कच्चे मकान  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kachche makan pray: mitti ke bane hote hain. snbhavat: mitti hi sabase purani vastu hai, jisaka upayog manushy ghar banane ke lie karata hai. annt kal se mitti se divaren banaee jati rahi hain, jo tedhi-medhi hoti thin aur dhoop men bhali prakar se sukhaee huee eeton ki bani v sidhi hoti thin. aise makan dakshin aur madhy amarika, dakshin yoorop, afrika, faras tatha nikatavarti desh misr aur bharat, arthath‌ snsar ke pray: sabhi bhagon men milate hain.

kachcha mal

makanon adi ki rachana men pray: chikani mitti ka hi prayog hota hai, kintu kee sthanon men mitti men dridhata evn sughatyata lane ke lie ret bhi mila di jati hai. yadyapi sookhane par mitti sikudati hai, tathapi sikudan ke karan eeton ke chhoti padane ke atirikt any koee hani nahin hoti. aisa bhi vishvas hai ki sookhane par eeton ke sikud jane se unaki dab ke prati sahanashilata men vriddhi ho jati hai. phalat: in eeton se bani divaren adhik bojh snbhal sakati hain. vishv ke katipay aise bhagon men jahan mitti men ret milane ki parnpara nahin hai, thoda-sa bhoosa ya sookhi ghas mila di jati hai, jisase mitti ki pushtata men vriddhi ho jae aur sookhane par chatakhe nahin.[1]

bhaugolik tathy

alp varsha vale sthanon men hi kachche makan adhik banae jate hain. karan yah hai ki vahan ki mitti ki bani huee eeton men 0.2 se lekar 1 tan prativarg phut tak ki dab ki sahanashilata hoti hai, jo shushkavastha ke ek mnjile makanon ke lie paryapt hoti hai. adhik varsha vale sthanon men uchit prakar ki chhaton vale makan banae ja sakate hain.

mitti sanana

mitti sanane ka purana dhng yah hai ki ek gadda khod liya jata hai aur avashyakatanusar paryapt jal dal diya jata hai. dhele todane ke lie do din tak mitti ko pairon se goondha jata hai. tab is sughaty mitti se manak map ki eeten bana li jati hain. mitti aur pani ko ekaroop sanane ke lie ajakal injanachalit chakki ka bhi prayog kiya jata hai, jise 'pag mil' kahate hain. injan ke atirikt pag mil pashuon dvara bhi chalaee ja sakati hai.

pathana

kachchi eeton ko pathane ke lie mitti ka chauras, kada pharsh chahie. sadharanat: sanche men baloo chhidak di jati hai, jisase usamen eent n chipake. kachchi eeton ki nap kee baton par nirbhar hoti hai, udaharanat: bhitar ki motaee, mazadoor adhik se adhik kitana bojh utha sakata hai, ityadi. kam men lane ke poorv in eeton ko lagabhag ek mahine tak dhoop men sukhana avashyak hai. bharat ke kuchh ganvon men kachchi eeten banane ke lie bhoomi par sughaty mitti ko vanchhit motaee men phaila diya jata hai. is prakar banaee gee eeton ka akar thik nahin rahata aur bahudha ve ainth jati hain. in doshon ka nirakaran moti sndhiyon se ho jata hai. is prakar koo eeten banane men yah gun hai ki koee bhi parivar apani suvidha ke anusar aisi eeten bana sakata hai. in eeton ko banane ke lie kachcha mal pas men hi mil jata hai aur banane vale men kisi vishesh yogyata ki avashyakata nahin hoti. at: ladake bachche sabhi is kary men sahayata kar sakate hain.[1]

eent ka nirman

kachchi eeton se bane makanon men yah dosh hota hai ki ve bahut tikaoo nahin hote aur unake prishth par bar-bar palastar karana padata hai, anyatha unake gir jane ka dar rahata hai. phir, as pas ki bhoomi se pani ki nikasi achchhi honi chahie, anyatha divar ki ninv ke baith jane ka bhay rahata hai. vigyan ki pragati ke sath mrittika vigyan men bhi unnati huee hai. kachchi eeten achchhi ban saken, isake lie kee prakar ke prayatn kie ge hain. inaka snkshipt byora niche diya jata hai-

mitti ko thos karana

prayogon se pata chala hai ki sookhi eeton ki pushtata utani hi adhik hogi, jitana adhik mitti ke kan paraspar sate rahenge. is gun ko snghanan[2] kahate hain. adhik snghanan se ardravastha men bhi eeten adhik sthayi hoti hain. bazar men ab kee ek mashinen a gee hain, jinase eeton ko pathate samay unamen adhik snghanan a jata hai. snghanan ki matra mitti men pani ki matra par nirbhar hai. isalie pathate samay mitti men jal ki matra par poorn niyntran rakhana avashyak hai. prachin ritiyon se kachchi eeten pathane ke samay 30 pratishat ardrata ki avashyakata rahati hai. parntu prachin vidhiyon se bani sookhi eeton men lagabhag 1 tan prati varg phut ki hi pushtata rahati hai. isaki tulana men mashin se pathane men 8-10 pratishat ardrata ki avashyakata padati hai. prayogon se pata chala hai ki mitti ko achchhi tarah sanakar aur mashin se thik prakar se dabakar banaee eeton men sookhane par pushtata 8-10 tan prati varg phut hoti hai.

bndhak milana

bitumen

kachchi eeton ki jal pratirodhak shakti bitumen se bahut badhaee ja sakati hai. pathane vali mitti men 3 se 5 pratishat tak bitumen milana paryapt hota hai. prayogon se gyat hua hai ki is prakar bani eeten paryapt jalabhedy hoti hain aur unase bani bhiton par palastar karane ki koee avashyakata nahin rahati.

siment

mitti men siment milane se pani ki kriya se kachchi eetonn ke nam ho jane ki pravritti bahut kam ho jati hai. kintu siment ki saphalata is par nirbhar hai ki mitti men kitana siment milaya gaya hai aur eeton ke banane men kitana snghanan utpann kiya gaya hai. prayogon se pata chala hai ki yadi paryapt snghanan kiya jae aur mitti men chhote bade gan uchit matra men rahen to 3 se 5 pratishat tak siment se paryapt sthayitv a jata hai. yahan tak ki jahan eeton ka pakana bahut vyavasadhy hota hai, vahan siment milakar eent pathane ka kam kiya ja sakata hai.[1]

jalabhedy palastar

mashinon ki sahayata se kachchi eeton ko siment ya bitumen milakar banane aur sthayi karane ka kary ganvon men abhi poori tarah se prachalit hone men kuchh samay lagega, kintu yah sudhar to turnt kiya ja sakata hai ki kachchi divaron par jalabhedy palastar kar diya jaya kare. bharat ki kee anusndhan snsthaon ne is kam ke lie kee ritiyan bataeen hain. inamen siment ke sath kath koyala, sabun tatha any padarth athava bitumain ke mishran aur ghol aj bhi prayukt hote hain. in ritiyon ki tulanatmak janch bharat ki 'kendriy sadak anusndhan snstha' (sentral rod risarch instityoot) ne ki hai. parikshan men nimnokt kary kie ge hain-

  1. 144 ghnte tak 15-20 mil prati ghnte ke veg se divaron par pani ka satat chhidakav
  2. uparilikhit dhng se ratri ke samay utane hi veg se chhidakav aur din men dhoop lagane dena.

uparokt kary do mahine tak chaloo rakha gaya, arthath‌ chhidakav aur sukhane ke 60 chakr jari rakhe ge. pata chala ki bitumen aur pani ke payas[3] se sarvadhik sntoshaprad parinam nikalata hai. bitumen ka mitti ke tel ke sath ghol isase kuchh hi kam sntoshajanak tha. bitumen ke payas se jalabhedy palastar banane ki riti is prakar hai-10 ghan phut achchhi mitti aur 20 ser chhote kate bhoose ko ek men mila diya jae. par, jaisa sadharan mitti ke palastar men kiya jata hai, bich-bich men pair ya phavade se ise achchhi tarah ulta-palata jae. palastar karane ke do ghnte poorv isamen bitumen payas dal diya jata hai aur phavade se athava pairon se goonthakar achchhi tarah diya jata hai.

palastar lagana

kachchi divar par pani chhidakakar ek inch mota palastar lagana chahie aur use karani se ragadakar prishth ko chikana kar dena chahie. yadi yah kam ushn ritu men kiya jae to palastar par kabhi-kabhi pani chhidakana chahie, anyatha palastar ke chatakh jane ka dar rahata hai. jab palastar thoda sookh jae, tab us par ek bar gobari karani chahie, arthath‌ gay ke govar tatha mitti aur pani ke mishran se lep kar dena chahie. is mishran ke lie mitti ek ghan phut, gobar das ser tatha payas do ser nuskha prayog men laya jata hai.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 kachche makan (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 06 joon, 2014.
  2. knpaikshan
  3. imalshan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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