भारतीय थल सेना  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(थल सेना se punarnirdeshit)
bharatiy thalasena ka dhvaj

bharatiy thal sena ke prashasanik evn samarik kary snchalan ka niyntran thal senadhyaksh karata hai. sena ko adhikatar thal sena hi samajha jata hai, yah thik bhi hai kyonki raksha-pakti men thal sena ka hi pratham tatha pradhan sthan hai. is samay lagabhag 13 lakh sainik-asainik thal sena men bhinn-bhinn padon par karyarat hain, jabaki 1948 men sena men lagabhag 2,00,000 sainik the. thal sena ka mukhyalay nee dilli men hai.

thal senadhyaksh ki sahayata ke lie thalasena ke vais chiph, tatha chiph staph hote hain. inamen dipti chiph aauf armi staph, edajutent-janaral, kvartar mastar-janaral, mastar-janaral af ardanens aur sena sachiv tatha injiniyar-in-chiph sammilit hain. thal sena 6 kamanon men sngathit hai-

  1. pashchimi kaman (mukhyalay: shimala)
  2. poorvi kaman (kolakata)
  3. uttari kaman (oodhamapur)
  4. dakshini kaman (pune)
  5. madhy kaman (lakhanoo)
  6. dakshini-pashchimi kaman (jayapur)

dakshin-pashchim kaman ka gathan 15 aprail, 2005 ko kiya gaya. isaka mukhyalay jayapur men sthapit kiya gaya hai. yah thal sena ki sabase badi kaman hai.[1]

itihas

bharatiy thal sena ke udbhav ka bharat men british shasan ki shuruat se qaribi snbndh hai. pratham vishv yuddh men bharatiy sainik virata se lade aur is yuddh men british saphalata men unhonne ullekhaniy yogadan diya. isake bavazood angrezon ne bharatiy sena ko bharatiy netritv upalabdh karane ka kada pratirodh kiya. lekin 1,10,000 bharatiy javanon ki sena dvara yuddh men 12 viktoriya kraaus jite jane se angrezon par is bat ke lie dabav badh raha tha ki bharatiy sena ke adhikari kaidar men bharatiyon ko bharti kiya jae. pahala pramukh badalav lagabhag 1919-1920 men bharatiy rajanitik netritv dvara sena ke bharatiyakaran ki satat mang ki pratikriya ke taur par aya. parinamasvaroop inglaind ke saindaharst sthit raauyal militri ekaidami men upayukt bharatiyon ke lie 10 pad arakshit kie ge. lagatar badhate rajanitik dabav ne british satta ko 1 aktoobar 1932 ko bharatiy sena ke bhavi adhikariyon ke prashikshan ke lie deharadoon men indiyan militri ekaidami (aee. em. e) ki sthapana karane par majaboor kiya. dvitiy vishv yuddh ke dauran bahut se bharatiy adhikari aur sipahi mitr rashtron ki or se lade, isamen bharatiy sena ki tukadiyon ko behatarin ladakoo kshamata ke pradarshan ke lie pahachan mili. is dauran bharatiy sena ke adhikariyon aur sipahiyon ko die ge 31 viktoriya kraaus men se 28 bharatiyon ko mile.

dvitiy vishv yuddh ke bad thal sena, nausena aur vayu sena men bahut se vidroh hue. isase sainy evn arthik roop se thak chuke briten ko vishvas ho gaya ki bharat par apane aupaniveshik shasan ko qayam rakhane ke lie vah bharatiy sena par nirbhar nahin rah sakata. angrezon dvara upamahadvip ko chhodane ke nirnay men yah anubhooti ek mahattvapoorn karak rahi.

svntatr bharat men thal sena ki bhoomika

15 agast 1947 men bharat ke azad hone ke bad se thal sena ne desh ke mamalon men mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhaee hai. shantikal ke dauran usane nagarik shasan ki sahayata ki hai aur pakistan v chin ke sath char pramukh yuddh bhi lade hain. desh ke bhitar upadravon se bhi sena ko nipatana padata hai.

bharat ki azadi ke samay hi bharatiy thal sena ko shuruati chunautiyon ka samana karana pada. 15 agast 1947 ko desh ke bharat aur pakistan men bnt jane ke karan bharatiy thal sena ka bhi vibhajan hua. chal v achal snpatti aur sath hi janasnkhya ka bhi donon deshon ke bich bntavara hua. vibhajan abhootapoorv hatyakandon aur lakhon sharanarthiyon ke avagaman ka pratyakshadarshi raha. isase nagarik prashasan charamara gaya. aise samay men sena ne sthiti ko niyntrit kiya aur do mahine men hi dnge se kshat-vipaksh hue pnjab men samany sthiti bahal ki.

bharat ka misail bhndar
kram nam sthiti renj
(kilomitar)
pailod
(kilomitar)
mool vishesh
1 prithvi 150 sakriy 150 1000 bharat-roos rashiyan ese-2 se
2 prithvi 250 sakriy 250 500-750 bharat-roos rashiyan ese-2 se
3 dhanush vikas/parikshan 250 1000 bharat prithvi se
4 sagarika vikas/parikshan 250-350 500 bharat prithvi se
5 prithvi 350 vikas 600-750 500-1000 bharat-roos rashiyan ese-2 se
6 agni-1 sakriy 700-800 1000 bharat-phrans-amerika akhiri parikshan-09.01.2003
7 agni-2 sakriy 1500-2000 1000 bharat-phrans-amerika akhiri parikshan-29.08.2004
8 agni-3 vikas 3000 1500 bharat parikshan saphal-12.04.2007
9 shaury vikas/parikshan 600 bharat pratham parikshan- 12.11.2008

riyasaton ka ekikaran

vibhajan ke bad 575 riyasaton ko bharatiy sngh men sngathit kiya jana tha. joonagadh, haidarabad aur kashmir ki riyasaton ke alava baqi sabhi ne bharatiy sngh men vilay ko svikar kar liya tha. joonagadh aur haidarabad ko bharatiy sngh men milane ke lie taiyar karane ke lie sena ko tainat kiya gaya. aktoobar 1947 men aaupareshan gulamarg dvara pakistan ne kashmir ko hathiyane ki koshish ki thi. maharaja hari sinh dvara bharat ke sath vilay ke samajhaute par hastakshar kie jane aur bharatiy thal sena dvara ghusapaithiyon ke sath sngharsh se yah koshish nakam kar di gee. kee mahinon tak sngharsh karane ke bad akhirakar 1 janavari 1949 ko yuddhaviram lagoo kiya gaya. snyukt rashtr sngh ki nigarani men chhnb se laddakh tak ek yuddh viram rekha (siz fayar lain, si.eph. el.) khinchi gee. ise bad men niyntran rekha ka nam diya gaya. halanki tab tak kashmir ka ek hissa pakistan ke qabze men chala gaya tha.

pramukh karyavahiyan

yadyapi british v fransisi apane bharatiy upaniveshon ko chhodakar ja chuke the, phir bhi bharat ki azadi ke 14 sal bad bhi purtagaliyon ne gova, daman v div, anjidiv dvipon aur dadara evn nagar haveli ke upaniveshon par apana shasan qayam rakha tha. in upaniveshon ko bharat ko sthanantarit kie jane men sena ke hastakshep ki avashyakata thi. thal sena ko aktoobar-navnbar 1962 men chini akraman, chin ke sath natoo la men takarav, 1965 men pakistan ke sath 22 divasiy takarav aur 1971 men bangladesh yuddh aur 1999 men karagil takarav se joojhana pada.

antarik upadrav

bahari akramanon se nipatane ke alava thal sena ko desh ke bhitar vyapt ashanti ko niyntrit karana pada. 14 agast 1947 ko e. zed. fijo ne nagalaind ko svatntr ghoshit kar diya. 22 march, 1956 ko vidrohiyon ne naga kendriy sarakar bana li. 1966 ke arnbh men mizon logon ne nagaon ka anusaran kiya aur apani sarakar bana li. hathiyar jutane ke lie mizon neshanal armi ne rajy pulis ke bahut se shastragaron par dhava bola. is vidroh ko dabane ke lie sena ko bheja gaya. usane upadrav virodhi dirgh karyavahi shuroo ki, jo ek shanti samajhaute par hastakshar ke sath 1980 ke dashak men samapt huee.

pnjab ke khalistan andolan ki parinati aaupareshan bloo star men huee, jise amritasar ke svarn mndir men chhupe atnkavadiyon ko bahar nikalane ke lie shuroo kiya gaya.

navnbar 1990 men yoonaeeted libareshan frnt aauf asam (ulpha) dvara paida ki gee samasyaon se nipatane ke lie sena ko bulaya gaya. abhi bhi sena poorvottar men upadravakari gatividhiyon se joojhane men lagi hai.

sngathan

1947 se ab tak ke varshon ne bharatiy thal sena ko age badhate hue ek kushal yuddh vyavastha men vikasit hote dekha hai. sainy karmiyon ki badhati snkhya ke sath-sath sena ne prakshepastr samet svayn ko adhunik vaigyanik hathiyaron se susajjit kiya hai. vishv ki chauthi sabase badi bharatiy thal sena men niyamit sainy karmiyon ke alava arakshit sena, kshetriy sena aur neshanal kaidet kaaurps hai.

dhanush misail

bharatiy thal sena chif armi staf (si.o.e.es) ke antargat kary karati hai, jo isaki kaman, niyntran aur prashasan ke lie uttaradayi hai. svatntr bharat ke pahale thal sena pramukh sar raaubart laaukahart the. us samay sena pramukh ko kamandar-in-chif kaha jata tha. janaral kariappa, 15 janavari, 1949 ko 'kamandar-in-chif' bane aur is prakar vah is pad par pahunchane vale pahale bharatiy the. 1 apral 1955 se sena pramukh ko thal sena adhyaksh (chif aauf armi staf, si.o.e.es) nam se jana jane laga. janaral maharaj rajendr sinh ji pratham thal senadhyaksh the. 1 janavari 1973 ko saim horamusaji framaji jamashedaji manekashaau bharat ke pahale fild marshal bane.

kushal prashasan sunishchit karane ke lie thal sena ko panch kamanon men banta gaya hai. isake pashchimi kaman, jisaka mukhyalay chndi mndir men hai, poorvi kaman, jisaka mukhyalay kolakata bhootapoorv (kalakatta) men hai, lakhanoo men kendriy kaman, oodhamapur men uttari kaman aur dakshini kaman, jisaka karyalay pune men shamil hain. inamen se pratyek ka pramukh ek leftinent janaral hota hai, jo thal sena ke upadhyaksh ke samakaksh hota hai. pratyek kaman ko kaaurps, divizan, briged, bataliyan, knpani, palatan aur vibhag men upavibhajit kiya jata hai. shastragar, paidal sena topakhana divizan thal sena ke ladakoo ang hain. signal kaaurps aur injiniyars sena ke sahayak ang hain. thal sena prashikshan kaman ka mukhyalay shimala men hai. kaaumbait kaaulej indaur ke pas mu (em.ech.o.dablyoo., yani militri hedakvartars aauf, vaaur) men hai.

shanti prayas

apani videsh niti ke anuroop bharat ne snyukt rashtr ke shanti bahal karane ke vibhinn abhiyanon men bhag liya hai. pahali bar navnbar 1950 aur 1953 men bharat ne koriya men snyukt rashtr sngh ke nyootral neshans ripartieshan kamishan (en.en.ar.si.) men bhag liya. usane koriya men yuddhabndiyon ke pratyavartan ke lie apani tukadiyan koriya bhejin. navnbar 1998 men bharatiy thal sena ne lebanan men snyukt rashtr ki atnrim sena men apani paidal sena ki ek bataliyan bheji. bharat aj bhi is sena ka hissa bana hua hai. vaishvik samuday ka ek zimmedar sadasy hone ke nate antarrashtriy shanti evn suraksha qayam karane ki disha men yah bharatiy thal sena ka ek prayas hai.

bharatiy thalasena

snyukt rashtr ke shanti bahal karane ke prayason men bhag lene ke alava bharatiy thal sena ne sahayata mang rahe apane padosi deshon ki bhi sahayata ki hai. 1987 ke madhy men shrilnka ne uttari tamil ugravadiyon ke khilaf shrilnkaee sashastr senaon dvara ki ja rahi karyavahi aur bad men in ugravadiyon dvara samarpan ka nirikshan karane ke lie bharatiy thal sena ki sahayata mangi. yah shanti bahal karane ki sabase badi chunauti thi. pramukh ugravadi gut libareshan taigars aauf tamil eelam (el.ti.ti.ee.) ne jamakar pratirodh kiya aur bharatiy shanti sena ko use dabane men samay laga aur usake bahut se sadasyon ki mrityu bhi huee. lekin bharatiy shanti sena el.ti.ti.ee. ko us bindu tak le aee, jahan se rajanitik prakriya shuroo ki ja sake. apana abhiyan poora karane ke bad bharatiy shanti sena 24 march 1990 ko shrilnka se vapas bula li gee. 3 navnbar 1988 ko bharatiy sashastr sena ne maladiv men hue ek sainy vidroh ko dabane men vahan ki sarakar ki sahayata ke lie ek abhiyan shuroo kiya. bharatiy sashastr sena tin din ke abhiyan ke bad samany sthiti bahal karane men kamayab rahi.

bharatiy adhikariyon aur sainikon ne apane kartavyon ka nirvah karate samay adbhut shaury ka pradarshan kiya hai aur bahut se virata puraskar jite hain. paramavir chakr bharat sarakar dvara diya jane vala sarvochch virata puraskar hai. mahavir chakr, kirti chakr aur vir chakr any puraskar hain. sena ne hamesha hi prashasan ki sahayata ki hai. usane bhooknp, badh, sookhe aur chakravat jaisi prakritik apadaon se nipatane men sarakar ko sahayog diya hai. sanpradayik dngon aur rajanitik ashanti ko niyntrit karane men bhi sena bahut upayogi siddh huee hai. armi vaivz velafeyar esosieshan (e. dablyoo. dablyoo. e.) sainy adhikariyon ki patniyon dvara chalaee ja rahi snstha hai. yah snstha yuddh evn shantikal ke dauran prashasan ko sahayata deti hai. pramukh shaharon men sena ke apane aspatal bhi hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. bharatiy sashash‍tr senaen (hindi) adhikarik vebasait. abhigaman tithi: 6 faravari, 2011.

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