वायलिन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

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vayalin

vayalin ka upanam bela hai. vayalin kamanayukt tar vady hai, jo punarjagaran ke dauran pahale ke kamanayukt vadyon, madhyakalin ‘fidal’ hai. vayalin ki 16vin sadi ki italavi prashakha lira d brachio aur ribek se vikasit hua. vayalin shayad sabase prasiddh tatha vishv men vyapak roop se phaila vady yntr hai. apane poorvavartiyon ke saman, lekin apane snbndhi vayal ki tarah nahin, vayalin men pardavihin ungalipatal hota hai.

vayalin ka itihas

vayalin ko sabase pahale vishesh roop se isake janmasthan itali men isake gayan svar ke lie manyata mili, jahan prarnbhik nirmataon, gasparo d salo, andria aaumaauti aur jovani paolo maggini ne 16vin sadi ke ant se pahale isake ausat anupaton ko nirdharit kiya. apane itihas ke dauran vayalin men kee sudhar hue, jinhonne isake vikasaman sngit upayog ke liye ise kramashah adhik upayukt banaya. samanyatah prarnbhik vayalin udar aur prishthabhag men zyada gahari chapit thi; apekshakrit adhunik vayalin, entoniyo stradivari (1644-1737) ke abhinav parivartanon ke bad adhik uthali thi, jo zyada sashakt svar nikalati thi. 19vin sadi men bade prekshagrihon aur vayalin marmgyon ke agaman se vayalin ki snrachana men antim parivartan kie ge. meroo ooncha kiya gaya, dhvani-stnbh evn dhvani-shalaka moti ki gee tatha sharir zyada sapat ho gaya. gardan ko pichhe moda gaya. taki meroo par taron ka aur adhik dabav ho. parinamasvaroop, 18vin sadi ke vayalin ko komal aur antarng svar ki jagah zyada shaktishali evn spasht svar mila.

vayalin ka akar

isake tar samasvaran mekhon evn akhiri chhor se bndhe hote hai, jo ek meroo ke oopar se hokar guzarate hain. taron ke dabab se meroo apani jagah sthir rahata hai. meroo taron ke knpan ko vayalin ke udar ya dhvanipatal tak pahunchata hai, jo devadar ka bana hota hai evn dhvani ko ooncha karata hai. vady yntr ke bhitar, meroo ke niche tatha vayalin udar evn mepal lakadi se bane prishth bhag ke bich men svarastnbh hota hai, jo devadar ki patali lakadi ka hota hai aur taron ke knpan ko prishthabhag ko snpreshit karata hai, jisake karan vishisht vayalin svar nikalata hai. udar ko niche se mndrashalaka sahara deti hai, lakadi ki yah snkari shalaka lnbavat guzarati huee patali hokar udar men samahit ho jati hai. yah vady ke anunad men bhi yogadan deti hai. parshv divaren ya pattiyan devadar ki parat vale mepal se nirmit hoti hain.

vayalin ka upayog

prarnbhik vayalinon ko lokapriy sngit aur nrity sngit men istemal kiya jata tha. 17vin sadi ke dauran isane kaksh sngit ke buniyadi tar vady ke roop men vaauyal ka sthan liya. italavi sngitakar monteverdi ne apane giti naty (aaupera) aaurfiyo (pahali bar 1607 men pradarshit) ke vady-vrind men vayalin ko shamil kiya gaya tha. frans men rajasi vady-vrind, le 24 vayalns du roi, 1626 men ayojit kiya gaya. pravin vayalin vadak arakenjalo kaaureli pahale sngitakaron men se the, jinhonne vayalin ke lie naya sngit racha, vivaldi, je.es. bakh tatha vayalin vadak joozade tartini ne bhi yahi kiya. yahi 18vin sadi se adhikatar pramukh sngitakaron ne vayalin ke lie ekal sngit racha, isamen mozart, bitovan, shumain, brahms, edavard greg, paaul haindamith, aranaauld shoenabarg aur elaban barg shamil hain. phranseskon jeminiyani, nikolo paganini, josef yokim, fritz krislar, devid oistrekh, yahoodi menuhin aur aizek starn jaise marmgyon ne utkrisht vayalin sngit ki rachana ko prerit kiya. vayalin ko madhy-poorv aur dakshin bharat ki sngit kala men samayojit kiya gaya tatha fidl ki tarah yah kee deshon ke lokasngit men bajaya jata hai. 16vin-18vin sadi ke dauran prachalit tenaaur vayalin, vaauyala aur chelo ke bich ke akar ka tha. isaka samasvaran ‘m-sa-p-re’ tha. tenaaur vayalin ko kabhi-kabhi vaauyala bhi kaha jata hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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