पंचायती राज  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bharat ka prashasanik dhancha

pnchayati raj vyavastha men gram, tahasil, taluka aur zila ate hain. bharat men prachin kal se hi pnchayati raj vyavastha astitv men rahi hai, bhale hi ise vibhinn nam se vibhinn kal men jana jata raha ho. pnchayati raj vyavastha ko kamobesh mugal kal tatha british kal men bhi jari rakha gaya. british shasan kal men 1882 men tatkalin vayasaray laaurd ripan ne sthaniy svayatt shasan ki sthapana ka prayas kiya tha, lekin vah saphal nahin ho saka. british shasakon ne sthaniy svayatt snsthaon ki sthiti par janch karane tatha usake sambandh men sifarish karane ke lie 1882 tatha 1907 men shahi ayog ka gathan kiya. is ayog ne svayatt snsthaon ke vikas par bal diya, jisake karan 1920 men snyukt prant, asam, bngal, bihar, madras aur pnjab men pnchayaton ki sthapana ke lie qanoon banaye gaye. svatntrata sngharsh ke dauran bhi sngharsharat logon ke netaon dvara sadaiv pnchayati raj ki sthapana ki mang ki jati rahi.

snvaidhanik pravadhan

snvidhan ke anuchchhed 40 men rajyon ko pnchayaton ke gathan ka nirdesh diya gaya hai. isake sath hi snvidhan ki 7vin anusoochi (rajy soochi) ki pravishti 5 men gram pnchayaton ko shamil karake isake sambandh men qanoon banane ka adhikar rajy ko diya gaya hai. 1993 men snvidhan men 73van snshodhan karake pnchayat raj snstha ko snvaidhanik manyata de di gee hai aur snvidhan men bhag 9 ko punah jodakar tatha is bhag men 16 naye anuchchhedon (243 se 243-n tak) aur snvidhan men 11vin anusoochi jodakar pnchayat ke gathan, pnchayat ke sadasyon ke chunav, sadasyon ke lie arakshan tatha pnchayat ke karyon ke sambandh men vyapak pravadhan kiye gaye hain.

vibhinn rajyon men pnchayat samiti

svatntrata prapti ke bad gandhiji ke prabhav se pnchayati raj vyavastha par vishesh bal diya gaya aur isake lie kendr men pnchayati raj evn samudayik vikas mntralay ki sthapana ki gee aur es.ke.de ko is vibhag ka mantri banaya gaya. isake bad 2 aktoobar, 1952 ko is uddeshy ke sath samudayik vikas karyakram prarambh kiya gaya ki samany janata ko vikas pranali se adhik se adhik sahayukt kiya jae. is karyakram ke adhin khand ko ikaee manakar khand ke vikas hetu sarakari karmachariyon ke sath samany janata ko vikas ki prakriya se jodane ka prayas kiya gaya, lekin janata ko adhikar nahin diya gaya, jis karan yah sarakari adhikariyon tak simit rah gaya aur asaphal ho gaya. isake bad 2 aktoobar, 1953 ko rashtriy prasar seva ko prarambh kiya gaya, jo asaphal hua.

balavnt ray mehata samiti

samudayik vikas karyakram tatha rashtriy prasar seva ke asaphal hone ke bad pnchayat raj vyavastha ko mazaboot banane ki sifarish karane ke lie 1957 men balavnt ray mehata ki adhyakshata men gramoddhar samiti ka gathan kiya gaya. is samiti ne ganvon ke samoohon ke lie pratyakshatah nirvachit pnchayaton, khand star par nirvachit tatha namit sadasyon vali pnchayat samitiyon tatha zila star par zila parishadh gathit karane ka sujhav diya gaya.

vibhinn rajyon men pnchayat samiti ke nam
rajy nam
bihar, maharashtr, pnjab, rajasthan pnchayat samiti
andhr pradesh mndal pnchayat
tamilanadu pnchayat yooniyan
pashchim bngal anchalik parishad
asam anchalik pnchayat
karnatak taluka debalapament bord
madhy pradesh janapad pnchayat
arunachal pradesh anchal samiti
uttar pradesh kshetr samiti

mehata samiti ki sifarishon ko 1 aprail, 1958 ko lagoo kiya gaya aur is sifarish ke adhar par rajasthan rajy ki vidhanasabha ne 2 sitnbar, 1959 ko pnchayati raj adhiniyam parit kiya, aur is adhiniyam ke pravadhanon ke adhar par 2 aktoobar, 1959 ko rajasthan ke nagaur zile men pnchayati raj ka udaghatan kiya gaya. isake bad 1959 men andhr pradesh, 1960 men asam, tamilanadu evn karnatak, 1962 men maharashtr, 1963 men gujarat tatha 1964 men pashchim bngal men vidhanasabhaon ke dvara pnchayati raj adhiniyam parit karake pnchayat raj vyavastha ko prarambh kiya gaya.

mehata samiti ki sifarishen

balavnt ray mehata samiti ki sifarishon ke adhar par sthapit pnchayati raj vyavastha men kee kamiyan utpann ho gayin, jinhen door karane ke lie sifarish karane hetu 1977 men ashok mehata samiti ka gathan kiya gaya. is samiti men 13 sadasy the. samiti ne 1978 men apani riport kendr sarakar ko saunp di, jisamen keval 132 sifarishen ki gayi thin. isaki pramukh sifarishen hain–

daau. pi. vi. ke. rav samiti

1985 men daau. pi. vi. ke. rav ki adhyakshata men ek samiti ka gathan karake use yah kary saunpa gaya ki vah gramin vikas tatha garibi ko door karane ke lie prashasanik vyavastha par sifarish kare. is samiti ne rajy star par rajy vikas parishadh, zila star par zila parishadh, mandal star par mandal pnchayat tatha ganv star par ganv sabha ke gathan ki sifarish ki. is samiti ne vibhinn staron par anusoochit jati tatha janajati evn mahilaon ke lie arakshan ki bhi sifarish ki, lekin samiti ki sifarish ko amany kar diya gaya.

daau. el. em. sindhavi samiti

pnchayami raj snsthaon ke karyon ki samiksha karane tatha usamen sudhar karane ke sambandh men sifarish karane ke lie sindhavi samiti ka gathan kiya gaya. is samiti ne gram pnchayaton ko saksham banane ke lie ganvon ke punargathan ki sifarish ki tatha sath men yah sujhav bhi diya ki ganv pnchayaton ko adhik vittiy snsadhan upalabdh karaya jae.

pnchayat vyavastha

1988 men pi. ke. thungan samiti ka gathan pnchayati snsthaon par vichar karane ke lie kiya gaya. is samiti ne apane prativedan men kaha ki raj snsthaon ko snvidhan men sthan diya jana chahie. is samiti ki sifarish ke adhar pnchayati raj ko snvaidhanik manyata pradan karane ke lie 1989 men 64van snvidhan snshodhan lokasabha men pesh kiya gaya, jise lok sabha ke dvara parit kar diya gaya, lekin rajy sabha ke dvara namnjoor kar diya gaya. isake bad lokasabha ko bhng kar die jane ke karan yah vidheyak samapt kar diya gaya. isake bad 74van snvidhan snshodhan pesh kiya gaya, jo lokasabha ke bhng kiye jane ke karan samapt ho gaya. isake bad 16 disambar, 1991 ko 72van snvidhan snshodhan vidheyak pesh kiya gaya, jise snyukt snsadiy samiti (pravar samiti) ko saunp diya gaya. is samiti ne vidheyak par apani sammati julaee 1992 men di aur vidheyak ke kramank ko badalakar 73van snvidhan snshodhan vidheyak kar diya gaya, jise 22 disambar, 1992 ko lokasabha ne tatha 23 disambar, 1992 ko rajyasabha ne parit kar diya. 17 rajy vidhan sabhaon ke dvara anumodit kiy jane par ise rashtrapati ki sammati ke lie unake samaksh pesh kiya gaya. rashtrapati ne 20 aprail, 1993 ko is par apani sammati de di aur ise 24 aprail, 1993 ko pravartit kar diya gaya.

pnchayaton ki snrachana

snvidhan (73van seshodhan) adhiniyam, 1992 dvara tristariy pnchayati raj vyavastha ka pravadhan kiya gaya hai. isake anusar

  • sabase nichale arthath gram star par gram sabha zila pnchayat ke gathan ka pravadhan hai.
  • madhyavarti arthath khand star par kshetr pnchayat aur
  • sabase uchch arthath zila star par pnchayat ke gathan ka pravadhan kiya gaya hai.

gram sabha

kisi gram ki nirvachak namavali men jo nam darj hote hain un vyaktiyon ko samoohik roop se gram sabha kaha jata hai. gram sabha men 200 ya usase adhik ki janasnkhya ka hona avashyak hai. gram sabha ki baithak varsh men do bar honi avashyak hai. is bare men sadasyon ko soochana baithak se 15 din poorv notis se deni hoti hai. gram sabha ki baithak ko bulane ka adhikar gram pradhan ko hai. vah kisi samay asamany baithak ka bhi ayojan kar sakata hai. zila pnchayat raj adhikari ya kshetr pnchayat dvara likhit roop se mang karane par athava gram sabha ke sadasyon ki mang par pradhan dvara 30 dinon ke bhitar baithak bulaya jaega. yadi gram pradhan baithak ayojit nahin karata hai to yah baithak us tarikh ke 60 dinon ke bhitar hogi, jis tarikh ko pradhan se baithak bulane ki mang ki gee hai. gram sabha ki baithak ke lie kul sadasyon ki snkhya ke 5ven bhag ki upasthiti avashyak hoti hai. kintu yadi ganapoorti (koram) ke abhav ke karan baithak n ho sake to isake lie dubara baithak ka ayojan kiya ja sakata hai. darabar baithak ke lie 5ven bhag ki upasthiti avashyak nahin hoti hai.

gram pnchayat

pratyek gram sabha kshetr men gram pnchayat ka pravadhan kiya gaya hai. gram pnchayat gram sabha ki nirvachit karyapalika hai. gram pnchayat ka nirvachan pratyaksh roop se hota hai. pratyek pnchayat ko usaki pahali baithak ki tarikh se 5 varsh ke lie gathit kiya jata hai. pnchayat ko vidhi ke anusar isase pahale bhi vighatit kiya ja sakata hai. yadi gram pnchayat 5 varsh se 6 mah poorv vighatit kar di jati hai to punah chunav avashyak hota hai. nee gathit pnchayat ka karyakal shesh avadhi ke lie hoga. gram pnchayat ki mah men ek baithak avashyak hai. baithak ki soochana kam se kam 5 din poorv sabhi sadasyon ko di jaegi. pradhan tatha usaki anupasthiti men up pradhan kisi bhi samay pnchayat ki baithak ko bula sakata hai. yadi pnchayat ke 1/3 sadasy kisi bhi samay hastakshar kar likhit roop se baithak bulane ki mang karate hain to pradhan ko 15 dinon ke andar baithak ayojit karani hogi. yadi baithak ko pradhan dvara ayojit nahin kiya jata hai to nirdharit adhikari, sahayak adhikari ya pnchayat baithak bula sakata hai. gram pnchayat ki baithak ke lie kul sadasyon ki snkhya ka 1/3 sadasyon ki upasthiti ganapoorti (koram) ke lie avashyak hoti hai. yadi ganapoorti ke abhav men baithak nahin hoti hai to dobara soochana dekar baithak bulaee ja sakati hai. isake lie ganapoorti ki avashyakata nahin hoti hai. gram pnchayat ki baithak ki adhyakshata gram pradhan tatha usaki anupasthiti men up pradhan karata hai. in donon ki anupasthiti men pradhan dvara likhit roop se manonit sadasy adhyakshata karega. yadi pradhan ne kisi sadasy ke manonit nahin kiya hai to baithak men upasthit sadasy baithak ki adhyakshata karane ke lie kisi sadasy ka chunav kar sakata hai.

kshetr pnchayat

kshetr pnchayat ganv evn zile ke madhy sampark sthapit karata hai.

zila pnchayat

pnchayati raj vyavastha ka shirshastar zila pnchayat hai. isaka adhyaksh apratyaksh roop se nirvachit hota hai.

nagariy shasan

bharat men nagariy shasan vyavastha prachin kal se hi prachalan men rahi hai, lekin ise qanooni roop sarvapratham 1687 men diya gaya, jab british sarakar dvara madras shahar ke lie nagar nigam snstha ki sthapani ki gayi. bad men 1793 ke chartar adhiniyam ke adhin madras, kalakatta tatha bambee ke tinon mahanagaron men nagar nigamon ki sthapana ki gayi. bngal men nagariy shasan pranali ko prarambh karane ke lie 1842 men bngal adhiniyam parit kiya gaya. 1882 men tatkalin vayasaray laaurd ripan ne nagariy shasan vyavastha men sudhar karane ka prayas kiya, lekin vah rajanitik karanon se apane is kary men asaphal raha. nagariy prashasan ke vikendrikaran par riport dene ke lie 1909 men shahi vikendrikaran ayog ka gathan kiya gaya, jisaki riport ko adhar banakar bharat sarakar adhiniyam, 1919 men nagariy prashasan ke sambandh men spasht pravadhan kiya gaya, jisamen kiye gaye pravadhanon ke anusar nagariy shasan vyavastha chhinn-bhinn ho gayi.

prashasanik sudhar ayog ki riport

27 navambar, 2007 ko virappa moili ki adhyakshata vale doosare prashasanik sudhar ayog ne apani chhathi riport, jo sthaniy prashasan men sudhar se sambandhit hai, pradhanamntri daau. manamohan sinh ko prastut ki. riport men sthaniy prashasan men lokatntr ke pronnayan tatha ise nagarik kendrit banane ka sujhav diya gaya hai. prashasan men sthaniy lokatntr ke pronnayan ko vikendrikaran se kahin oopar batate hue sauth afrikan ekt ki tarj par aisa qanoon snsad men parit karane ko kaha gaya hai, jisase sthaniy nikayon ko adhik shaktiyan evn dayitv saunpe ja saken. riport men zila star par lokatantrik sarakar ka ek tisara star srijit karane ka sujhav diya gaya hai. ayog ne apani riport men snsad se pratyek rajy men vidhan parishadh ke gathan ke lie qadam uthane ko kaha hai. ayog ka vichar hai ki vidhan parishadh ke gathan se sthaniy shasan ko rajy shasan vyavastha men pratinidhitv mil sakega. riport men chunav sudharon ke lie nirvachan kshetron ke parisiman v inake arakshan sambandhi kary ko rajy stariy chunav ayog par chhodane ko kaha gaya hai. sthaniy sarakaron ki vittiy sthiti men sudhar ke lie prashasanik sudhar ayog ne kaha hai ki rajy vitt ayogon ka gathan is prakar kiya jana chahie ki kendriy vitt ayog ki sifarishon ko yah dhyan men rakh saken. ayog ke anusar sthaniy sarakaron ko snvidhan ke tahat pradatt dayitvon ka poorn nirvah karana chahie tatha vidyut bord v jal pradhikaran jaise nikayon ko sthaniy sarakaron ke prati uttaradayi hona chahie.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah