कच्ची सड़क  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kachchi sadak se abhipray hai ki avagaman ka ek aisa marg jo keval mitti se taiyar kiya jata hai. sindhu sabhyata se yah gyat hota hai ki 3,000 ee. poo. men bhi chaudi kachchi sadaken banane lagi thin. bharat ke itihas men prasiddh sherashah soori ne bngal se peshavar tak ek sadak ka nirman karavaya tha. bad ke samay men yahi marg 'graind trnk rod' ke nam se jana gaya.

itihas

prachin kal se hi pagadndiyan banaee jane lagi thin. parntu sabhyata ke vikas ke sath hi chaudi kachchi sadaken banane lagin. mohanajodado (sindh) ki khudaee se pata chala hai ki 3,000 ee. poo. men bhi chaudi kachchi sadaken banane lagi thin aur unamen pani ki nikasi ka bhi achchha prabndh rahata tha. maury kal (lagabhag 600 ee.) men sadak banane aur usaki dekharekh ki kala samunnat avastha men pahunch gee thi. us kal men kaha jata tha ki rajapath kachhue ki pith ke saman kada aur dhaloo ho aur usaki chaudaee kam se kam 16 hath ho. sainik upayog tatha vanijy ke lie mahatvapoorn sadakon ka ek jal sa bichh gaya tha, jisamen sarvavikhyat sadak uttarapath ki thi. san 1540 se 1555 tak sherashah soori ne isi ko dobara sudharakar bngal se peshavar tak banavaya tha. angrez shasan kal men ise hi 'graind trnk rod' kaha gaya. ye sab sadaken vastut: kachchi hi thin.[1]

san 1959 men bharat men kul 3,93,000 mil lnbi sadaken thin. inamen kachchi sadaken 2,53,800 mil thin. kachchi sadaken yatayat ke badh jane par pakki bana di jati hain. isalie unaka pathanirnay aur jyamitik akalpan[2], arthath‌ unaki chaudaee, vakron ki golaee, chadhaee, utaraee ki dhalan ityadi, ke nirnay unhin siddhanton par kie jate hain, jin par pakki sadaken banaee jati hain. jahan pul banane ki avashkata hoti hai, vahan pul bhi vaisi hi samarthy ke banae jate hain jaise pakki sadakon par.

yatayat se mitti ke dhool men badal jane karan aur varsha men kichad aur phisalan ho jane ke karan kachchi sadaken tej chal ki gadiyon ke lie kharab mausam men thik nahin rahatin. kabhi-kabhi to bailagadiyon tak ka in par chalana kathin ho jata hai. isalie janata inhen pasnd nahin karati. kintu pakki sadak banane men lagat bahut ati hai, at: sabhi sadaken pakki nahin banaee ja sakatin.

nirman

sadak ke path ka nirnay ho jane par sarvekshan se usaki ichchhit chaudaee ke donon or lakiren lagaee jati hain aur phir ichchhit chaudaee ke donon or lakiren lagaee jati hain aur phir ichchhit samatal aur dhal ke anusar usamen mitti ki kataee aur bharaee ki jati hai. kachchi sadakon ke lie yah kataee aur bharaee nyoonatam rakhi jati hai aur jahan tak ho sakata hai sadak ko donon or ki prakritik bhoomi se nau inch se adhik ooncha ya nicha nahin rakha jata. bharat men yah kam mazadoor gainti, phavade se hi kar lete hain, parntu videshon men yah kam mitti khodane vali mashinen karati hain, jinhen motar gredar kahate hain.

bharat men bhi jahan mazadoor milane men dikkat hoti hai, ya jahan kam shighrata se karana hota hai, jaise sena ke lie, vahan motar gredar kam men lae jate hain. in mashinon men unake age paini dhar vali ispat ki chaudi patti lagi hoti hai. bhoomi par in gredaron ko chalane ke lie bagal ki mitti khurachakar bich men pad jati hai aur is prakar sadak ka bich ka bhag ooncha ho jata hai aur sadak ke donon or ichchhit dhal tatha pani bahane ke lie nali bhi ban jati hai. in motar gredaron ki sahayata se sadak ka nirman shighrata se ichchhit lnbaee, chaudaee tatha dhal vala ho jata hai. varsha men sadak ke kharab ho jane par aur adhik yatayat se bhi dhal bigad jane par halke gredar sadak ko phurti se thik kar dete hain. yah kary mazadooron ke sharirik parishram se itana achchha nahin ho sakata. jahan sadak ke bandh ki oonchaee adhik hoti hai, vahan mazadoor bhi thik kam kar sakate hain.[1]

rekhankan

navin sadakon ki lakir lagane men nimn siddhant prayukt hote hain-

  1. do sthanon ke bich ki sadak lnbaee men yatha snbhav chhoti se chhoti honi chahie.
  2. sadak aise ganvon aur kasbon se hokar nikalani chahie, jisase us kshetr ke vanijy, udyog tatha krishi ki samast avashyakataon ki adhik se adhik poorti ho sake.
  3. sadakon men utar-chadhav bahut tivr nahin hona chahie. maidanon men utar ya chadhav sadharanat: 100 lnbaee men 1 oonchaee ka, aur adhik se adhik 33 lnbaee men 1 oonchaee ka, hona chahie.
  4. pahadon par utar chadhav sadharanat: 20 men 1 ka aur adhik se adhik 14 men 1 rahana chahie.
  5. vakrata yatha snbhav kam honi chahie. vakrata ki nyoonatam trijya kam se kam 300 phut ho. sadharanat: yah lagabhag 1,000 phut honi chahie.
  6. sadak ke bich se donon or dhal rahani chahie. jisase varsha ka pani us par se saralatapoorvak bah jae.
  7. sadak ke lie chhodi huee bhoomi kam se kam 40 phut aur adhik se adhik 150 phut chaudi rahani chahie.
  8. pas pados ki bhoomi se sadak kuchh oonchi honi chahie. jahan badh ati ho, vahan jal ke uchchatam star se sadak kam se kam dedh phut oonchi honi chahie.
  9. sadak ke bandh ke parshvon ki dhal do pade aur ek khade ke anupat men honi chahie.[1]

mitti ka mahattv

sadak ke asapas ke oonche sthanon ko ya gaddhe khodakar mitti le li jati hai. ye gaddhe sadharanat: ek phut se adhik gahare n hon, aur yatha snbhav barabar chaudaee ke hon, ek doosare se snbaddh hon tatha aisa prabndh rahe ki barasat men unamen pani n ruke. gaddhe bedhnge n hon aur idhar-udhar n khode jaen. yadi yantrik kutaee n ki jae to man lena chahie ki nimnalikhit anupat men mitti baithegi-

  1. baluee mitti - ek inch prati phut oonchaee
  2. domat mitti - dedh inch prati phut oonchaee
  3. chikani tatha kali mitti - do inch prati phut oonchaee

yadi mitti dhaloo prishth par dali jae to prishth ko sidhinuma bana dena chahie. bagal ki dhal yatha snbhav do pade aur ek khade ke anupat men ho aur vah prakritik vishram kon se kisi bhi disha men adhik n ho. domat mitti ke lie sadharanat: do kshaitij aur ek oordhvadhar ke anupat men bagali dhal banaee jati hai aur achchhi tarah kooti huee chikani mitti tatha bajari vali mitti ke lie 1 : 1 ki dhal di ja sakati hai.[1]

pani ki nikasi

sadak ke bharav se pani ki nikasi ka prabndh karana atynt mahatvooparn hai. adhik ardrata se bhar sahan karane ki shakti ghat jati hai. phir, chikani mitti aur kali mitti par adhik pani padane se bhoomi phool uthati hai aur sookhane par snkuchit ho jati hai. ye donon baten hanikar hain. at: yah paramavashyak hai ki kachchi sadakon ke prishth se pani ke shighr bah jane ke lie sadak ke bich ki oonchaee kinaron ki apeksha 1 : 3 ke anupat men rakhi jae. bagal men is nap aur is dhal ki naliyan rakhi jaen ki mahattam pratyashit varsha ka jal bhi shighrata se bah jae.

dekharekh

yadi naya bandh bandha gaya ho aur usaki oonchaee 10 phut se adhik ho to varsha se usaki raksha ke lie bagal men girane vale jal ko bagal men bani naliyon men girane dena chahie. ye naliyan kahin door jakar pani ko baha den. bandh kahin katakar bah n jae, at: oopari char inch men khadayukt mitti ho, jisamen upayukt ghas bo di jae. dhalon par sarapat ropi ja sakati hai. sadak ki kor paradoob jamaee ja sakati hai. yadi sadak kahin kat ya phat jae to usaki marammat turnt karani chahie. kabhi-kabhi sadak par padi likon ko bhi bhar dena chahie aur kutaee karake chauras kar dena chahie.

vriksharopan

sadakon ke agal-bagal chhayadar vrikshon ke ropane ki pratha hai. isase garmi men yatriyon ko chhaya milati hai aur phal tatha lakadi se kuchh ay bhi ho jati hai. pedon ki chhaya se yatra ka kasht bahut kuchh mit jata hai. pashvavarti vrikshavali ka gadi chalak ke mastishk par shantiprad prabhav padata hai aur usaki thakan kam hoti hai. yadi sadak ka bandh 32 phut chauda ho, to vrikshon ki pnktiyan sadak ke madhy bhag se 30 phut athava adhik doori par hon. vrikshon ke bich ki doori vrikshon ki kism par nirbhar hai. parntu sadharanat: ve 40-40 phut par lagae jate hain. yadi vriksh bade aur bahushakhi hon, to unake bich ki doori 60 phut tak badha di ja sakati hai. chhote pedon ke lie yah doori 30 phut tak bhi rakhi ja sakati hai. nimnalikhit vriksh is kam ke lie upayogi hain

  1. shisham
  2. am
  3. arjun
  4. tun
  5. imali
  6. jamun
  7. pakad
  8. nim
  9. pipal

inamen se am aur shisham uttar bharat ke maidanon men adhik lokapriy hain. nirasata mitane aur saundary vriddhi ke lie kahin-kahin phool vale athava sundar akriti vale vriksh bhi laga die jate hain, visheshakar nagaron ke as-pas athava mahatvapoorn pulon ke samip. is kam ke lie upayogi vriksh hain- 'amalatas', 'kachanar', 'gulamohar', 'jekaranda', 'maulasiri'[3], 'ashok', 'yookaliptas' ityadi.[1]

pul nirman

yadi sadak ke rasten men nala ya nadi pade to us par upayukt pul banana chahie. vah pul itana ooncha ho ki ghoratam varsha men bhi sugamatapoorvak is par se jal bah jae. pulon ka akalpan yah dhyan rakhakar karana chahie ki sadak par chalane vali bhari gadiyon ka bojh nirapad roop se sahan kar saken. samanyat: 'indiyan rods kangres' ke varg bi ke siddhanton ke anusar in pulon aur puliyon ka akalpan karana chahie. yadi sadak ki ek bagal ki bhoomi oonchi tatha doosari or ki nichi ho to thodi-thodi door par puliyan bana deni chahie, jisase varsha ka jal sugamata se par ho sake. oonchi or ki bhoomi ka sarvekshan karake pata laga lena chahie ki varsha ka kitana jal ek or se doosari or jaega aur puliyon ki nap usi ke anusar rakhani chahie.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 kachchi sadak (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 21 faravari, 2014.
  2. dizain
  3. maulishri, bakul

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