उच्च न्यायालय  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

uchch nyayalay, karnatak

snvidhan ke anuchchhed 214 ke anusar pratyek rajy ke lie ek uchch nyayalay hoga, lekin vidhi dvara do ya adhik rajyon ke lie athava do ya adhik rajyon aur kisi sngh rajy kshetr ke lie ek hi uchch nyayalay sthapit kar sakati hai. vartaman samay men pnjab tatha hariyana ke lie ek hi uchch nyayalay hai aur asam, nagalaind, meghalay, manipur, tripura, mijoram tatha arunachal pradesh ke lie ek uchch nyayalay hai. mumbee uchch nyayalay ka kshetradhikar maharashtr aur gova rajyon tatha daman aur div evn dadara aur nagar haveli sngh rajy kshetron par hai. isi prakar kalakatta uchch nyayalay ka kshetradhikar andaman tatha nikobar dvip samooh, madras uchch nyayalay ka kshetradhikar pandicheri tatha keral uchch nyayalay ka kshetradhikar lakshadvip sngh rajy kshetr par hai. sat sngh shasit rajyon men se keval dilli hi ek aisa sngh rajy kshetr hai, jisaka apana uchch nyayalay hai. is samay bharat men kul 21 uchch nyayalay hain.  

gathan

pratyek uchch nyayalay ka gathan ek mukhy nyayadhish tatha aise any nyayadhishon ko milakar kiya jata hai, jinhen rashtrapati samay-samay par niyukt kare.[1] is prakar bhinn-bhinn uchch nyayalayon men nyayadhishon ki snkhya bhi bhinn hai. udaharanarth, gauhati uchch nyayalay men nyayadhishon ki snkhya sabase kam 3 hai. jabaki ilahabad uchch nyayalay men nyayadhishon ki snkhya sabase zyada 58 hai. bharat ke sabhi uchch nyayalayon ke nyayadhishon ki kul snkhya 456 hai.  

nyayadhishon ki yogyata

anuchchhed 217 ke anusar koee vyakti kisi uchch nyayalay ka nyayadhish niyukt hone ke yogy tab hoga, jab vah–

  1. bharat ka nagarik ho aur 62 varsh ki ayu poori n ki ho.
  2. kam se kam 10 varsh tak nyayik pad dharan kar chuka ho. nyayik pad dharan karane ki avadhi ki ganana karane men vah avadhi bhi sammilit ki jaegi, jisake dauran koee vyakti pad dharan karane ke pashchath kisi uchch nyayalay ka adhivakta raha hai ya usane kisi adhikaran ke sadasy ka pad dharan kiya hai ya sngh athava rajy ke adhin koee aisa pad dharan kiya hai, jisake lie vidhi ka vishesh gyan apekshit hai.
  3. kisi uchch nyayalay men ek ya se adhik uchch nyayalayon men lagatar 10 varsh tak adhivakta raha ho. kisi uchch nyayalay ka adhivakta rahane ki avadhi ki ganana karate samay vah avadhi bhi sammilit ki jaegi, jisake dauran kisi vyakti ne adhivakta hone ke pashchath nyayik pad dharan kiya hai ya kisi adhikaran ke sadasy ka pad dharan kiya hai ya sngh athava rajy ke adhin koee aisa pad dharan kiya hai, jisake lie vidhi ka vishesh gyan apekshit hai.

 

nyayadhishon ki niyukti

uchch nyayalay ke mukhy nyayadhish ke atirikt any nyayadhishon ki niyukti rashtrapati dvara bharat ke mukhy nyayadhish se, us rajy ke rajyapal se tatha sambandhit uchch nyayalay ke mukhy nyayadhish se paramarsh karake ki jati hai.[2] is sambandh men yah prakriya apanaee jati hai ki uchch nyayalay ka mukhy nyayadhish rajy ke rajyapal ke pas prastav bhejata hai aur rajyapal us prastav par mukhyamntri se paramarsh karake use pradhanamntri ke madhyam se rashtrapati ke pas bhejata hai. rashtrapati us prastav par bharat ke mukhy nyayadhish se paramarsh karake nyayadhish ki niyukti karata hai. uchch nyayalay ke ek poorv nirnay ke anusar rashtrapati mukhy nyayadhish ki ray manane ke lie badhy nahin hai, lekin 6 aktoobar, 1993 ke uchchatam nyayalay ke dvara diye gaye ek nirnay ke anusar rashtrapati ko bharat ke mukhy nyayadhish ki ray ko variyata deni chahie.

1999 men uchchatam nyayalay ke 9 sadasyiy snvidhan pith ne yah abhinirdharit kiya hai ki uchch nyayalayon men nyayadhishon ki niyukti ke mamale men uchchatam nyayalay ke keval 2 varishthatam nyayadhishon ki salah lena avashyak hai kintu sthanantaran ke mamale men uchchatam nyayalay ke 4 varishthatam nyayadhishon se paramarsh ko anivary banaya gaya hai. sath hi sambandhit uchch nyayalayon jisase sthanantaran kiya gaya hai aur jisako sthanantaran kiya jana hai, ve mukhy nyayadhishon se paramarsh karana bhi anivary hoga.  

mukhy nyayadhish ki niyukti

anuchchhed 217 ke anusar uchch nyayalay ke mukhy nyayadhish ki niyukti rashtrapati dvara uchchatam nyayalay ke mukhy nyayadhish tatha rajyapal se vichar-vimarsh ke pashchath ki jati hai aur is sambandh men yah avashyak nahin hai ki uchch nyayalay ke varishthatam nyayadhish ko mukhy nyayadhish niyukt kiya jae, lekin aisi pratha ka nirman ho gaya hai ki uchch nyayalay ke varishthatam nyayadhish ko hi mukhy nyayadhish niyukt kiya jata hai, halanki is pratha ka anek bar ullnghan kiya gaya hai. kuchh samay poorv sarakar ne yah niti nirdharit ki hai ki uchch nyayalay ka mukhy nyayadhish any uchch nyayalayon ke mukhy nyayadhishon men se niyukt kiya jaega, lekin isamen bhi varishthata ka ullnghan kiya jata hai.  

karyavahak mukhy nyayadhish ki niyukti

jab kisi uchch nyayalay ke mukhy nyayadhish ka pad rikt ho ya jab mukhy nyayadhish ki anupasthiti ke karan ya anyatha apane pad ke kartavyon ka palan karane men asamarth ho, tab rashtrapati nyayayal ke any nyayadhishon men se kisi ko mukhy nyayadhish ke karyon ka nirvahan karane ke lie niyukt kar sakata hai.[3]  

apar evn karyakari nyayadhishon ki niyukti

jab kisi uchch nyayalay men kary ki asthayi vriddhi ho jaye aur rashtrapati ko yah pratit ho ki kary nipatane ke lie aur bhi adhik nyayadhishon ki avashyakata hai, tab rashtrapati nyayadhish ke roop men niyukt kiye jane ke lie kisi yogy vyakti ko 2 varsh tak ki avadhi ke lie apar nayayadhish ke roop men niyukt kar sakata hai.[4]

isi tarah jab uchch nyayalay ka koee nyayadhish apane pad ke kartavyon ka nirvahan karane men asamarth ho jata hai ya anupasthiti ke karan apane pad ke kartavyon ka nirvahan nahin kar pata hai, tab rashtrapati nyayadhish ke roop men niyukti kiye jane ke lie kisi yogy vyakti ko karyakari nyayadhish ke roop men niyukt kar sakata hai.  

seva nivritt nyayadhishon ki niyukti

jab uchch nyayalay ka mukhy nyayadhish kisi samay rashtrapati ki poorv sahamati se kisi bhi aise vyakti se, jo kisi ya us uchch nyayalay men nyayadhish ke pad par kary kar chuka ho, uchch nyayalay men nyayadhish ke roop men kary karane ka anurodh kar sakata hai.[5] jab koee seva nivritt nyayadhish, nyayadhish ke roop men kary karane ka anurodh svikar kar kary karata hai, tab usako uchch nyayalay ke nyayadhishon ki sabhi adhikarita, shaktiyan tatha visheshadhikar prapt hote hain.  

shapath grahan

uchch nyayalay ke nyayadhish ko us rajy, jisamen uchch nyayalay sthit hai, ka rajyapal usake pad ki shapath dilata hai.[6]  

padavadhi

uchch nyayalay ka nyayadhish 62 varsh ki ayu poori karane tak apana pad dharan kar sakata hai. parantu vah kisi samay rashtrapati ko apana tyagapatr de sakata hai.[7] yadi tyagapatr men us tithi ka ullekh kiya gaya hai, jis tithi se tyagapatr lagoo hoga, to nyayadhish kisi bhi samay apana tyagapatr vapas le sakata hai. udaharanarth–

ilahabad uchch nyayalay ke nyayadhish nyayamoorti satish chandr ne mee, 1977 men diye apane tyagapatr men likha tha ki unaka tyagapatr 1 agast, 1977 se lagoo mana jae, lekin ve 31 julaee, 1977 se pahale apana tyagapatr vapas le liye the. isake viruddh vivad hone par uchchatam nyayalay ne 4:1 ke bahumat se nirnay diya ki tyagapatr lagoo hone ke poorv vapas liya ja sakata hai.

isake atirikt nyayadhish ko sabit kadachar tatha asamarthata ke adhar par snsad dvara do tihaee bahumat se parit mahabhiyog prastav ke dvara rashtrapati dvara usake pad se hataya ja sakata hai.  

ayu ke sambandh men vivad

jab uchch nyayalay ke kisi nyayadhish ki ayu ke sambandh men vivad hota hai, tab usaka nirnay rashtrapati ke dvara kiya jata hai. ab tak uchch nyayalay ke char nyayadhishon, yatha kalakatta uchch nyayalay ke nyayadhish je. pi. mitr, madras uchch nyayalay ke nyayadhish es. ar. achar, madhy pradesh uchch nyayalay ke nyayadhish pi. vi. dikshit tatha andhr pradesh uchch nyayalay ke nyayadhish bhaskaran ki ayu ke bare men vivad utpann hua hai.  

vidhi vyavasay par rok

uchch nyayalay ka sthayi nyayadhish uchchatam nyayalay tatha uchch nyayalay, jisamen vah nyayadhish raha hai, ke atirikt any uchch nyayalayon ke sivay bharat ke kisi nyayalay ya kisi pradhikari ke samaksh vidhi vyavasay nahin kar sakata.[8]  

nyayadhishon ka sthanantaran

rashtrapati bharat ke mukhy nyayadhish se paramarsh karake kisi bhi uchch nyayalay ke nyayadhish ka sthanantaran doosare nyayalay men kar sakata hai.[9]  

nyayadhishon ke vetan evn bhatte

15 janavari, 2009 ko kendr sarakar dvara jari adhyadesh ke anusar uchch nyayalay ke mukhy nyayadhish ka vetan 30,000 rupaye se badhakar 90,000 rupaye pratimah tatha any nyayadhishon ka vetan 26,000 rupaye se badhakar 80,000 rupaye pratimah kar diya gaya hai. yah vetanaman 1 janavari, 2006 se prabhavi kiya gaya hai. isake lie disambar, 2008 men snsad dvara uchch nyayalay v uchchatam nyayalay[10] vetan evn seva shart sndhoshan vidheyak, 2008 parit kiya gaya hai. isase poorv 12 sitambar, 2008 ko tin sadasyiy nyayadhishon ke painal dvara saunpi gayi riport ke anusar uchch nyayalay ke mukhy nyayadhish ka vetan 30,000 se badhakar ek lakh rupaye aur any nyayadhishon ka vetan 26,000 se badhakar 90,000 rupaye kiye jane ka prastav tha. uchch nyayalay ke nyayadhishon ke vetan tatha bhatton ko nirdharit karane ki shakti snsad ko di gayi hai. nyayadhishon ke vetan aur bhatte bharat ki snchit nidhi par bharit hote hain aur unamen unaki niyukti ke pashchath koee alabhakari parivartan nahin kiya jata hai.  

uchch nyayalay ke nyayadhishon ke vetan evn bhatte
vetan rajasi bhatta vidyut bhatta nivas sthan vyay vahan vyay penshan mrityu ya nivritti upadan pratidin ka yatra bhatta
mukhy nyayadhish 90,000 rupaye pratimah 500 rupaye pratimah 500 rupaye pratimah 3000 rupaye pratimah 500 rupaye pratimah 5400 rupaye pratimah 50,000 rupaye 100 rupaye pratidin
any nyayadhish 80,000 rupaye pratimah 300 rupaye pratimah 500 rupaye pratimah 2500 rupaye pratimah 500 rupaye pratimah 4800 rupaye pratimah 50,000 rupaye 100 rupaye pratidin

uchch nyayalay ka kshetradhikar

apiliy kshetradhikar

uchch nyayalay ko apane adhinasth sabhi nyayalayon tatha nyayadhikaranon ke nirnayon, adeshon tatha dikriyon ke viruddh apil sunane ka adhikar hai.

prarambhik kshetradhikar

uchch nyayalay ko rajasv tatha sngrah ke sambandh men mool adhikaron ke ullnghan ke mamale men prarambhik kshetradhikar hain.[11]

antaran sambandhi kshetradhikar

yadi uchch nyayalay ko yah samadhan ho jae ki usake adhinasth kisi nyayalay men lambit kisi mamale men snvidhan ki vyakhya ke bare men koee prashn nyayalay ke vicharadhin hai, jisaka us mamale se sambandh hai, to vah us mamale ko apane pas mnga sakata hai aur mamale par nirnay kar sakata hai aur nirnay karake us mamale ko aise prashn par nirnay ki pratilipi sahit us nyayalay ko, jisase mamala antarit kiya gaya tha, bhejakar us nirnay ke anusar mamale ke nipatare ka adesh de sakata hai. isake atirikt uchch nyayalay apane adhinasth nyayalay mn lambit vad ko kisi any adhinasth nyayalay ko sthanantarit kar sakata hai.[12]

lekh jari karane ka adhikar

uchch nyayalay mooladhikaron ke ullnghan ke mamale men bandi pratyakshikaran, paramadesh, pratishedh, utpreshan tatha adhikar prichchha lekh jari kar sakata hai.[13]

adhikshan kshetradhikar

pratyek uchch nyayalay ko apani adhikarita ke adhin sthit sabhi nyayalayon tatha adhikaranon ki adhikshan ki shakti hai, jisake prayog men vah aise nyayalayon/adhikaranon

  1. se vivarani mnga sakata hai,
  2. ke adhikariyon dvara rakhi jane vali pravishtiyon aur lekhaon ke praroop nishchit kar sakata hai tatha
  3. ke shulkon ko niyat kar sakata hai.[14]

adhinasth nyayalay

snvidhan ke anuchchhed 333 men adhinasth athava zila nyayalay ka pravadhan kiya gaya hai. uchchatam nyayalay tatha uchch nyayalayon ki tarah hi zila nyayalayon ko karyapalika se svatntr rakhane ke lie snvidhan men nimnalikhit pravadhan kiye gaye hain–

  1. zila nyayadhish ki niyukti, tainati tatha padonnati rajyapal dvara uchch nyayalay se paramarsh karake ki jaegi.
  2. zila nyayadhish se bhinn vyaktiyon ki kisi rajy ki nyayik seva men niyukti us rajy ke rajyapal ke dvara lok seva ayog tatha sambaddh nyayalay se paramarsh karake nirmit niyamon ke anusar ki jaegi.
  3. zila nyayalay aur unake adhinasth nyayalayon ka niyatrnn uchch nyayalay men nihit hai.
  4. zila nyayadhishon tatha unake nyayik padadhikariyon ke viruddh anushasanatmak karyavahi karane ka adhikar uchch nyayalay ko hi hai.

 

zila nyayadhishon ki niyukti

uchch nyayalay se paramarsh karake rajyapal zila nyayadhishon ki niyukti karata hai. samanyat: zila nyayadhish ki niyukti rajy ki nyayik seva ke adhikariyon men se varishthata tatha yogyata ke adhar par ki jati hai lekin nyayalay ki sifarish par rajyapal us vyakti ko bhi zila nyayadhish ke pad par niyukt kar sakata hai, jo kam se kam 7 varsh tak kisi nyayalay men lagatar adhivakta raha ho.[15]  

zila nyayadhishon ke atirikt any nyayadhishon ki niyukti

zila nyayadhishon ke atirikt any nyayadhishon ki niyukti do prakar se ki jati hai. pratham, uchch nyayalay dvara ayojit uchch nyayik seva pariksha ke parinam ke adhar par tatha dvitiy, rajy lok seva ayog dvara ayojit prantiy nyayik seva pariksha ke parinam ke adhar par.  

ee-kort

nyayalay ki prakriya ko saral banane ke uddeshy se ee-kort ka prachalan prarambh kiya gaya hai. desh men pahala maaudal ee-kort gujarat men ahamadabad men ahamadabad siti sivil evn seshan nyayalay men sthapit kiya gaya hai. isaka udaghatan 8 pharavari, 2009 ko desh ke mukhy nyayadhish nyayamoorti ke. ji. balakrishnan dvara kiya gaya.

ee-kort men aropi vidiyon kanphrensing ke madhyam se nyayadhish ke samaksh apani upasthiti darsha sakenge tatha bayan bhi de sakenge. isase karagaron se unhen nyayalay tak lane le jane ki avashyakata nahin hogi. karagar v pulis mukhyalay ke atirikt phorensik leboretari ko bhi is pahale ee-kort pariyojana men nyayalay se an lain sambaddh kiya gaya hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. anuchchhed 216
  2. anuchchhed 217
  3. anuchchhed 233
  4. anuchchhed 224
  5. anuchchhed 228
  6. anuchchhed 219
  7. anuchchhed 217
  8. anuchchhed 220
  9. anuchchhed 222
  10. nyayadhish
  11. anuchchhed 226
  12. anuchchhed 228
  13. anuchchhed 226
  14. anuchchhed 227
  15. anuchchhed 233

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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