आधुनिक केरल  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

keral ka adhunik itihas 18 vin shati se shuroo hota hai. british upaniveshiy shasan ke prarambh se lekar aj tak ka itihas is kal khand men ata hai. isi kalakhand men adhunik keral ka gathan hua tha. is kalakhand ka sabase shaktishali rajy tiruvitankoor tha jahan britishon ka pratyaksh shasan nahin chal raha tha.

tiruvitankoor

tiruvitankoor nam kaise pada, isake bare men bataya jata hai ki keral ke dakshini chhor par pashchimi ghat evn arab sagar ke bich ka urvarak bhoobhag 'shri vashukod' (desh jahan samriddhi basi ho) nam se abhihit tha. yah 'tiruvarnkod' bana jisaka gramy roop 'tiruvnkod' tha jisase tiruvitankoor bana. eesvi sanh ki prarambhik shatabdiyon men is pradesh ke shasak ay rajavnsh ke the. yah pradesh venad nam se vikhyat ho gaya. maharaja martand varma ke shasanakal men (sanh 1729 - 1758) venad kochchi tak phailakar tiruvitankoor nam se prasiddh ho gaya. marttand varma ne hi grih yuddh ko samapt kar diya tha aur attingal, kollam, kottarakkara, kaynkuळm, ambalapush़a riyasaton ko milakar tiruvitankoor namak shaktishali desh ki adharashila rakhi thi. usake uttaradhikari kartik tirunal ramavarma or dharmaraja (1758 - 1798) ko maisoor ke sulatan tipoo ke akraman ka samana karana pada. kintu unhonne desh ki pragati ko lakshy banakar shasan chakr chalaya. tatpashchath avittam tirunal balaram varma (1798 - 1810), rani gauri lakshmi baee (1810 - 1815), rani gauri parvati baee (1815 - 1829), svati tirunal (1829 - 1847), utram tirunal martand varma (1829 - 1860), ayilyam tirunal (1860 - 1880), vishakhamh tirunal (1880 - 1885), shrimoolam tirunal (1885 - 1924), rani setulakshmi baee (1924 - 1931), shrichittira tirunal balaram varma (1931 - 1949) adi ne tiruvitankoor par shasan kiya. navin tiruvitankoor ki rajadhaniyan thin - padmanabhapuram aur tiruvanantapuram. tiruvanantapuram ko sthayi roop se rajadhani banane vale dharmaraja hi the.

tiruvitankoor ke itihas men nity smaran kiye jane vale tin rajaon ka nam milata hai -

  1. veluttampi dalava hai jo british prabhuta ke viruddh lade
  2. svati tirunal the jo pndit or sngitgy the
  3. chittira tirunal the jinhonne sab hinduon ke lie mndir ke kivad khol die the.

keral rajy ka gathan

divan si. pi. ramasvami ayyar ne yah ghoshana ki thi ki 1947 men jab british bharat chhodenge tab tiruvitankoor svatntr rajy banega. usaki is ghoshana ke sath jo andolan hua usake ant men tiruvitankoor bharat sngh men sammilit ho gaya. pattam tanu pillaee ke netritv men pahala prajatantrik mntrimandal adhikar men aya (march 1948). tiruvitankoor aur kochchi ko milakar 1 julaee 1949 ko tirukochchi rajy banaya gaya aur 1 navambar 1956 ko malabar ko bhi milakar keral rajy banaya gaya. keral rajy ke gathan ke samay tak tiruvitankoor aur tirukochchi ke rajapramukh pad chittira tirunal ko diya gaya tha.

british shasan

anyany yooropiy deshon ki tarah british eest indiya knpani bhi vyapar ko lakshy banate hue pahunchi thi. kapani ne sanh 1664 men kosh़ikkod men vyapar kendr ki sthapata ki. sanh 1684 men unhonne tiruvitankoor ka us bhag, jo anchutengu nam se jana jata tha, ko attingal rani se le liya. sanh 1695 men vahan ek durg banavaya. isi samay unhonne talashsheri men bhi apana sikka jamaya. epril 1723 men british eest indiya knpani aur tiruvitankoor ke bich sndhi ho gee. sanh 1792 men jo shrirngapattanam sndhi huee usake tahat tipoo ka malabar britishon ko prapt ho gaya. sanh 1791 men knpani ne kochchi ke sath bhi sndhi kar li. is ke anusar britishon ko varshik kar dekar kochchi raja britishon ka samnt bana. 1800 se kochchi madras ki british sarakar ke adhin ho gaya. 1795 ki sndhi ke anusar tiruvitankoor ne bhi british prabhuta svikar ki. atah ek british resident tiruvanantapuram men rahate hue shasan ka nirikshan kiya. britishon ko prativarsh ath lakh rupaye tiruvitankoor kar roop men deta tha. 1805 men huee sndhi ke anusar tiruvitankoor men yadi koee grih kalah ya hngama hota ho to usamen hastakshep karane ka adhikar bhi britishon ko prapt ho gaya. is prakar samoocha keral britishon ke adhikar men a gaya.

british shasan ke khilaf vidroh

british shasan ke viruddh svadesh par abhiman karane valon ka virodh uthana svabhavik tha. keral varma pashashshi raja, veluttampi dalava aur paliyattachchhan ne britishon ke viruddh hathiyar uthaya. yadyapi unaka vidroh viphal ho gaya tha tathapi vah janata men britishon ke prati dushmani evn desh bhakti jagane men sahayak hua.

britishon ne malabar men jo kar pranali chalaee thi usake virodh men kottayam rajavnsh ke pash़shshi raja ne sashastr vidroh kiya. britishon ne raja - rajavadon se kar vasool kiya. raja to sidhe janata se kar vasool karate the. kottayam men kar vasooli ka adhikar britishon ne pashashshi raja ko n dekar usake matul kurumbra riyasat ke shasak ko diya tha. is ka virodh karate hue sanh 1795 men pashashshi raja ne kar vasooli ka sara kam band kar diya. sanh 1793 - 1797, 1800 - 1805 varshon men vir pashashshi raja ke sainikon ki british sainikon ke sath muthabhed huee. pashashshi raja ne vayanad ke vanon men pravesh kar yuddh karana shuroo kiya. kintu 30 navambar 1805 ko british topon ne unhen uda diya. britishon ke viruddh unhonne pratiraksha ki jo divar khadi ki thi, vah toot gee.

tiruvitankoor ke grih karyon men anavashyak hastakshep karake resident mekale veluttampi dalava ke virodh ka patr bana. yah virodh khuli ladaee men parinat hua. veluttambi ne kochchi ke pradhanamntri paliyattachchhan ke sath british sena par akraman kiya. veluttampi ne 11 navnbar 1809 ko british adhipaty ke viruddh vidroh karane ke lie logon ka ahvan karate hue ek ghoshana nikali jo 'kundara ghoshana' nam se jani jati hai. to bhi british sena ne tiruvitankoor sena ke shakti durgon ko ek-ek karake adhin kar liya. apane ko parajit hote dekh veluttampi ne atmahatya kar li. yadyapi sanh 1812 men vayanadu ke kurichyar aur kurumpar namak adivasi vargon ne britishon ke viruddh hathiyar uthae tathapi vidroh ko dabaya gaya.

tiruvitankoorah vikas path par

18 vin - 19 vin shatabdiyon men shasakon ne jo niti apanaee usake karan keral samajik pragati ke path par unmukh hua. tiruvitankoor men sadaken banin, niyam sudhare ge. kar-vyavastha bhi banayi gee. navin tiruvitankoor ke shilpi the marttand varma aur karttik tirunal. donon ne tiruvitankoor rajy ki sudridh ninv dali. donon raniyon gauri lakshmi baee aur gauri parvati baee ke shasan kal men bhi samaj sudhar ke anek kary hue. svati tirunal ramavarma (1829 - 1847) ka kal tiruvitankoor ka suvarnakal mana jata hai. unhonne angrezi shiksha ka prarnbh kiya, kala aur vigyan ko bhi badhava diya. sanh 1836 men unhonne tiruvanantapuram men plenetoriyam ki sthapana ki. unhonne 1834 men tiruvanantapuram men jo inglish skool shuroo kiya vah 1866 men yoonivarsiti kaaulej bana, jo aj bhi hai. sanh 1836 men tiruvitankoor men janaganana bhi huee.

maharaja utramh tirunal

maharaja utramh tirunal ke kal men (sanh 1847 - 1860) channar (nadar) jati ki nariyon ko chhati dhnkane ki anumati di gee. tiruvanantapuram men sanh 1859 men jo skool ladakiyon ke lie khola gaya vahi aj ka sarakari mahila vidyalay hai. tiruvitankoor ka pahala dakaghar alappush़a men khola gaya tatha sanh 1859 men pahali adhunik kayar phaiktari bhi kholi gee.

ayilyam tirunal maharaja

ayilyam tirunal maharaja ke kal (1860 - 1880) men bhoosvamitv vyavastha men bada parivartan hua jo pandarappatta ghoshana (sarakar ke svamitv ki ghoshana) (1865), bhoosvami aur kutiyan (bhoosvami ki bhoomi par rahane vala) ghoshana (1867) ka parinam tha. divan sar ti. madhav rav (1858 - 1872) anek yojanaen banakar tiruvitankoor ko pragati path par le chale.

maharaja shrimoolamh tirunal

maharaja shrimoolamh tirunal (1885 - 1924) ne krantikari parivartan ki prishthabhoomi taiyar ki. yah yug do ghatanaon ka gavah bana - ek shiksha ke kshetr men huee abhootapoorv kranti aur do vidhan sabha ka gathan, jo bharatiy riyasaton men pratham tha. shri moolam tirunal ke shasan ki sabase badi upalabdhi 1888 men gathit vidhan parishad hai. 1904 men sarakar dvara chayanit janapratinidhiyon ki prajasabha (popular essembili) ka gathan hua. 1922 men banaye niyam ke anusar vidhan parishad (lejisletiv kaunsil) ki sadasy snkhya badhakar 50 kar di gee. nariyon ko bhi matadan ka adhikar diya gaya.

shrimoolam tirunaळ ke bad rani setu lakshmi baee rijant banin. ve 1925 men nayar reguleshan niyam layin jisamen matrisattatmak uttaradhikar niyam raddakar pitrisattatmak uttaradhikar niyam ko manyata di gee. tatpashchath shri chittira tirunal balaram varma shasak bane. chittira tirunal ka shasanakal tin baton ke lie chirasmaraniy ho gaya -

  1. vidhan sabha sudhar
  2. vyapar udyog niti
  3. samaj sudhar

prastut kalakhand svatntrata sngram, kamyoorist andolan ka vikas aur desh ki svatntrata prapti adi mahattvapoorn ghatanaon ka sakshi bana. sanh 1936 men jo mndir pravesh ghoshana ki gee usane chittira tirunal ko yashasvi banaya. isi kal men tiruvitankoor vishvavidyalay (1927), laind mortagej baink (bhoomi bndhak baink) (1932), traivanakoor rabad varks, kundara kle phaiktari, punaloor plaeevud phaiktari, pallivasal jal vidyut pariyojana, stet rod transport sarvis (rajy sadak parivahan seva) ityadi ka prarambh hua. in sab yojanaon ko karyanvit karane vale divan sar si. pi. ramasvami ayyar the jo rajaniti ki drishti se un logon men the jinaka sarvadhik virodh hota tha. desh svatntr hone ke bad 1 julaee 1949 ko tiruvitankoor aur kochchi ko milakar tirukochchi rajy ka gathan kiya gaya.

kochchi

tiruvitankoor ki tarah kochchi aur malabar bhi pragati ke kee sopan par kar ge. sanh 1912 se 1947 tak ke kal men britishon dvara niyukt divan hi kochchi ka shasan karate the. un divanon ke nam v shasanakal niche diya jata hai jo svatntrata prapti tak shasak niyukt hue the -

  1. karnal manro (1812 - 1818)
  2. nanchappayya (1815 - 1825)
  3. sheshagiri rav (1825 - 1830)
  4. edamana shnkar menan (1830 - 1835)
  5. venkat subbayya (1835 - 1840)
  6. shnkar variyar (1840 - 1856)
  7. venkat rav (1856 - 1860)
  8. tottakkattu shnkunni menan (1860 - 1879)
  9. tottakkattu govind menan (1879 - 1889)
  10. tiruvenkitachary (1889 - 1892)
  11. subrahmany pillaee (1892 - 1896)
  12. pi. rajagopalachari (1896 - 1901)
  13. el. lokk (1901 - 1902)
  14. enh. pattabhiram rav (1902 - 1907)
  15. e. ar. bainarji (1907 - 1914)
  16. je. dablyoo. bhor (1914 - 1919)
  17. ti. vijayaraghavachari (1919 - 1922)
  18. pi. narayan menan (1922 - 1925)
  19. ti. es. narayan ayyar (1925 - 1930)
  20. si. ji. herabart (1930 - 1935)
  21. ar. ke. shanmukham chetti (1935 - 1941)
  22. eph. dabliyoo diksan (1941 - 1943)
  23. sar janrj bang (1943 - 1944)
  24. si. pi. karunakar menan (1944 - 1947).

karnal manro ne aise navin kary kie jinase kochchi nav ho gaya. ranadar nam se pulis sena ka gathan, eranakulam men hazoor kachcheri (rajy sambandhi kachahari) ki sthapana adi parishkar ve laye. sanh 1821 men gulamon ke utpidan ke virodh ki ghoshana ki gee. unhonne 'puttan' nam se naya sikka chalaya. shnkar variyar ke kal men gulam pratha samaptakar di gee (1884 men). sanh 1845 men jo elimentari skool sthapit hua tha vah bad men maharaja kaaulej ban gaya.

sanh 1889 men pratham kanya skool trishshoor men sthapit hua. kochchi ka navinikaran kiya gaya. shoranoor se eranakuळm tak rel ka nirman, eranakulam men chiph kort ki sthapana, kandesh़uttu (khet aur sthal ka vriksh samet vivaran ya ganana) ki poortti, lokasvasthy vibhag ka gathan, eranakulam shahar men pey jal vitaran yojana ityadi ne milakar ke kochchi ka navinikaran kiya. sanh 1925 men kechchi men vidhan sabha sthapit huee. 18 joon 1938 ko haee kort ka udghatan hua.

malabar

malabar british madras rajy ke antargat ek zila tha. vahan bhi tirukochchi ki jaisi unnati huee. british satta ne sadakon tatha bagon ke nirman men dhyan diya. shiksha ke prachar-prasar men bhi usane yog diya. sanh 1848 men basal mishan ne kosh़ikkod ke kallayi men jo prathamik pathashala kholi thi vahi age jakar malabar krischyan kaaulej bana. heraman gundert jaise eesaee dharmapracharakon ne malayalam bhasha ki mahanh seva ki. madras nagar vikas niyam ke anusar sanh 1866, 1867 varshon men kosh़ikkod, talashsheri, kannoor, palakkad, phort kochchi adi munisipaliti bane. is prakar ke vikas karyon ke chalate britishon ka shoshan bhi zari tha. samnton tatha unake sahayak british adhikariyon ki nitiyan sanh 1836 - 1853 kal men eranad tatha valluvanad tahasilon men maauppiळa musalamanon ke dngon ka karan banin. inaka samana karane ke lie sanh 1854 men 'malabar vishesh pulis bal' ka gathan kiya gaya. 19 vin shatabdi ke antim dashakon men mudranalayon ka prachar-prasar, samachar patron tatha vidyalayon ka avirbhav, sahity ka vikas adi hua jo keral ko vishesh parivartan ki or le ge. 20 vin shatabdi ke prarnbh men janata men rajanitik jagaran utpann hua. keral men bhi rashtriy andolanon ki laharen uthin.

keral rajy

keral ka jo vartaman svaroop hai usako nirmit karane vale tattvon men bharatiy svatntrata sngram tatha usaki prishthabhoomi ke roop men kary kar rahe nav jagaran ke andolanon ka prabal hath raha hai. nav keral ke nirman men yog dene valon ki lambi soochi milati hain - shri narayan guru, chattambi svami, ayyanakaळi, brahmanand shivayogi, vagabhatanand guru, vaikunth svami adi. vaise hi yadi dharmik sngathanon, any sudharatmak andolanon aur rajanitik dalon ka samoohik prayas evn shaikshik unnati n hoti to nav keral ka nirman snbhav n hota. svatntrata ke pahale hi keral men rajadhikar ke viruddh 'dayitvapoorn shasan' tatha samajik adhikar ke lie satyagrah hue. 1 julaee 1949 ko tiruvitankoor tatha kochchi ko milakar tirukochchi rajy ka gathan kiya gaya. ti. ke. narayan piळhळai pratham mukhyamntri bane. rajy punargathan ke tahat 1949 men tovala, agastishvaram, kalakkuळm, vilavankod adi char dakshini tahasilon ko tamilanadu (un dinon madras rajy) men milaya gaya. malabar zila tatha dakshini kenara zile ka kasarakod tahasil keral ke sath milaya gaya. is prakar 1956 men vartaman keral bana tha.



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