जल परिवहन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

jal parivahan kisi bhi desh ko sabase sasta yatayat pradan karata hai kyonki isake nirman men parivahan margo ka nirman nahin karana padata aur keval parivahan ke sadhanon se hi yatayat kiya jata hai. itana avashy hai ki isake lie prakritik athava kritrim jalapoorn marg avashyak hote hain. hamare desh men antarik evn samudrik donon prakar ka jal parivahan kiya jata hai. antarik jal parivahan ki drishti se desh men prachinakal se hi nadiyon ke madhyam se yatayat kiya jata tha. vartaman men desh men lagabhag 14,500 kimi lamba naugamy jalamarg hai, jisamen nadiyan, naharen, apravahi jal yatha jhiln adi snkari khadiyan shamil hain. desh ki pramukh nadiyon men 3,700 kimi lambe marg ka hi upayog kiya ja raha hai. jahan tak naharon ka prashn hain, 4,300 kimi lambi naugamy naharon se matr 900 kimi tak ki doori ki naukaon dvara parivahan ke upayukt hai. vartaman men antarik jal parivahan ke madhyam se lagabhag 160 lakh tan mal ki dhulaee prativarsh ki ja rahi hai.

rashtriy jalamarg

aj bhi desh ki gnga, hugali, yamuna, brahmaputr, narmada, tapti, mandavi, godavari, krishna, mahanadi adi nadiyon dvara antarik jalamarg ki suvidha upalabdh karaee gayi hai. gnga-bhagirathi-hugali nadi pranali ke haldiya-ilahabad khand ko 22 aktoobar 1986 ko rashtriy jalamarg ghoshit[1] kiya ja chuka hai, jisake vikas evn prabandhan ka poorn dayitv kendr sarakar ke hathon men hain. isake lie sampoorn marg ko 3 upakhandon men banta gaya hai.

  • haldiya-pharakka
  • pharakka-patana
  • patana-ilahabad

naugamy naharon ki drishti se oopari gnga nahar [2], nichali gnganahar [3], kurnool-kudappa nahar [4], bnkigham nahar [5]., keral ki pashchim tatiy nahar [6], udisa men kendrapada nahar (120 kimi), taladana nahar (90 kimi), udisa tatiy nahar (15 kimi) adi mahattvapoorn hai.

26 disambar, 1980 ko brahmaputr nadi [7], ki sadiya-dhubari sima ko rashtriy jalamarg sn. 2 ghoshit kiya gaya hai. sarakar dvara pashchimi tatiy nahar (keral), ke kollam-kottapuram kshetr ko tatha champakara evn udyogamandal naharon ko bhi rashtriy jalamarg ghoshit karane ka phaisala kiya gaya hai.

antardeshiy jalamargon ka vikas

bharat ke antardeshiy jalamargon ke vikas, rakh-rakhav tath niyaman ke lie 27 aktoobar, 1986 ko bharatiy antardeshiy jalamarg pradhikaran ki sthapana ki gayi. 1987 men kendriy antardeshiy jal parivahan nigam ki sthapana sarvajanik kshetr ke ek snsthan ke roop men ki gayi. isaka mukhyalay kolakata men hain. isake dvara bangladesh hokar kolakata tatha asam ke bich evn ildiya-patana jalamarg ki parivahan sevaon ka prabandhan kiya jata hai.

rashtriy jalamarg
jalamarg kahan se kahan tak doori (kimi)
en.dablyoo-1 ilahabad se haldiya 1,629
en.dablyoo-2 bangladesh sima se sadiya 891
en.dablyoo-3 kottapuram se kollam 205
en.dablyoo-4 kakinada se marakkanam 1,100

desh ki adhikansh nadiyan varsha kal ke atirikt samay men prayah jal ki alpata ka shikar ho jati hai, jisake karan unamen parivahan ka kary ruk jata hai. bharat sarakar ke bhootal parivahan mantralay dvara karaye gaye sarvekshan ke anusar desh men 10 nadi marg aise hain, jahan varsh bhar paryapt matra men jal upalabdh rahata hai. aise nadi margo ko hi rashtriy jalamarg ghoshit kiya gaya hai. aisi suvidha vali pramukh nadi ghatiyan gova, mahanadi, godavari, narmada, krishna, tapti tatha pashchimi tat evn sundar van kshetr men vidyaman hain. inamen se 3 rashtriy jalamarg is samay kriyashil hain -

  1. gnga (bhagirathi) - hugali nadi par haldiya evn ilahabad ke bich jisaki lambaee 1,620 kimi hain.
  2. brahmaputr nadi par sadiya tatha dhubari ke bich jisaki lambaee 205 kimi hai
  3. rashtriy jalamarg - (kollam kottapuram) kollam evn kottapuram ke bich jisaki lambaee 205 kimi hain. desh ka chauthe rashtriy jalamarg, jo ki pashchimi tat par vikasit kiya ja raha hai, usaka kary athavin pnchavarshiy yojana ke ant tak poora karane ka lakshy nirdharit kiya gaya tha.

desh ka chautha rashtriy jalamarg - dasavi pnchavarshiy yojana ke dauran chautha rashtriy jalamarg en.dablyoo.-4 ko ghoshit karane ka prastav hai. yah jalamarg kakinada se marakkanam tak hoga. isaki kul doori 1100 kimi hogi. yah jalamarg godavari v krishna nadiyon par phaila hua hai. rashtriy jalamarg ke roop men vikasit karane men is par 700 karod rupaye ki lagat ane ka anuman hai.

rashtriy jalamargon ke vikas evn rakh rakhav ka dayitv inalaind vataravej athaauriti aauph indiya ka hota hai.

desh ke sabhi rashtriy jalamargon ka vikas ho jane par anumanatah 3.5 karod tan mal ka parivahan jalamargon dvara kiya ja sakega. isake atirikt inaka vikas arthik, paryavaran evn tel ki khapat ki drishti se kafi labhadayak sidv hoga tatha paryatan se videshi mudra ki bhi prapti hogi.

samudrik jalamarg ki drishti se bharat ka sampoorn prayadvipiy tatiy bhag kafi mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhata hai. desh ki mukhy bhoomi ki 5,600 kimi lambi tatarekha par 11 bade tatha 139 chhote bandaragah sthit hain. bade bandaragahon ka niyantran kendr sarakar kiya dvara kiya jata hai, jabaki chhote evn majhole bandaragah snvidhan ki samavarti soochi men shamil hain, jinaka prabandhan tatha prashasan sambandhit rajy sarakaron dvara kiya jata hai.

vyapar ke lie bandaragahon ka nirman

smaraniy hai ki bandaragahon par samudri jahajon ke rukane, eendhan lene tatha samanon ko chadhane-utarane ka kary kiya jata hai, isalie inaka vikas sagaratatiy krikon, laigoonon, chhoti khadiyon, nadiyon ki eshchuari adi sthanon par hota hai. ye prakritik tatha kritrim donon prakar ke ho sakate hain. hamare desh men poorvi samudr tat par sthit bade bandaragah hain - tootikorin, chennee, vishakhapattanam, paradvip, kolakata, haldiya. isi prakar pashchim tat par sthit bandagahon men kandala, mumbee, nhavasheva, nyoo mngalaur, kochin tatha marmagova ko shamil kiya jata hai. mhashova ka javaharalal neharoo bandaragah atyadhunik suvidhayukt bandaragah hai, jahan bade paimane par shushk malon ko chadhane tatha utarane ke lie yantrik kantenar, barth evn sarvis barth ki suvidha pradan ki jati hai.

varsh 1996-1997 ke dauran pramukh pattanon par snchalit kul jahaji mal ki matra 227.3 miliyan tan thi, jisane 1996-97 ki tulana men 5.6 pratishat vriddhi darj ki. isamen sabase adhik urvarak evn kachcha mal (22.7 pratishat) men vriddhi huee.

kandala ek jvariy bandaragah hai evn yahan mukt vyapar kshetr sthapit kiya gaya hai. nyoo mngalor bandaragahako kudremukh se lauh-ayask ke niryat ki vishesh suvidha prapt karayi gayi hai. kochin ek prakritik bandaragah hai aur ise poorv ka sarvashreshth bandaragah mana jata hai. mumbee desh ka sabase bada bandaragah hai jahan se desh ka sarvadhik samudri yatayat kiya jata hai. marmagova bandaragah juari nadi ka eshchuari par sthapit kiya gaya hai. nhavasheva bandaragah ki sthapana mumbee bandaragah ke yatayat ko kam karane ke lie ki gayi hain.

poorvi tat par sthit chennee ki ganana desh ke sarvadhik prachin bandaragahon men ki jati hai, jabaki vishakhapatanam desh ka sarvashreshth prakritik bandaragah hain. yahan pot nirman evn unake marammat ki bhi suvidha upalabdh karayi gayi hai. paradvip bandaragah udisa tat par mahanadi ke delta kshetr men sthapit kiya gaya hai. kolakata bandaragah sagar tat se 148 kimi andar hugali nadi ke kinare sthit hai. yahan se 105 kimi niche haldiya bandaragah ka vikas kiya gaya hai, jisase kolakata bandaragah ka bhar kam kiya ja sake kyonki yahan avasad (gad) jama ho jane ki samasya adhik prabhavi rahati hai. haldiya men poornatah susajjit koyala evn tel kantenar ki suvidha upalabdh hai.

pramukh bandaragah

desh ke pramukh bandaragahon, chhote bandaragahon, godiyon, jahajarani bandaragahon, nau-sena adi ke rekh-rakhav tatha unaki talahati ki saphaee ki suvidha upalabdh karane ke lie march, 1976 men drejing karporeshan aauph indiya ki sthapana ki gayi, jisane 1 aprail, 1977 se apani vyavasayik gatividhiyan prarambh ki.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. rashtriy jalamarg snkhya - 1
  2. haridvar se 8 kimi
  3. 115 kimi
  4. 85 kimi
  5. 640 kimi
  6. 480 kimi
  7. 891 kimi

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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