ध्यान चन्द  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

dhyan chand
mejar dhyan chand
poora nam mejar dhyanachand sinh
janm 29 agast, 1905
janm bhoomi ilahabad
mrityu 3 disnbar, 1979
mrityu sthan nee dilli
abhibhavak sameshvar datt sinh (pita)
karm bhoomi bharat
khel-kshetr haauki
puraskar-upadhi padm bhooshan (1956)
prasiddhi haauki ka jadoogar
vishesh yogadan olampik khelon men bharat ko lagatar tin svarn padak (1928, 1932 aur 1936) dilane men mejar dhyanachand ka aham yogadan hai.
nagarikata bharatiy
any janakari dhyanachand ke janmadin (29 agast) ko bharat ka 'rashtriy khel divas' ghoshit kiya gaya hai.

mejar dhyan chand (angrezi: Major Dhyan Chand; janm: 29 agast, 1905, ilahabad; mrityu: 3 disnbar, 1979, nee dilli) bharatiy haauki khiladi the, jinaki ginati shreshthatam kalajayi khiladiyon men hoti hai. manana hoga ki haauki ke khel men dhyan chand ne lokapriyata ka jo kirttiman sthapit kiya, usake asapas bhi aj tak duniya ka koee khiladi nahin pahunch saka. mejar dhyan chand rat men bhi bahut abhyas karate the, isalie unhen unake sathi khiladiyon dvara upanam 'chand' diya gaya. darasal, unaka yah abhyas chand ke nikal ane par shuroo hota tha. 1979 men dada dhyanachnd ki koma men jane ke bad maut huee, lekin jab tak ve hosh men rahe, bharatiy haauki ke prati chintit rahe.

haauki men dhyanachnd sa khiladi n to hua hai aur n hoga. vah jitane bade़ khiladi the utane hi nekadil insan the. haauki ke is jadoogar ka asali nam dhyanasinh tha, lekin jab fauj men unhonne bale tivari ke margadarshan men haauki snbhali to sabhi sneh se unhen dhyanachnd kahane lage aur is tarah unaka nam hi dhyanachnd pad gaya.[1]

jivan parichay

haauki ke jadoogar dada dhyanachnd ka janm prayag (ilahabad) ke ek sadharan rajapoot parivar men 29 agast, 1905 ko hua. kalantar men unaka parivar ilahabad se jhansi a gaya. unake baly-jivan men khiladipan ke koee vishesh lakshan dikhaee nahin dete the. isalie kaha ja sakata hai ki haauki ke khel ki pratibha janmajat nahin thi, balki unhonne satat sadhana, abhyas, lagan, sngharsh aur snkalp ke sahare yah pratishtha arjit ki thi.

bachapan

sadharan shiksha prapt karane ke bad 16 varsh ki avastha men sena men ek sadharan sipahi ki haisiyat se bharati ho ge. jab 'pharst brahman rejiment' men bharati hue us samay tak unake man men haauki ke prati koee vishesh dilachaspi ya ruchi nahin thi. dhyanachnd ko haauki khelane ke lie prerit karane ka shrey rejiment ke ek soobedar mejar tivari ko hai. mejar tivari svny bhi haauki premi aur khiladi the. unaki dekh-rekh men dhyanachnd haauki khelane lage aur dekhate hi dekhate vah duniya ke ek mahanh khiladi ban ge.

khel parichay

dhyanachnd ko phutabaaul men pele aur kriket men braidamain ke samatuly mana jata hai. gend is qadar unaki stik se chipaki rahati ki pratidvndvi khiladi ko aksar ashnka hoti ki vah jaduee stik se khel rahe hain. yahan tak haaulaind men unaki haauki stik men chunbak hone ki ashnka men unaki stik tod kar dekhi gee. japan men dhyanachnd ki haauki stik se jis tarah gend chipaki rahati thi use dekh kar unaki haauki stik men gond lage hone ki bat kahi gee. dhyanachnd ki haauki ki kalakari ke jitane kisse hain utane shayad hi duniya ke kisi any khiladi ke babat sune ge hon. unaki haauki ki kalakari dekhakar haauki ke murid to vah-vah kah hi uthate the balki pratidvndvi tim ke khiladi bhi apani sudhabudh khokar unaki kalakari ko dekhane men mashagool ho jate the. unaki kalakari se mohit hokar hi jarmani ke rudolph hitalar sarikhe jiddi samrat ne unhen jarmani ke lie khelane ki peshakash kar di thi. lekin dhyanachnd ne hamesha bharat ke lie khelana hi sabase bada gaurav samajha. viyana men dhyanachnd ki char hath men char haauki stik lie ek moorti lagaee aur dikhaya ki dhyanachnd kitane jabardast khiladi the. sunane men ye sabhi ghatanaen bhale atishayoktipoorn lage, lekin ye sabhi baten kabhi hakikat rahi hain.[1]

mejar dhyanachnd sinh

bharat ko dilaye tin svarn padak

dhyanachnd ne tin olimpik khelon men bharat ka pratinidhitv kiya tatha tinon bar desh ko svarn padak dilaya. ankadon se bhi pata chalata hai ki vah vastav men haauki ke jadoogar the. bharat ne 1932 men 37 maich men 338 gol kie, jisamen 133 gol dhyanachnd ne kie the. doosare vishv yuddh se pahale dhyanachnd ne 1928 (emsatardam), 1932 (laaus enjils) aur 1936 (barlin) men lagatar tin olinpik men bharat ko haauki men gold medal dilae. doosara vishv yuddh n hua hota to vah chhah olinpik men shirakat karane vale duniya ke snbhavat: pahale khiladi hote hi aur is bat men shak ki qatee gunjaish nahin in sabhi olinpik ka gold medal bhi bharat ke hi nam hota.[1]

khel bhavana

1933 men ek bar vah ravalapindi men maich khelane ge. is ghatana ka ullekh yahan isalie kiya ja raha hai ki aj haauki ke khel men khiladiyon men anushasanahinata ki bhavana badhati ja rahi hai aur khel ke maidan men khiladiyon ke bich kafi tezi a jati hai. 14 pnjab rejiment (jisamen dhyanachnd bhi sammilit the) aur saipars end mainars tim ke bich maich khela ja raha tha. dhyanachnd us samay khyati ki charam sima par pahunch chuke the. unhonne apane shanadar khel se virodhiyon ki rakshapnkti ko chhinn-bhinn kar diya aur darshakon ko mntramugdh kar diya. is par virodhi tim ka sentar-haph apana sntulan kho baitha aur asavadhani men usake hathon dhyanachnd ki nak par chot lag gee. khel turnt rok diya gaya. prathamik chikitsa ke bad dhyanachnd apani nak par patti bndhavakar maidan men laute. unhonne chot marane vale pratidvndi ki pith thapathapaee aur muskarakar kaha-"savadhani se khelo taki mujhe dobara chot n lage." usake bad dhyanachnd pratishodh par utar ae. unaka pratishodh kitana ardash hai, isaki bas kalpana hi ki ja sakati hai. unhonne ek sath 6 gol kar die. ye sachamuch ek mahanh khiladi ka gun hai. isase khel-khiladi ka star aur pratishtha oonchi hoti hai.

olampik khel

dhyan chand
emsatardam (1928)

1928 men emsatardam olampik khelon men pahali bar bharatiy tim ne bhag liya. emstardam men khelane se pahale bharatiy tim ne ingalaind men 11 maich khele aur vahan dhyanachnd ko vishesh saphalata prapt huee. emstardam men bharatiy tim pahale sabhi mukabale jit gee. bharat ne astreliya ko 6-0 se, beljiyam ko 9-0 se, denamark ko 6-0 se, svitazalaind ko 6-0 se haraya aur is prakar bharatiy tim phainal men pahunch gee. phainal men bharat aur halaind ka mukabala tha. phainal maich men bharat ne halaind ko 3-0 se hara diya. isamen do gol dhyanachnd ne kie.

las enjils (1932)

1932 men las enjils men huee olampik pratiyogitaon men bhi dhyanachnd ko tim men shamil kar liya gaya. us samay sentar phaauravard ke roop men kafi saphalata aur shoharat prapt kar chuke the. tab sena men vah 'lains-nayak' ke bad nayak ho gaye the. is daure ke dauran bharat ne kafi maich khele. is sari yatra men dhyanachnd ne 262 men se 101 gol svayn kie. nirnayak maich men bharat ne amerika ko 24-1 se haraya tha. tab ek amerika samachar patr ne likha tha ki bharatiy haauki tim to poorv se aya toofan thi. usane apane veg se ameriki tim ke gyarah khiladiyon ko kuchal diya.

barlin (1936)

1936 ke barlin olapik khelon men dhyanachnd ko bharatiy tim ka kaptan chuna gaya. is par unhonne ashchary prakat karate hue kaha- "mujhe zara bhi asha nahin thi ki main kaptan chuna jaoonga" khair, unhonne apane is dayitv ko badi eemanadari ke sath nibhaya. apane jivan ka avismaraniy snsmaran sunate hue vah kahate hain ki 17 julaee ke din jarman tim ke sath hamare abhyas ke lie ek pradarshani maich ka ayojan hua. yah maich barlin men khela gaya. ham isamen char ke badale ek gol se har ge. is har se mujhe jo dhakka laga use main apane jite-ji nahin bhula sakata. jarmani ki tim ki pragati dekhakar ham sab ashcharyachakit rah ge aur hamare kuchh sathiyon ko to bhojan bhi achchha nahin laga. bahut-se sathiyon ko to rat nind nahin aee.

dhyanachand ke samman men jari dak tikat

5 agast ke din bharat ka hngari ke sath olampik ka pahala mukabala hua, jisamen bharatiy tim ne hngari ko char golon se hara diya. doosare maich men, jo ki 7 agast ko khela gaya, bharatiy tim ne japan ko 9-0 se haraya aur usake bad 12 agast ko phrans ko 10 golon se haraya. 15 agast ke din bharat aur jarman ki timon ke bich phainal mukabala tha. yadyapi yah mukabala 14 agast ko khela jane vala tha par us din itani barish huee ki maidan men pani bhar gaya aur khel ko ek din ke lie sthagit kar diya gaya. abhyas ke dauran jarmani ki tim ne bharat ko haraya tha, yah bat sabhi ke man men buri tarah ghar kar gee thi. phir gile maidan aur pratikool paristhitiyon ke karan hamare khiladi aur bhi nirash ho ge the. tabhi bharatiy tim ke mainejar pnkaj gupta ko ek yukti soojhi. vah khiladiyon ko dresing room men le ge aur sahasa unhonne tirnga jhanda hamare samane rakha aur kaha ki isaki laj ab tumhare hath hai. sabhi khiladiyon ne shraddhapoorvak tirnge ko salam kiya aur vir sainik ki tarah maidan men utar pade. bharatiy khiladi jamakar khele aur jarman ki tim ko 4-1 se hara diya. us din sachamuch tirnge ki laj rah gee. us samay kaun janata tha ki 15 agast ko hi bharat ka svatantrata divas banega.

haauki ka jadoogar

dhyan chand haauki khelate hue

kaha jata hai ki maich ke dauran gend har samay dhyanachnd ki stik ke sath hi chipaki rahati. yah dekhakar darshak ashcharyachakit rah ge, lekin kuchh adhikariyon ko bich men sndeh hone laga ki kahin dhyanachnd ki stik men koee aisi vastu to nahin lagi hai, jo barabar gend ko apani or khinche jati hai. bat badh gee aur shnka-samadhan avashyak samajha gaya. sainik ko doosari stik se khelane ko kaha gaya, lekin jab doosari stik se bhi dhyanachnd ne danadan golon ka tanta bandhakar sama bandh diya to jarman adhikariyon ko vishvas ho gaya ki jadoo stik ka nahin unaki lochadar aur sashakt kalaiyon ka hai. vahan ke darshakon ne tabhi dhyanachnd ko 'haauki ka jadoogar' kahana shuroo kar diya. 1936 ke olampik khelon men bharatiy haauki tim ne kul milakar 38 gol kie jinamen se 11 gol dhyanachnd ne hi kie.
1936 ke barlin olampik khilon ke bad dvitiy vishv-yuddh ke karan 1946 aur 1944 ke olampik khelon ka ayojan nahin ho saka. dvitiy vishv-yuddh ke bad dhyanachnd ne haauki se sannyas le liya, lekin haauki to unaki jivanasngini thi. unhonne navayuvakon ko guru-mntr sikhane shuroo kar die. kafi samay tak vah rashtriy khelakood snsthan (patiyala) men bharatiy timon ko prashikshit karate rahe.

sena men padonnati

keval haauki ke khel ke karan hi sena men unaki padonnati hoti gee. 1938 men unhen 'vayasaray ka kamishan' mila aur ve jamadar ban ge. usake bad ek ke bad ek doosare soobedar, lephtinent aur kaiptan banate chale ge. bad men unhen mejar bana diya gaya.

khel jivan

vah 1922 men bharatiy sena men shamil hue aur 1926 men sena ki tim ke sath nyoozilaind ke daure par ge. 1928 aur 1932 ke olnpik khelon men khelane ke bad 1936 men barlin olampik men dhyanachnd ne bharatiy tim ka netritv kiya aur svayn chhh gol dagakar fainal men jarmani ko parajit kiya. 1932 men bharat ke vishvavijayi daure men unhonne kul 133 gol kie. dhyannachnd ne apana antim antarrashtriy maich 1948 men khela. antarrashtriy maichon men unhonne 400 se adhik gol kie.

karishmaee khiladi

mejar dhyanachnd sinh

1948 aur 1952 men bharat ke lie khelane vale nndi sinh ka kahana hai ki dhyanachnd ke khel ki khasiyat thi ki vo gend ko apane pas zyada der tak nahin rakhate the. unake pas bahut nape-tule hote the aur vo kisi bhi kon se gol kar sakate the. 1947 ke poorvi afrika ke daure ke dauran ek maich men dhyanachnd ne kedi sinh baboo ko ek zabaradast pas diya aur unaki taraf pith kar apane hi gol ki taraph chalane lage. bad men baboo ne unaki is ajib harakat ka karan poochha to unhonne kaha ki agar tum us pas par bhi gol nahin mar pate to tumhen bharatiy tim men bane rahane ka koee haq nahin hai. unake putr olnpiyan ashok kumar bhi batate hain ki 50 varsh ki umr men bhi abhyas ke dauran vo di (D) ke andar se das men das shaaut bharatiy golakipar ko chhakate hue mar sakate the. olnpiyan keshavadatt kahate hain ki dhyanachnd haauki ke maidan ko is tarah dekhate the jaise shatarnj ka khiladi ches bord ko dekhata hai. unako hamesha maloom rahata tha ki unaki tim ka har khiladi kahan hai aur agar unaki ankh par patti bhi bandh di jae, tab bhi unaka pas bilkul sahi jagah par pahunchata tha. 1968 ke maiksiko olnpik men bharatiy haauki tim ke kaptan rahe gurubaksh sinh bhi yad karate hue kahate hai ki 1959 men jab dhyanachnd 54 varsh ke the, tab bhi bharatiy tim ka koee sadasy buli men unase gend nahin chhin sakata tha.[2]

hitalar aur braidamain bhi qayal

dhyanachnd ne apani karishmaee haauki se jarman tanashah hitalar hi nahin balki mahanh kriketar daaun braidamain ko bhi apana qayal bana diya tha. yah bhi snyog hai ki khel jagath ki in donon mahanh hastiyon ka janm do din ke andar par padata hai. duniya ne 27 agast ko braidamain ki janmashati manaee to 29 agast ko vah dhyanachnd ko naman karane ke lie taiyar hai, jise bharat men khel divas ke roop men manaya jata hai. braidamain haki ke jadoogar se umr men tin sal chhote the. apane-apane phan men mahir ye donon khel hastiyan keval ek bar ek-doosare se mile the. vah 1935 ki bat hai jab bharatiy tim astreliya aur nyoojilaind ke daure par gee thi. tab bharatiy tim ek maich ke lie ediled men tha aur braidamain bhi vahan maich khelane ke lie ae the. braidamain aur dhyanachnd donon tab ek-doosare se mile the. braidamain ne tab haauki ke jadoogar ka khel dekhane ke bad kaha tha ki ve is tarah se gol karate hain, jaise kriket men ran banate hain. yahi nahin braidamain ko bad men jab pata chala ki dhyanachnd ne is daure men 48 maich men kul 201 gol dage to unaki tippani thi, yah kisi haauki khiladi ne banae ya ballebaj ne. dhyanachnd ne isake ek sal bad barlin olimpik men hitalar ko bhi apani haauki ka qayal bana diya tha. us samay sirph hitalar hi nahin, jarmani ke haauki premiyon ke dilodimag par bhi ek hi nam chhaya tha aur vah tha dhyanachnd.[3]

puraskar evn samman

1956 men unhen padm bhooshan se sammanit kiya gaya. unake janmadin ko bharat ka rashtriy khel divas ghoshit kiya gaya hai. isi din khel men utkrisht pradarshan ke lie rashtriy puraskar arjun aur dronachary puraskar pradan kie jate hain. bharatiy olampik sngh ne dhyanachnd ko shatabdi ka khiladi ghoshit kiya tha.

nidhan

chauthaee sadi tak vishv haauki jagath ke shikhar par jadoogar ki tarah chhae rahane vale mejar dhyanachnd ka 3 disambar, 1979 ko subah char bajakar pachchis minat par nee dilli men dehant ho gaya. jhansi men unaka antim snskar kisi ghat par n hokar us maidan par kiya gaya, jahan vo haauki khela karate the. apani atmakatha 'gol' men unhonne likha tha, "apako maloom hona chahie ki main bahut sadharan adami hoon" vo sadharan adami nahin the lekin vo is duniya se ge bilkul sadharan adami ki tarah.[2]

dam todata 'dada' ka sapana

1979 men dada dhyanachnd ki koma men jane ke bad maut huee, lekin jab tak ve hosh men rahe, bharatiy haauki ke prati chintit rahe. apane bete ashok se hamesha kahate the ki "mera yahi sapana hai ki bharatiy haauki ek bar phir svarnim yug men pahunche. ab mere boodhe sharir men bhale hi dam nahin raha ho, lekin main bharat ki haauki ko sammanajanak sthiti men dekhana chahata hoon taki khud ko javan mahasoos kar sakoon."[4]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

vishv ke pramukh khel aur khiladi |lekhak: yogaraj thani |prakashak: rajapal end sanz, kashmiri get, dilli |prishth snkhya: 157-160 |

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 haauki se judi vah jaduee hasti-dhyanachnd (hindi) navabharat taims. abhigaman tithi: 15 navnbar, 2011.
  2. 2.0 2.1 haauki ke jadoogar dhyanachnd (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) bi.bi.si hindi. abhigaman tithi: 15 navnbar, 2011.
  3. dhyanachnd ki haauki ke kayal the braidamain (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) vebaduniya hindi. abhigaman tithi: 15 navnbar, 2011.
  4. khana pakane men bhi maharat hasil thi dada dhyanachnd ko (hindi) hindi.webdunia. abhigaman tithi: 15 joon, 2018.

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