan' briten ki snsadiy pranali ke namoone par adharit hai, kintu ek vishay men yah usase bhinn hai. briten men snsad sarvochch hai. bharat men snsad nahin; balki snvidhan sarvochch hai. bharat men nyayalayon ko bharat ki snsad dvara pas kie ge qanoon ki snvaidhanikata par faisala karane ka adhikar prapt hai.

snshodhan

snvidhan men samay-samay par avashyakata hone par snshodhan bhi hote rahe hain. vidhayini sabha men kisi vidheyak men parivartan, sudhar athava use nirdosh banane ki prakriya ko 'snshodhan' kaha jata hai. sabha ya samiti ke prastav ke shodhan ki kriya ke lie bhi is shabd ka prayog hota hai. kisi bhi desh ka snvidhan kitani hi savadhani se banaya jae, kintu manushy ki kalpana shakti ki sima bndhi huee hai. bhavishy men ane vali aur badalane vali sabhi paristhitiyon ki kalpana vah snvidhan ke nirman kal men nahin kar sakata. antararashtriy paristhitiyon ki gutthiyon ke karan bhi snvidhan men snshodhan aur parivartan karana avashyak tatha zaroori ho jata hai. snvaidhanik snshodhan ki prakriya ka ullekh likhit snvidhan ka avashyak ang mana gaya hai. 'garnar' ke shabdon men- "koee bhi likhit snvidhan is prakar ke upabndhon ke bina apoorn hai."

prakriya

snvidhan ke gun-avagun parakhane ki kasauti bhi snshodhan ki prakriya hai. kuchh deshon ke snvidhan ka snshodhan vidhi-nirman ki sadharan prakriya ke anusar hi hota hai. aise snvidhanon ko 'namaniy' ya 'saral snvidhan' kahate hain. is prakar ke snvidhan ka sarvottam udaharan inglaind ka snvidhan hai. kuchh snvidhanon ke snshodhan ki prakriya ke lie ek vishisht prakriya ka alnban kiya jata hai. yah prakriya jatil evn durooh hoti hai. aise snvidhan 'jatil' ya 'anamamiy' snvidhan kahalate hain. snyukt rajy amarika ka snvidhan aise snvidhanon ka sarvottam udaharan hai. bharatiy ganatntr snvidhan ke snshodhan ka kuchh ansh namaniy hai aur kuchh ansh ki anamaniy prakriya hai. in donon vidhiyon ko grahan karane se desh ke maulik siddhanton ka poshan hoga aur snvidhan men paristhitiyon ke anukool vikasit hone ki preranashakti bhi shamil hogi.

samarthan ya anumodan

amataur par kisi sabha ya samiti men kisi bhi sadasy ko apana mat prakat karane ya koee prastav preshit karane ka adhikar hota hai. ya jab kisi sabha ke sadasyon ko sabha ke vibhinn padon ke lie alag-alag vyaktiyon ko manonit karane ka adhikar hota hai, tab manonit karane vale sadasy ke kary ki pushti doosare sadasy ke dvara hona anivary hota hai. at: ek sadasy, jab kisi prastav ko preshit karata hai ya kisi sadasy ko kisi kary ke lie manonit karata hai, tab is kary ko snvaidhanik banane ke lie doosare sadasy ko is kary ka samarthan ya anumodan karana padata hai. yadi aisa nahin kiya jata to upayukt kary vaidhanik nahin mane jaenge aur ve kary shoony man lie jayenge.

snvidhan sabha ke pramukh sadasy
kangresi sadasy gair kangresi sadasy mahila sadasy sadasyata asvikar karane vale vyakti
pn javahar lal neharoo daau. sarvapalli radhakrishnan sarojini nayadoo jayaprakash narayan
saradar vallabh bhaee patel daau. shyamaprasad mukharji shrimati hnsa mehata tejabahadur saproo
daau. rajendr prasad en. gopalasvami ayngar
maulana abulakalam azad pn. hridayanath kunjaroo
chakravarti rajagopalachari sar alladi krishnasvami ayyar
achary je.bi. kripalani tekachnd bakhshi
pn. govind ballabh pnt pro. ke. ti. shah
rajarshi purushottam das tandan daau. bhimarav ambedakar
balagovind kher daau. jayakar
ke. em. munshi
ti. ti. krishnamachari
snvidhan sabha ki pramukh samitiyan
samiti adhyaksh
niyam samiti daau. rajendr prasad
sngh shakti samiti pn javahar lal neharoo
sngh snvidhan samiti pn javahar lal neharoo
prantiy snvidhan samiti saradar vallabh bhaee patel
snchalan samiti daau. rajendr prasad
praroop samiti daau. bhimarav ambedakar
jhanda samiti je. bi. kripalani
rajy samiti pn javahar lal neharoo
paramarsh samiti saradar vallabh bhaee patel
sarvochch nyayalay samiti es. varadachariyar
mool adhikar upasamiti je. bi. kripalani
alpasnkhyak upasamiti ech. si. mukharji
snvidhan men samay-samay par hue snshodhan
snvidhan men snshodhan
kram snkhya snshodhan kram snkhya snshodhan kram snkhya snshodhan
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adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

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