वारेन हेस्टिंग्स  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

varen hestings
varen hestings
poora nam varen hestings
janm 6 disambar, 1732
janm bhoomi charchil, aauksaphordashayar
mrityu 22 agast, 1818
mrityu sthan delsaphord,gloosestarashayar
karm-kshetr bharat ka pratham vastavik gavarnar-janaral
nagarikata british
snbndhit lekh angrez, eest indiya kampani, gavarnar-janaral
any janakari samajik sudharon ke antargat hestings ne 1781 ee. men kalakatta men muslim shiksha ke vikas ke lie ek madarasa sthapit kiya. 'gita' ke angrezi anuvadak 'charls vilikins' ko hestings ne ashray pradan kiya.

varen hestings (angrezi: Warren Hastings, janm- 6 disambar, 1732, aauksaphordashayar; mrityu- 22 agast, 1818, gloosestarashayar) angrez rajanitigy tha, jo phort viliyam presidensi (bngal) ka pratham gavarnar tatha bngal ki suprim kaunsil ka adhyaksh tha. is tarah 1772 se 1785 ee. tak vah bharat ka pratham vastavik gavarnar-janaral raha. 1750 ee. men varen hestings eest indiya kampani ke ek 'klark' (lipik) ke roop men kalakatta (vartaman kolakata) pahuncha aur karyakushalata ke karan shighr hi vah kasim bazar ka adhyaksh ban gaya. 1772 ee. men ise bngal ka garvanar banaya gaya tha. 1773 ee. ke 'regyuleting ekt' ke dvara use 1774 ee. men bngal ka garvanar-janaral niyukt kiya gaya. apane prashasanik sudhar ke antargat varen hestings ne sarvapratham 1772 ee. men 'kort aauf dairektars' ke adeshanusar bngal se 'dvaidh shasan pranali' ki samapti ki ghoshana ki, aur sarakari khazane ka sthanantaran murshidabad se kalakatta kiya. hestings ka vichar tha ki, samast bhoomi shasak ki hai. rajasv sudharon ko vyavasthit karane ke lie usane parikshan tatha ashuddhi ke niyam ko apanaya.

rajasv sudhar niti

'rajasv sudhar' ke antargat varen hestings ne rajasv ki vasooli ka adhikar kampani ke adhin kar diya aur rajasv vasooli men sahayata dene vale do bharatiy up-divanon muhammad raja khan tatha raja shitab ray ko padachyut kar diya. hestings ne 'bord aauf revenyoo' ki sthana ki, jisamen kampani ke rajasv sngrahak niyukt kiye gaye. bhoomi kar sudhar ke antargat 1772 ee. tak sngrahan ke adhikar oonchi boli bolane vale zamidaron ko 5 varsh ke lie diye gaye aur unhen bhoo-svamitv se mukt kar diya gaya. 1773 ee. men kar vyavastha men parivartan karate hue bhrasht kalektaron ko padamukt kar bharatiy divanon ki niyukt ki gee. is pnchavarshiy bhoo-rajasv vyavastha se krishakon ko kafi hani huee. atah panch sala theke par bhoo-rajasv vasoolane ki vyavastha samapt kar di gee, aur isake sthan par ek varshiy vyavastha ko punah lagoo kiya gaya. rajasv vasooli ke adhikar nilam kar diye gaye, sath hi zamidaron par ab pahale se adhik vishvas kiya gaya. 1781 ee. men parivartan ke antargat prantiy parishad samapt kar di gee, kalektaron ko punah zile men niyukt kiya gaya aur unhen hi kar ko nirdharit karane ka adhikar phir se prapt ho gaya. is prakar spasht hai ki, apani ati kendriyakaran niti ke karan varen hestings ek nishchit kar-vyavastha ke nirdharan men poornataya asaphal siddh hua. 1789 men laaurd kaaurnavaaulis ko kahana pada tha ki, "kampani ke adhin pradesh ka tisara bhag keval ujad hai tatha vahan jngali pashu hi basate hain".

nyay vyavastha

varen hestings ne apane karyakal ke dauran 'nyay sudharon' ke antargat zamidaron se nyayik adhikar chhin liya. isaki nyay vyavatha mugal pranali par adharit thi. 1772 ee. men usane pratyek zile men ek faujadari tatha divani adalaton ki sthapana ki. divani nyayalay kalektaron ke adhin the, jahan par 500 ru. ke mamalon ka nipatara kiya jata tha. 500 rupaye se oopar ke mukadamon ki sunavayi 'sadar divani adalat' karati thin, jisamen ek adhyaksh tatha do atirikt sadasy hote the. hinduon ke mamalon ka nipatara hindoo vidhi se tatha musalamanon ka muslim vidhi se kiya jata tha. nyayadhish ko upahar evn shulk lene par manahi thi.

shaikshik sudhar

samajik sudharon ke antargat hestings ne 1781 ee. men kalakatta men muslim shiksha ke vikas ke lie ek madarasa sthapit kiya. 'gita' ke angrezi anuvadak 'charls vilikins' ko hestings ne ashray pradan kiya. 'sar viliyam jons' dvara 1784 ee. (hestings ke samay) men 'd eshiyatik sosayati aauf bngal' ki sthapana ki gee. varen hestings ne hindoo tatha muslim vidhiyon ko bhi ek pustak ka roop dene ka prayatn kiya. 1776 ee. men snskrit men ek pustak 'kod aauf jineto laau' prakashit huee. 1791 ee. men viliyam jons tatha kolabruk ki 'daijesha aauf hindoo laau' chhapi. isi prakar 'fatava-e-alamagiri' ka angrezi anuvad karane ka bhi prayas kiya gaya. hestings arabi, farasi janata tha aur bangla bol sakata tha.

kramabaddh yuddh

vyavasayik sudhar ke antargat varen hestings ne zamidaron ke kshetr men kary kar rahe shulk grihon ko band karava diya. ab keval kalakatta, hugali, murshidabad, dhaka tatha patana men hi shulk grih rah gaye. shulk matr 2.5 pratishat tha, jo sabako dena hota tha. varen hestings ne kampani ke adhikariyon ko vyaktigat vyapar par di jane vali chhoot ko samapt kar diya. varen hestings ne mugal samrat ko milane vali 26 lakh rupaye ki varshik penshan band karava di. usane avadh se maitripoorn sambandh banaye. mugal samrat ko diye gaye ilahabad tatha kada ke zile 50 lakh ru. lekar avadh ke navab ko de diye gaye. usake samay men 'ruhela yuddh' (1774 ee.), pratham maratha yuddh (1775-1782 ee.) tatha maisoor yuddh dvitiy (1780-1784 ee.) hue.

hestings par arop

varen hestings ke samay men regyuleting ekt ke tahat 1774 ee. men kalakatta men ek sarvochch nyayalay ki sthapana ki gee, jisaka adhikar kshetr kalakatta tak tha. kalakatta men rahane vale sabhi bharatiy tatha angrez isaki paridhi men the. kalakatta se bahar ke mamale yah tabhi sunata tha, jab donon paksh sahatam hon. is nyayalay men nyay angrezi qanoonon dvara kiya jata tha. ek bngali brahman 'nand kumar' ne 1775 ee. men varen hestings par yah arop lagaya ki, usane 'munni begam' (mir zafar ki vidhava) se 3.5 lakh rupaye navab ka snrakshak banane ke lie ghoos liya tha. arop ke pramanit n hone par varen hestings ne us par jhootha arop lagakar nyayalay se use phansi ki saza dilavayi.

mahabhiyog

gavarnar-janaral ke roop men varen hestings ki do karanon se buraee huee- pahala, banaras ke raja chetasinh se bina vajah adhik rupayon ki mang karana, tatha bad men use nishchit ghode dene ke lie badhy karana aur naya pad pane par use hatakar usake bhatije ko banaras ki navabi de dena evn doosara, avadh ke khazane ki loot. pit ekt ke virodh men istifa dekar jab varen hestigs faravari, 1785 ee. men inglaind pahuncha, to bark dvara usake oopar mahabhiyog lagaya gaya. british parliyament men yah mahabhiyog 1788 ee. se 1795 ee. tak chala, parantu ant men use aropon se mukt kar diya gaya.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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