आपातकाल  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(आपात काल se punarnirdeshit)

apatakal arthath akasmik snkat ka vah samay, jisake lie tatkal karyavahi ki avashyakata ho. desh men antarik ashanti ko khatara hone, bahari akraman hone athava vittiy snkat ki halat men apatakal ki ghoshana ki jati hai. bharat men 1962 men chin ke sath evn 1971 men pakistan ke sath yuddh ke dauran apatakal ka daur dekha tha, par yah 'bahari akraman' ke karan lagaya gaya tha. 25 joon, 1975 ki madhyaratri se 21 march, 1977 ke bich jo apatakal ka daur desh ne dekha, vah 'antarik ashanti' ke karan snvidhan ke anuchchhed 352 ke antargat lagaya gaya tha.

apatakalin pravadhan (bhag – 18 anuchchhed 352 se 360)

prastavana-

yah anuchchhed snsad/sarakar ko asamany paristhitiyon ka samana karane ke liye saksham banati hai. is pravadhan ko prabhavi banane ka udeshy desh ki ekata, akhandata, snprabhuta, lokatntr, rajanaitik vyavastha aur snvidhan ki suraksha karana hai. is sthiti me kendr sarakar shaktishali ho jati hai aur snvidhan men snshodhan kiye bina hi snghatmak dhancha ekatmak men badal jata hai.[1]

apatakal ke prakar

bharatiy snvidhan men apatakalin sthiti ke liye 3 prakar hain-

(1.) rashtriy apat
anuchchhed 352, yuddh/bahari akraman, sashastr vidroh ke karan apatakal ko 'rashtriy apat' nam diya jata hai, lekin snvidhan men ise "apatakal ki ghoshana" nam diya gaya hai.
(2.) rajy apatakal ya snvaidhanik apatakal
anuchchhed 356, rajyon men snvaidhanik tntr ki viphalata ke karan apatakal ko rashtrapati shasan ke nam se jana jata hai. ise 'rajy apatakal' ya 'snvaidhanik apatakal' nam se jana jata hai. lekin snvidhan men is pravadhan ke liye 'apatakal' shabd ka prayog nahin hai.
(3.) vitiy apatakal
anuchchhed 360, jab desh ki vitiy sthiti bigad jaye to aisi sthiti men 'vitiy apat' ka pravadhan hai. ise 'vitiy apatakal' kaha jata hai.


inhen bhi dekhen: apatakal (bharat), bharat ka snvidhan evn bharat ka snvidhan- apat upabndh


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. apatakal (hindi) Allaboutexam Blog. abhigaman tithi: 07 aktoobar, 2016.

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