तम्बाकू  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

tambakoo ka paudha

tambakoo paudhe ki pattiyon se prapt hota hai. yah ek madak aur uttejak padarth hai, jo 'nikoshiyana" (angrezi nam : Nicotiana) jati ke paudhe ki barik kati huee pattiyon, jo ki khane-pine tatha soonghane ke kam ati hain, se prapt kiya jata hai. kisi any madak ya uttejak padarth ki apeksha tambakoo ka prayog aj sabase adhik matra men kiya ja raha hai. bharat men tambakoo ka paudha purtagaliyon dvara san 1608 ee. men laya gaya tha aur tab se isaki kheti ka kshetr bharat ke lagabhag sabhi bhagon men phail gaya hai. bharat vishv ke utpadan ka lagabhag 7.8 pratishat tambakoo utpann karata hai.

utpatti tatha itihas

tambakoo ki utpatti kab aur kahan huee, isaka thik pata nahin chalata. kahate hain ki, ek bar purtagal sthit phransisi rajadoot 'jaaun nikot' ne apani rani ke pas tambakoo ka bij bheja aur tabhi se is paudhe ka pravesh prachin snsar men hua. nikot ke nam ko amar rakhane ke liye tambakoo ka vanaspatik nam 'nikoshiyana' rakha gaya. tambakoo dakshini amerika ka paudha mana jata hai. isaki kheti aitihasi kal se hati chali a rahi hai. yadyapi tambakoo ayanavrittiy paudha hai, tathapi isaki saphal kheti any sthanon men bhi hoti hai, kyonki yah apane ko vibhinn prakar ki bhoomi tatha jalavayu ke anukool bana leta hai.

vibhinn jatiyan

ab tak snsar men tambakoo ki 60 vibhinn jatiyan mil chuki hain. inamen se 'nikoshiyana tabaikam' aur 'nikoshiyana rastika' ki kheti bade paimane par hoti hai. kheti tatha vyapar ki drishti se keval ye hi do jatiyan upayogi siddh huee hain.

bharat men tambakoo ka agaman

aisa mana jata hai ki, 17vin sadi men purtagaliyon dvara bharat men tambakoo ki kheti ka prarnbh hua. 17vin, 18vin sadiyon men yooropiy yatriyon ne bharat men tambakoo ki kheti aur usake upayog ka ullekh kiya hai. mugal samrat jahangir ke samay men tambakoo ki kheti ka prachar nahin ho paya, kyonki unhonne ghoshana ki thi, ki tambakoo pinevalon ke hothon ko kat diya jaega. vhaitalaau ainsli ki likhi huee 'metiriya indika' namak pustak men deshi tatha yooropiy daauktaron dvara bharat men dava snbndhi prayojanon ke liye tambakoo ke upayog ke bare men likha hai. samajik rukavaton ke abhav ke karan ab dhoomrapan saralata se apanaee janevali adat ban gee hai.

rajasv prapti ka sadhan

aj vishvabhar men amerika tatha chin ke bad bade paimane par tambakoo paida karane vala tisara rashtr bharat hai. aj bharat tatha vishv men any rashtron ki sarakaron ke liye tambakoo kar ke roop men kamadhenu ke saman hai. krishak ke liye tambakoo bahut hi mukhy naqad shasy (fasal) hai. prativarsh anumanat: 45 karod rupe tambakoo ki kheti se utpadakon ko milate hain. isake atirikt kendriy sarakar ko 45 karod rupaye tambakoo utpadan shulk, anumanat: do karod niryatakar aur desh ko 16 karod ki mooly ka videshi vinimay milata hai.
tambakoo
tambakoo ki kheti karane vale nirmata, niryatak tatha anaginat madhyavarti log isase khoob labh utha rahe hain. isake atirikt tambakoo ke vibhinn udyogon men lakhon vyakti jivika pa rahe hain. bharat tambakoo men svayn samriddh hai aur apani paidavar ka 16-17 pratishat duniya ke vibhinn bhagon ko niryat karata hai.

bharat men tambakoo ki paidavar

sab fasalon ka keval 0.28 pratishat bhag hi bharat men tambakoo ki kheti hoti hai. sanh 1959 men tambakoo ki kheti ka kshetr 8,96,000 ekad tha. isamen anumanat: 5,89,00,000 paund tambakoo paida hua. bharat men andhr pradesh tambakoo utpadan ka pradhan kendr hai. yahan tambakoo utpadan ka 66 pratishat tatha desh ke varjiniya sigaret tambakoo ka 95 pratishat paida hota hai. tambakoo paida karane vale any kshetr hain: maharashtr, gujarat, madras, uttar pradesh, pashchim bngal, bihar, haidarabad, maisoor, udisa, madhy pradesh, rajasthan tatha pnjab.

bhaugolik dashaen

tambakoo ki kheti ke samay nimnalikhit bhaugolik dashaon ki avashyakata rahati hai-

  1. tapaman - tambakoo ki paidavar ka kshetr bada vistrit hai. isaka utpadan samudr ke dharatal se lekar 1800 mitar ki oonchaee tak bhi kiya ja sakata hai. isake poorn vikas ke lie tapaman 18° se 40° selsiyas ke madhy thik rahata hai. pala tambakoo ke lie ghatak hai. atah isaki kheti vahin ki jati hai, jahan pale ka 200 din tak bhay nahin rahata, jaise- pashchim bngal, bihar, gujarat, maharashtr evn any dakshini rajyon men.
  2. varsha - isake lie sadharanatah 50 se 100 setimitar varsha hi chahie. isase adhik varsha vale bhagon men isaki kheti nahin ki ja sakati. pattiyon ke pakane ke samay varsha ho jane se isaki kism bigad jati hai. pakane ke samay svachchh akash aur tej dhoop ka hona avashyak hai. isaki jadon men jal ekatrit nahin hona chahie, atah tambakoo ki krishi nadiyon ki dhaloo ghatiyon aur pathari bhagon par adhik ki jati hai.
  3. mitti - tambakoo ke lie gahari domat athava mishrit lal v kachhari mitti upayukt rahati hai. tambakoo bhoomi men se upajaoo tatvon ko bahut jaldi khinch leti hai, atah potash, faausforik aisid aur lohansh ke roop men khad ki avashyakata padati hai. adhikatar hari ya rasayanik khad (amoniyam salphea v faausphet) di jati hai.
  4. shram - tambakoo ke paudhe lagane, katane, pattiyon ke sukhane aur teyar karane men saste shramikon ki avashyakata padati hai.

tambakoo ki kismen

tambakoo shitakal men paida hoti hai. jahan sinchaee ki suvidhaen prapt hain, vahan do fasalen bhi prapt ki jati hain. pahali fasal janavari se joon tak tatha doosari aktoobar se march tak. tambakoo ki kism mitti, apane rng, vazan aur khad par nirbhar karati hai. mausam men halke parivartan evn pattiyon ki chhntani aur saphaee aur taiyar karane ki vishesh vidhi ka bhi kism par prabhav padata hai. vastutah kaha ja sakata hai ki thandi nam, grishm ritu aur halki naram bhoomi hone par pattiyan achchhe reshe vali aur madhur svad vali hoti hain, kintu jab bhoomi kathor aur tapaman ooncha rahata hai to pattiyan moti aur tej svad vali hoti hai.

bharat men lagabhag 60 kism ki tambakoo boyi jati hai, kintu inamen do hi mukhy hain- 'nikotina tuvaikam' aur 'nikotina rastika'. bharat men sabase adhik kshetraphal pratham kism ke antargat hai. tuvaikam sare bharat men boyi jati hai. isamen gulabi rng ke ke phool hote hain. isaka paudha lamba aur pattiyan badi hoti hain. sigaret, churut, bidi, hukka tatha khane aur soondhani banane men isaka prayog kiya jata hai. bihar ka uttari maidan evn krishna-godavari delta ki jalavayu ushnardr hone ke karan ye kshetr tambakoo utpadan ki drishti se mahattvapoorn sthan rakhate hain. choonki rastika tambakoo ko thandi jalavayu ki avashyakata hoti hai, atah yah mukhyatah uttari aur uttar-poorvi bharat men paida ki jati hai, isaka paudha chhota, pattiyan rookhi aur bhari hoti hain. rng kala aur mahak tej hoti hai. isaka upayog hukka, khane aur soonghani banane men hota hai.

tambakoo ke phool

bharat men utpadan ke kshetr

bharat men prativarsh lagabhag 3 lakh se 3.5 lakh hektear kshetr par tambakoo ki krishi hoti hai. desh ka lagabhag 85 pratishat tambakoo ka utpadan kshetr matr char rajyon andhr pradesh (36 pratishat), karnatak (24 pratishat), gujarat (21 pratishat) tatha bihar (4 pratishat) men hai. tambakoo utpadan ki drishti se andhr pradesh ka sthan pratham, gujarat ka dvitiy tatha karnatak ka tritiy sthan hai. tambakoo utpadan ka shesh kshetr tamilanadu, maharashtr aur uttar pradesh rajyon men hai.

andhr pradesh ke guntoor, krishna, poorvi aur pashchimi godavari zile tatha telngana kshetr men tambakoo adhik paida ki jati hai, kintu do tihaee se bhi adhik kshetr guntoor zile men hai. is kshetr ki mitti kale rng ki hai, jisamen choone ki matra kam hai. isamen jal dharan karane ki kshamata adhik hoti hai. pattiyon ki taiyari ke samay paryapt ardrata rahati hai, jisase pattiyan sundar aur uttam kism ki hoti hain. garam jalavayu v nam mitti tatha soory ki dhoop milane se yahan vibhinn prakar ki varjiniya tambakoo tatha natoo, thok akoo adi ugayi jati hain. mukhyatah churut aur sigar banane k kam men layi jati hai.

uttari bihar men bihar ke samastipur, darabhnga, munger aur poorniya zile tatha pashchim bngal ke jalapaeegudi, malda, hugali, koochabihar aur baharamapur zile sammilit hain. gnga ke dhaloo maidan ki upajaoo mitti isaki krishi ke lie adarsh hai. yahan hukke ke lie upayogi en tubaikam, en rastika ki vividh kismen (vilayati, motihari aur jatti) paida ki jati hain. khane aur soonghane ki tambakoo bhi yahan paida ki jati hai.

gujarat rajy ke kheda zile men anand, ghorasad, petalad aur nadiyad talluke charottar kshetr sammilit hain. is pradesh men tambakoo ki vibhinn kismen (nikotina rastika aur varjiniya tubakaim) boyi jati hai. yahan ki tambakoo bidi ke lie adhik upayukt hoti hai.

maharashtr ke kolhapur, sangali, miraj aur satara zile men nipani kshetr men mukhyatah bidi ki tambakoo ugayi jati hai. yahan gahari kali aur gahare lal rng ki mitti men tambakoo paida ki jati hai. karnatak ke velagavi zile men uttam tambakoo paida ki jati hai.

uttar pradesh ke varanasi, merath, bulandashahar, mainapuri, saharanapur, kannauj aur farrukhabad zile; pnjab ke amritasar, jalandhar, gurudasapur tatha firojapur zile aur hariyana ke gudaganv, karanal aur ambala zile tambakoo ke mukhy utpadak shahar hain. yahan hukka ke lie tatha khane ke lie badhi़ya kism ki kalakatiya tambakoo ugayi jati hai.

tamilanadu rajy ke madurai, koyambatoor, tnjavur, dindigul, tiruchirapalli, zilon men isaki krishi hoti hai. isamen sigar aur churut men bhari jane vali tatha khane aur soonghane ki tambakoo ugayi jati hai.

vyapar

desh men tambakoo ki ausat utpadakata 1500 se 1600 kilogram prati hektear hai. utpadan ka adhikansh desh men khap jata hai. niryat ke lie adhik matra nahin bach pati. phir bhi yahan se bina taiyar ki huee tambakoo ka niryat kiya jata hai. yah niryat snyukt rajy amarika, roos, adan, beljiyam, shrilnka, bangladesh, chin, nidaralainds, frans, dakshin afrika, briten, misr, singapur, japan aur hangakang ko kiya jata hai. niryat kolakata, chennee aur mumbee bandaragahon dvara hota hai. uchch koti ki sigareton men mishran ke lie snyukt rajy amarika men garam vayu men sukhayi gayi tambakoo ayat ki jati hai. kuchh tambakoo misr, pakistan aur myanmar se bhi ayat hoti hai.

vibhinn upayog

sookhate hue tambakoo ke paudhe

en. rastika jati ke tambakoo ka adhikansh bhag hukke men pine ke liye prayukt hota hai. en. tavaikam jati ka tambakoo sigaret, bidi, sundhani aur khanevale tambakoo ke kam men ata hai. varjiniya tambakoo, jo adhikatar andhr pradesh rajy men ugaya jata hai aur sigaret banane ke kam men prayukt hota hai, vyapar ki drishti se pradhan hai. barli tambakoo ka sigareton men snmishran ke liye adhikatar upayog kiya jata hai. natoo (deshi) tambakoo, jo ki 'chutt' nam se prasiddh hai, chhote aur hath se lapete jane vale churut banane ke kam ata hai. is tambakoo ki halki tatha bhoore rng ki pattiyon ka sasti sigareton ke nirman men upayog kiya jata hai. gahare bhoore rng ki pattiyan, paip men pine ke tambakoo ki vibhinn kismen taiyar karane ke liye 'yoonaited kingadam' ko niryat ki jati hain. dakshin madras ke dindukal, tiruchirapalli aur koynvatoor zilon men ugaya gaya pramukh jati ka tambakoo churut aur sigar banane men tatha khanevala tambakoo taiyar karan men kam ata hai.

tambakoo ke vibhinn nam

yadyapi tambakoo nam se ek hi fasal ka abhas hota hai, tathapi vibhinn upayagon men ane vale tambakooon ki kheti tatha sijhaee men itana antar hai ki, unake bhinn-bhinn nam rakh die ge hain, jaise- 'huqqa tambakoo', garam hava se sijhaya gaya 'sigaret tambakoo', dhoop men sukhaya gaya 'sigaret tambakoo' ityadi.

paudhashala taiyar karana

tambakoo ropit fasal hai, jisaki saphalata usaki paudhashala par nirbhar hai. yadi sudridh svasth aur ek hi avastha ke paudhe nahin lagae jaenge, to fasal achchhi nahin hoti hai. paudhashala ki bhoomi ka chunav karate samay yah bat dhyan men rakhani chahe ki, sthan oonchaee par ho, pani ka nikas achchha ho tatha sinchaee ka sadhan nikat ho. har sal ek hi bhoomi par paudhashala nahin leni chahie. bhoomi par 4 phut chaudi patariyon par paudhashala ugani chahie. patariyon ke bich 1.1/2 phut chauda rasta ane jane, pani nikalane aur kam karane ke liye chhodana chahie. avashyakatanusar bij ko lekar baloo ya rakh men milakar bone ke bad hatheli se pio dena chahie tatha pani dete rahana chahie. en. tabaikam ka adha ser se ek ser tak tatha en. rastika ka do se tin ser tak bij ek ekad paudhashala ke liye paryapt hota hai.

paudh-ropan

jab paudhe 4-6 inch bade ho jate hain, to unako achchhi tarah taiyar kie hue kheton men laga dete hain. tambakoo ki en. tabaikam jati ke paudhon ko samanyat: 2.1/2 se 3 phut ki doori par tatha en. rastika ke paudhon ko 1.1/2 phut ki doori par lagate hain. ye dooriyan katar se katar tatha ped se ped ke bich rakhi jati hain. ropaee sham ko karani chahie. kahin-kahin nam khet men ropaee ki jati hai aur kahin-kahin ropaee ke bad turnt pani dete hain.

dhyan rakhane yogy tathy

tambakoo ki fasal ke sambandh men nimnalikhit tathy mukhy roop se smaran rakhane chahie -

  1. avashyakatanusar sinchaee, niraee aur gudaee karate rahana chahie.
  2. tambakoo ke phoolon ko todana ati avashyak hai, nahin to patte halake pad jaenge aur phalasvaroop upaj kam ho jaegi tatha pattiyon ke gunon men bhi kami a jaegi.
  3. phool todane ke bad pattiyon ke bich ki sahayak kaliyon se pattiyan nikalane lagati hain, unako bhi samayanusar todate rahana chahie.
  4. bij ke liye chhode jane vale paudhon ke phoolon ko nahin todana chahie.

pattiyon ko sijhana

pake hue pedon ko jad se katakar ya paki pattiyon ko todakar sijhate hain. sijhane ke tarikon men vishesh antar hai. sijhaee us kriya ka nam hai, jisake dvara pattiyan sukhakar bechane yogy banaee jati hain. is kriya men bahut se rasayanik parivartan hote hain aur nami ki matra ghatakar 12-14 pratishat rah jati hai. adhik nam tambakoo rakhane se vah sad jati hai. sijhaee huee tambakoo ko hi khane, pine ya soondhane ke kam men late hain. huqqa tambakoo ka dnthal bhi pine ke kam ata hai. tambakoo ki bimariyon tatha kido ka bhi samuchit nirodh karate rahana chahie, nahin to fasal ko hani pahunch sakati hai.

tambakoo ka taiyar mal

bharat men tambakoo ke taiyar mal sigaret, sigar, bidi, sunghani, chabaya jane vala (khaini) tambakoo aur huqqa tambakoo hain. tambakoo ke bij se tel bhi nikalata hai. is tel ka varnish aur rng ke udyog men labhadayak roop se upayog kiya ja sakata hai. isaki khali ka pashuon ko khilane ya kheton ke lie khad ke roop men bhi upayog ho sakata hai.

madak padarth

tambakoo men madakata ya uttejana dene vali vastu 'nikotin' hoti hai. jis tambakoo men jitani adhik 'nikotin' hogi, vah utana hi tez hoga. bij men nikotin nahin hota.

bharat men vikas

ajakal bharat men 'bharatiy kendriy tambakoo anusndhan samiti', madras dvara tambakoo ke utpadan aur vyavasay ke vikas ka kary kiya ja raha hai.


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