थार मरुस्थल  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

thar marusthal, rajasthan

thar marusthal laharadar retile pahadon ka vistar hai jo vishal bharatiy marusthal bhi kahalata hai. kuchh bhag bharat ke rajasthan men aur kuchh pakistan men sthit hai. 2,00,000 varg kimi men phaile is kshetr ke pashchim men sindhu dvara sinchit kshetr hai, isake dakshin-poorv men aravali ka vistar hai aur dakshin men kachchh ka registan hai, to poorvottar men pnjab ka bhoobhag hai, yah marusthal maaunasoon men abhav ke parinamasvaroop nirmit hua hai, jisake karan is ilaqe men paryapt varsha nahin hoti.

thar shabd se abhipray

thar shabd ki utpatti thal se huee hai, jisaka arth ret ka tila hai. marusthal ki ret poorv kainbriyan yug ki chattanon (grenait jaisi agney chattanon, jo 3.8 arab varsh purani hain) ke sath 2.5 arab se 57 lakh varsh purani avasadi chattanon ka parivartit roop hai. isake alava adhunik bhaugarbhik kal men nadiyon dvara bahakar lae ge nikshep bhi is ret men hain. satah par paee gee ret vayoodh (hava dvara laee gee) hai. 16 lakh varsh purani ret ki oopari parat sabase nee hai. is registan ki satah asaman aur oonchi-nichi hai, ret ke chhote-bade tile retile maidanon aur chhoti bnjar pahadiyon ya bhakar se vibhakt hain, jo asapas ke maidanon se achanak uthati hai. vibhinn akar ke retile tile satat parivartanashil hain. purane tile halanki arddh sthir aur sthir hain aur unaki oonchaee lagabhag 150 mitar tak hai. is poore kshetr men khare pani ki kuchh jhilen (playa) bikhari huee hain, jinhen sthaniy bhasha men dhandh kahate hai. yahan mitti ki kul sat shreniyan milati hain- marusthali mitti, marusthali lal mitti, bhoori v kali mitti, taraee ki lal v pili mitti, khari mitti, mausami chhichhali mitti aur pahadi ilakon men mulayam bhurabhuri mitti. ye sabhi mittiyan mukhyat: khuradari, choonedar, aur poori tarah shushk hain. mitti ki paraton men choone ka kam ya jyada jamav hai. yahan ki mitti samanyat: anupajaoo hai aur tez havaen chalane ke karan us par ret jama ho jati hai.

bhaugolik vistar

thar marusthal rajapootana aur sindhu nadi ki ghati ke nichale bhag ke madhy men phaila hua hai. is marusthal men ek boond jal nahin milata aur ise keval karavan ke dvara hi par kiya ja sakata hai. yah bharat aur pakistan ke bich ki sima rekha bhi banata hai. yah sindh ko dakshin aur uttari pashchimi bharat se prithakh karata hai. arabon ne jab 710 ee. men sindh vijay ki, to is marusthal ke karan ve apane rajy ka vistar sindh se age nahin kar sake. is marusthal ne kuchh samay tak angrezon ko bhi sindh par apana adhipaty jamane se roke rakha. angrez sindh par dant isilie gadaye the, kyonki yah afaganistan aur pnjab ka praveshadvar tha. angrezon ke dvara sindh ke adhigrahan ke bad yah marusthal bharatiy british samrajy ka ang ban gaya.[1]

varsha aur tapaman

is registani patti men varshik varsha ki dar bahut kam hai. yahan pashchim men varshik varsha 100 mimi ya usase kam aur poorv men lagabhag 500 mimi hoti hai. varsha ki sthiti kafi aniyamit hai aur sal dar sal isake ausat men bhari utar-chadhav ata hai. kul varsha ka lagabhag 90 pratishat bhag dakshin-pashchimi maaunasoon kal men julaee se sitnbar ke bich hota hai, doosare mausamon men poorvottar se havaen chalati hain. mee aur joon sabase garm mahine hote hain, jab tapaman 50° se. tak pahunch jata hai. janavari ke mahine men thnd ke dauran nyoonatam tapaman 5° se 10° se. tak rahata hai. mee aur joon ke mausam men 140 se 150 kimi prati ghnta ki gati se tez dhool bhari andhi aur havaen chalati hain.

vanaspati aur jiv-jntu

registani vanaspatiyon men jyadatar jadi-bootiyan ya chhoti jhadiyan hoti hain; ped kahin-kahin dikhaee padate hain. pahadiyon par gond ke erobik akasiya aur yoofaaurbiya bhi milate hain. maidani ilakon men khejadi (prosopis sinerariya) ke ped pae jate hain. ghas ke maidanon par kala hiran, chinkara aur any shikari-pakshi, jaise titar aur bater pae jate hain. pravasi pakshiyon men bhattatitar, battakh aur kalahns pramukh hain. yah marusthal luptapray bharatiy son chidiya ka avasiy kshetr bhi hai. thar marusthal men dudharoo gayon ki panch mukhy naslen paee jati hain, inamen se tharaparakar nasl ki gay sabase adhik doodh deti hai, jabaki kankare nasl ki gay bojh dhone aur doodh utpadan men saman roop se mahattvapoorn hai. madhyam-uttam aur moti, donon qismon ki oon ke liye yahan bhedon ka palan kiya jata hai. amataur par oont ka parivahan ke sath-sath jutaee aur any krishi karyon men bhi istemal kiya jata hai. yahan ki jyadatar abadi gramin ilakon men rahati hai aur visham ghanatv men phaili hai.

janajivan shaili

yahan ke riti-rivaj, parnpara aur veshabhoosha men ekaroopata nahin hai. yahan hindoo aur musalaman, donon snpradayon ke log rahate hain aur janasnkhya jatil arthik v samajik adharon par vibhakt hai. yahan par anek bnjare pashupalan, dastakari aur vyapar men snlagn hain. ye n to kisi khas jatiy samooh se jude hain aur n sthan vishesh tak simit hain. samanyat: ye sthanabaddh abadi aur usaki arthavyavastha se sahajivi roop men jude hain. ghas yahan ka pramukh prakritik snsadhan hai. isase pashuon ke lie svadisht prakritik chara to milata hi hai, sthaniy log isase dava bhi banate hain. vanaspatiyon ke satv se davaiyan banati hain aur tel se sabun bhi taiyar kiya jata hai. yahan pani ki behad kami hai. mausami varsha ke pani ko kundon aur jalashayon men ikaththa kar liya jata hai, jisaka istemal pine aur any ghareloo upayogon men hota hai. yahan bhoomigat jal ka istemal nahin hota, kyonki ek to jalastar bahut niche hai aur phir bhoomigat jal khara hota hai. kuon aur jalashayon ke alava naharen yahan pani ka pramukh srot hain. pani upalabdh hone par genhoo aur kapas jaisi fasalen ugaee jati hain. sindhu nadi par 1932 men taiyar sukkar bandh se, jahan pakistan sthit dakshini thar men sinchaee hoti hai, vahin sataluj nadi se nikali gnga nagar se bharat sthit uttari hisse men sinchaee ka kam hota hai. rajasthan nahar se bharat men thar kshetr men bade paimane par sinchaee hoti hai. yah nahar bharatiy pnjab men sataluj aur vyas nadiyon ke sngam par bane hari ke bairaj se nikalati hai aur dakshin-pashchim disha men 470 kimi bahati hai.

yatayat aur parivahan

koyale aur tel se chalit tap vidyut pariyojanaen yahan bade shaharon men sthit hain aur bijali ki sthaniy apoorti karate hain. pnjab men sataluj nadi par sthit nangal vidyut ghar se jalavidyut oorja ki apoorti ki jati hai. yahan sadaken aur relamarg kam hain. thar ke dakshini bhag men ek relave lain hai. registan ke bharatiy hisse men ek doosari relave lain hai, jo medata rod se bikaner hokar sooratagadh pahunchati hai. ek doosari relave lain jodhapur aur jaisalamer ko jodati hai. registan ke pakistani hisse men bahavalapur se haidarabad ko jodati ek relave lain hai. 1947 men hue bharat-pakistan vibhajan se sindhu nadi ki sinchaee nahar pranali ka adhikansh bhag pakistani kshetr men chala gaya, jabaki bharatiy hisse ka ek bada registani kshetr asinchit rah gaya. 1960 ke donon deshon ke bich hue sindhu jal sndhi ke dvara nishchit kie ge adhikar v anubndhon ne sindhu nadi ke jal ke upayog ki simaon ko nirdharit kiya. is sndhi ke tahat ravi, vyas aur sataluj ka pani rajasthan nahar ko upalabdh karaya gaya, jisase mukhyat: bharat ke pashchimi rajasthan ke registani ilakon ki sinchaee ho sake.

kshetraphal men vriddhi

thar marusthal har sal adha kilomitar ki raphtar se uttar-poorv ki or badh raha hai. ane vale vaqt men yah bharat ke bhoo-upayog ka naksha hi badal dega. 'indiyan spes risarch aaurgenaijeshan' (isaro) ki taja risarch men yah khulasa hua hai ki, kal tak rajasthan ki pahachan rahe thar marusthal ne ab hariyana, pnjab, uttar pradesh tatha madhy pradesh tak apane panv pasar lie hain. retili mitti ke phailav ke alava desh ke any hisson men bhi mrida ka hras is had tak badh gaya hai ki, krishi aur vaniki par ajivika chala rahe sath pratishat logon ke samane roji-roti ka snkat khada hone ki ashnka paida ho gee hai. isaro ne pahali bar desh ki bhoo-snpada ke hras ka naksha taiyar kiya hai. isake lie bharatiy upagrah aee.ar.es.pi.si.-1 risorsaset par sthapit 'edavansd vaid fild sensar' se samay-samay par li gee upagrah tasvir ka gahan vishleshan kiya gaya. vishleshan ke adhar par taiyar nakshe se snket milate hain ki, poovi ghat, pashchimi ghat tatha pashchimi himalay satah se niche ja rahe hain.[2]

bhavishy ke lie khatara

sabase zyada chaunkane vala tathy yah samane aya hai ki, desh ke 32 pratishat bhoo-bhag ka buri tarah hras ho chuka hai. isamen se sarvadhik 24 pratishat marusthali kshetr hai. rajasthan rajy to zabardast marusthalikaran ki chapet men hai. rashtriy mrida sarve aur bhoomi upayog niyojan byooro ka kahana hai ki thar marusthal ke phailav ka andaja isi se lagaya ja sakata hai ki, 1996 tak 1 lakh, 96 hazar 150 varg kimi. men phaile marusthal ka vistar ab 2 lakh, 8 hazar 110 kimi. tak ho chuka hai. aravali parvat shrinkhalaon ki prakritik snpada ko bhi nukasan pahunchane se bhoomi zyada bnjar huee hai. yahan logon ne jalavan aur zarooraton ki poorti ke lie jngalon par kulhadi chalaee hai.
thar marusthal, rajasthan
gnga ke maidani kshetron, hariyana, pnjab, uttar pradesh tatha gujarat ke tatiy kshetron men bhi lavaniyata betahasha badhऩe se utpadakata kam hone ki ashnka jataee gee hai. vaigyanikon ka kahana hai ki jis tarah vaniki hras tatha marusthal ka vistar ho raha hai, usase ane vale salon men desh ke bhoo-upayog ka naksha badalane se inkar nahin kiya ja sakata. is samay desh ki 9.47 miliyan haikteyar bhoomi bnjar ho chuki hai. barish men har sal kami aur akal ki vibhishika se choli-daman ka sath hone ke karan bhi bhavishy men sthitiyan bigadऩe ki ashnkaen hain.[2]

himalay ke gleshiyaron ko nukasan

thar marusthal se uthane vale bavndar himalay ke himanad ko pani-pani kar rahe hain. ab tak himanad pighalane ke lie 'global varming' ko hi zimmedar thahara rahe vaigyanikon ne kaha hai ki, thar se uthane vale andhad ke dhool kan barf ko pani banane ke sabab bane hue hain. darasal, yooropiyan aur amerikan risarch ke bad himanad pighalane ke karanon ka pata laga rahe bharatiy vaigyanikon ne ise ek pramukh karak mana hai. upagrah se prapt ankadon ke adhyayan ke adhar par pata lagata hai ki, arab prayadvip ke anek hisson ke sath-sath thar marusthal se tez toofani hava ke sath udऩe vale dhool ke kan himachal pradesh tatha uttarakhnd se lagate himalay se takara rahe hain. kailiforniya vishvavidyalay ke daau. ramesh sinh ne aee.aee.ti. kanapur men risarch ke dauran paya ki, jis jagah se barf ke pighalane ki raphtar tez hai, vahan barf men retili mitti ke kan pae ge hain. in kanon ke sath barf men lohe ya any khanij milate rahate hain. barf ki snrachana men yah mishran saur vikiranon ka sarvadhik avashoshan karata hai. natijatan, barf pighalane lagati hai.

pri-manasoon sijan men uthane vale andhad se uttar-pashchim ka himalay zyada prabhavit hota hai. halanki ab tak vaigyanik sardiyon men hone vale himapat ke dauran andhad ke asar ka adhyayan nahin kar pae hain, kyonki is dauran ke 'graund maitrolojikal deta' ka vishleshan nahin ho paya hai. vaigyanikon ka kahana hai ki isake alava pichhale tis salon men gnga ke maidani ilakon ke sath-sath uttari bhag men bayomas se nikali kalikh bhi himalay ko pradooshit karane ke alava gleshiyar pighalane ka karan bani huee hai.[2]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. bhattachary, sachchidanand bharatiy itihas kosh, dvitiy snskaran-1989 (hindi), bharat diskavari pustakalay: uttar pradesh hindi snsthan, 194.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 bothara, dinesh. desh ke bhoogol ko badal dega thar (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el.). . abhigaman tithi: 28 joon, 2011.

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