संयुक्त राज्य अमरीका  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

'snyukt rajy amarika ka dhvaj

snyukt rajy amarika uttar ameriki mahadvip men sthit ek desh hai. isaki rajadhani vashingatan hai. snyukt rajy amarika uttar ameriki mahadvip par sthit ek snghiy ganatntr hai. snyukt rajy amarika 50 rajyon aur ek snghiy zile se bana hai. isake atirikt isake any bhi bahut se adhinasth kshetr hain jo oshiniya aur any sthanon par bhi phaile hain. yah ek rashtriy ganatntr hai. 30.5 karod ki janasnkhya ke sath yah chin aur bharat ke bad vishv ka sabase adhik janasnkhya vala desh hai yadyapi tisare sthan par hone ke pashchath bhi isaki janasnkhya pratham do ki tulana men bahut kam hai. uttar amarika men isake 49 rajy sthit hain, jiname se 48 snsakt (ek doosare se jude hue) hai aur ek rajy alaska sudoor uttar men hai jise amarika ki mukhy bhoomi se kanada alag karata hai (yah kanada ke british kolnbiya rajy se laga hua hai). snghiy rajadhani vashingatan desh ke poorvi bhag men, kolnbiya zile men merilaind aur varjiniya ke madhy sthit hai. snyukt rajy amarika ka nam thaaumas pain dvara sujhaya gaya tha aur 4 julaee, 1776 ke svatntrata ke ghoshanapatr men adhikarik roop se prayukt kiya gaya. laghu roop se isake lie bahudha snyukt rajy ka bhi upayog kiya jata hai. hindi bhasha men 'snyukt rajy' ya 'snyukt rajy amarika' ke sthan par keval 'amarika' kahane ka hi prachalan hai, jo is desh ke laghu nam ke roop men upayog men laya jata hai. amarika, snyukt rajy vartaman snyukt rajy amarika (yoonaited stet), ki srishti do karanon se huee. yooropavasiyon ka 17vin shatabdi se is dvip men apane vichar, vani tatha snskriti sahit ana, aur yahan rahakar unake yooropiy svaroop ka badal jana. uttari amarika ki khoj 15vin-16vin shatabdi men huee thin, par lagabhag shatadhik varsh bad agntukon ne is desh men pravesh kiya or use apana liya. dharmik svatntrata ka apaharan, inglaind men samrath or parliyament ke bich sngharsh, aupaniveshik vyapar ka akarshan, sona prapt karane ka lobh tatha badhati huee janasnkhya ke lie naya sthan dhoondhane ki abhilasha ne logon ko ne desh men basane ke lie prerit kiya. 1606 ee. men tin chhote angreji jahaj 120 vyaktiyon ko lekar kaipten nyooport ke netritv men amarika ke lie chale. char mahine ki samudrik yatra ke pashchath‌ inamen se 104 vyakti sakushal jems nadi ke muhane par utare. varjiniya knpani ne 5,649 vyaktein bheje jinamen se 1624 ee. tak koee 1,095 vyakti jivit the. is knpani ke bnd ho jane par ye upanivesh samrath ke adhikar men chale ge aur vahi inaka gavarnar niyukt karane laga. varjiniya upanivesh men tnbakoo ki kheti hone lagi jo kramash: usake vikas ka mukhy sadhan bani. isake uttar men 1632 ee. men merilaind namak doosara rajakiy upanivesh sthapit kiya gaya, jisaka patta samrath ne jarj kalvart ya lard baltimor ko diya. is vnsh ka isapar kee pidhiyon tak adhikar raha. yahan roman kaithelikon ko dharmik svatntrata thi. yah upanivesh bhi tnbakoo ki kheti ke lie prasiddh ho gaya.

aupaniveshik yug : dhanaprapti ki ichchha, dharmik svatntrata ki abhilasha, rajanitik atyachar se mukt hone ka snkalp aur ne sahasik kary ke pralobhan ne yoorop ke aur deshon se bhi logon ko yahan ane ke lie badhy kiya. 1624 ee. men dachon ne nyoo nedaralainds ka upanivesh basaya, par chalis varsh bad isapar angrejon ka adhikar ho gaya aur unhonne isaka nam nyooyark rakha. 16vin-17vin shatabdiyon ke dharmik krantikal men pyooritan namak ek dal uth khada hua jo angreji eesaee dharm men sudharon ka andolan karane laga. isaka ek jattha inglaind chhodakar halaind men ja basa. inamen se kuchh log 1620 ee. men inglaind hote hue amarika ja pahunche. vahan inhonne nyoo plimath ki pilagrim kaloni basaee. charls pratham ke samay bhi jin padariyon ka anukaran karate hue amarika ae. unhonne 1630 ee. men masachyoosets upanivesh ki sthapana ki. penasilaveniya aur narth kerolaina ke anek agutnk jarmani aur ayaralaind se adhik dharmik svatntrata aur arthik unnati ki asha men idhar ae the.

17vin shatabdi ke pratham tin chauthaee bhag men jo videshi amarika men akar base unamen angreji ki snkhya bahut adhik thi. kuchh dach, svid aur jarman sauth kairoloina men aur usake as-pas kuchh phrainch uganon aur kahin kahin, speni, italiy aur purtagali bhi bas ge the. 1680 ee. ke pashchath‌ inglaind inaka agaman srot nahin raha. in sab aupaniveshikon ne vahan jakar angreji bhasha, kanoon, ritirivaj aur vicharadhara ko apana liya. 1700 ee. men angreji bastiyan nyoo hainpasar, masachyoosets, kanektikat, nyoo haiven, rod ailaind, nyooyark, nyoo jarsi, penasilaveniya, dilaveyar, merilaind, vajinniya, narth kairolaina aur sauth kairolaina men sthapit ho chuki thin. sabase antim basti jarjiya 1753 ee. men sthapit huee.

in upaniveshon men uttari bhag ke nivasi vyavasay tatha vyapar men snlagn the par dakshinavalon ka pesha keval krishi hi tha. in vividhataon ka karan bhaugolik paristhiti thi. bndaragahon ke nikat ganvon aur nagaron men basakar nyoo inglaindavasiyon ne shighr hi apana jivan shahari bana liya, tatha labhadayak vyavasay dhndh nikale. isase unaki arthik ninv majaboot ho gee. uttar upaniveshon ki apeksha madhyavarti upaniveshavalon ki abadi adhik mili-juli thi. inake viparit varjiniya, merilaind, kairolaina tatha jarjiya namak dakshini bastiyan pradhanataya gramin thin. varjiniya apani tnbakoo ke lie yoorop men prasiddh ho chuka tha. 17vin shatabdi ke ant aur 18vin shatabdi ke anrabh men merilaind aur varjiniya ki samajik vyavastha men ve lakshan a chuke the jo grihayuddh tak rahe. adhikatar rajanitik adhikar aur badhiya bhoomi plantaron ne apane adhikar men kar rakhi thi. yah dasapratha, jisaka dakshini upaniveshon men bada jor tha aur jise hatane ke lie dakshin ke log taiyar n the, age chalakar grihayuddh ka ek bada karan bani.

in tin kshetron ke upaniveshon men bhaugolik aur arthik prithakata hotee hue bhi ek visheshata yah thi ki inapar inglaid ki sarakar ke prabhav ka abhav raha aur sabhi apane ko poornataya svatntr samajhate rahe. inglaind ki sarakar ne nee duniya par apane sthaniy shasanadhikar knpaniyon aur unake malikon ko sanp die the. parinam yah hua ki ve inglaind se door hote ge. inglaind ki sarakar inapar apana niyntran rakhana chahati thi aur 1651 ee. ke pashchath‌ samay samay par usane aise kanoon banana arnbh kiya jinamen upanivadeshon ke vyaparik aur sadharan jivan par niyntran rakhane ka prayas tha.

svatntrata ki or : yoorop ki rajanitik paristhitiyon ka amarika par barabar prabhav padata raha. yoo trekt ki sndhi ke anusar akediya, nyoophaundalaind aur hadasan ki khadi phransisiyon se angreji ko milin. kanada aur angreji upaniveshon ke bich koee sima nirdharit nahin thi aur yoorop men astriya ke rajakiy yuddh men angrej aur phransisi vipakshi the. at: amarika men bhi phransisiyon , jinaka kanada par adhikar tha, aur angrejon ke bich 1754 ee men yuddh chhid gaya. 1759 men kyoobek ka patan hote hi phransisiyon ka pasa palat gaya. 1763 ee. ki sndhi men phrans ne inglaind ko sent larens ki khadi ke do dvipon ko chhodakar, ohayo ghati aur kanada bhi de diya. yuddh ke karan amarika ki 13 bastiyan rajanitik ekata ke sootr men bndh gee aur unaki apani shakti aur sngathan ka pata chala. amarika men bane mal ke ayat par inglaind men niyntran tatha yoorop men amarika ke niryat mal par lagi chungi se vyapar ko bada dhakka pahuncha. inglaind keval kachcha mal aur ajh lena chahata tha aur amarika men apane bane hue mal ki khapat chahata tha. grenavil ne un upaniveshon men angreji sena rakhane ka sujhav diya jisake kharch ka bojh amarika ki janata par padata tha. inglend ne kanoon dvara kar lagakar amarika ko sar karana chaha. inhin karon men stainp kar bhi tha. isaka vahan kada virodh hua aur nyooyark ki ek sabha men amarikiyon ne elan kiy ki jab tak unaka pratinidhan inglaind ki parliyament men n hoga tab tak usaka lagaya kar bhi unhen many n hoga. angreji sarakar ko jhukana pada aur vah kar vapas le liya gaya.

1667 ee. men chay, shishe tatha any chijon par kar lagane ka prastav hua jisase amariki upaniveshon men isaka bhi virodh hua aur chay ko chhodakar jisase baki sab par chungi ki chhoot de di gee. unhonne angreji chay ka bahishkar kiya. bostan men kuchh amarikanon ne red indiyan ke vesh men angreji jahajon par chadhakar unaki chay samudr men phenk di. british parliyament men is ghatana se badi uttejana huee aur jarj tritiy ne kadi niti apanane ka adesh diya. masachyoosets ke prastav ko lekar philadelphiya men 5 sitnbar, 1774 ee. ko ek sabha huee jisamen samrath tatha inglaind aur kanada ki janata ke nam sndesh bhejana svikar kiya gaya. isamen svatntrata ka prashn nahin uthaya gaya tha. janaral gez dvara masachyoosets men amarikan netaon ko pakadane aur goli chalane se ag bhadak uthi aur yuddh arnbh ho gaya. philadelphiya ki doosari sabha men jarj vashingatan ko neta chuna gaya. us samay angreji sena ki snkhya 10,000 tak pahunch chuki thi. 4 julaee, 1776 ee. ko tamas jepharasan dvara likhit amariki svatntrata ka ghoshanapatr kantinental sabha men pas hua.

angreji sena ko arnbh men kuchh saphalataen milin aur varshigatan ko nirntar pichhe hatana pada. kranti ka yuddh chhah varsh se adhik kal tak chalata raha jis bich anek mahatvapoorn yuddh hue. trentan aur prinstan ki jiton ne upaniveshon men asha jagrit kar di. sitnbar, 1777 ee. men hav ne philadelphiya par adhikar kar liya, par sharadh men amarikanon ki yuddh men sabase badi jit huee. 17 aktoobar, 1777 ee. ko british senapati varagoin ne apani panch hajar sena sahit atmasamarpan kar diya. phrans ne, jo apani purani dushmani ke karan inglaind ke vipaksh men tha, amarika ke sath vyaparik aur mitrata ki sndhiyan kar lin jisamen benjamin phrainkalin ka bada hath tha. 16ven luee ne janaral sheshnbo ki adhyakshata men 6,000 javanon ki ek prabal sena bheji aur phrench samudri bede ne bitish senaon ko saman bhejane men kathinaee dal di. 1778ee. angrejon ko philadelphiya khali kar dena pada. vashintan aur sheshanbon ki senaon ke prayas se lard karnavalis ko 17aktoobar, 1781ee. men yarkataun men atmasamarpan karana pada. inglaind men pradhan mntri lard narth the jinhonne tyagapatr de diya aur aprail, 1782 ee. men naya mntrimndal banaya gaya. 1783 ee. men peris ke sndhipatr par hastakshar hue. 13 amarikan rajyon ko poornataya svatntrata mili. keval kanada angrejon ke pas rah gaya aur misisipi nadi uttar ki sima man li gee. 1787 ee. men philadelphiya men ek kanvenshan hua jisamen desh ka vidhan banane aur kendriy shasanavyavastha ke lie sarakar banane ka nishchay kiya gaya. 17 sitnbar 1787 ee. ko prastut snvidhan par upasthit rajyon ke pratinidhiyon ne hastakshar kar die. 21 joon, 1782 ee. ko snvidhan antim roop men sab rajyon dvara svikrit ho gaya. rashtriy sngh ki kangres ne rashtrapati ke pratham chunav ki vyavastha ki aur 30 aprail, 1789 ko vashingatan ne apane pad ki shapath li.

grihayuddh tak : vidhan ke antargat 13 rashtron ne ek samajhauta kiya aur apane kuchh adhikar kendr ko saunp die, par antarik mamalon men ve poonataya svatntr the. snyukt rajy ki sima badhane ke lie yah avashyak ho gaya ki amarika ke aur bhagon par adhikar kiya jae. 1861 ee. ke grihayuddh ke pahale ka yug vastav men snyukt-rajy-kshetr-vistar-yug kahalane yogy hai. 1787 ee. men uttari pashchimi pradesh , jinamen bad men chalakar chhah ne rajy bane, aur 1803 ee. men looeejiyana pradesh dedh karod dalar men phrans se khadid lie ge. us samay jefarasan rashtrapati tha. snyukt rajy ko 10 lakh varg mil se adhik bhoomi or nyooarlis ka bndaragah mil gaya. amarika mahadvip ke do tihaee bhag par isaka adhikar ho gaya. baki ek tihaee bhag 1845-50 ee. ke bich adhikar men aya. desh ki samast nadiyon par kendriy niyntran ho gaya. 19vin shatabdi ke pratham bhag men angrejon aur phransisiyon ke bich hue yuddh men amariki vyavastha ki niti bahut samay tak kayam n rah saki aur usake vyapar ko badi kshati pahunchi. 1812 men briten ke viruddh amarika ko yuddhakshetr men utarana pada. sthal par to snyukt rajy ko asaphalata mili par samudr men use vijay prapt huee. yuddh ki samapti ghet ki sndhi se huee jise 1815 ee. men snyukt rajy ne svikar kar liya. is yuddh men amariki janasnkhya ko badi kshati pahunchi thi, par isaka mahatvapoorn parinam rashtriyata aur deshabhakti ki bhavana ka udgar hua. snyukt rajy antarrashtriy kshetr men ab samanata ka pad prapt kar chuka tha. is yug men jefarasan aur manaro ke nam vishesh ullekhaniy hain. jo ne rajy bane unamen 1803 ee. men ohayo, 1812 ee. men looiziyana, 1816 ee.men indiyana, 1817 ee. men misisipi, 1818 ee. men ilinay, 1819 ee. men alabama, 1820 ee. men men aur 1821 ee. men misauri ke nam ullekhaniy hain. isi samay manaro daktrin (niti) ki ghoshana ki gee jisase amarika ka yoorop ke ghareloo mamalon tatha yooropiyan upaniveshon aur donon amariki dvipon men yooropiy shaktiyon ka hastakshep karana avaidh ho gaya. roos ne ise manakar alaska men 54.40 par apani dakshini sima nirdharit ki. ant men 1861 men roos ne ise 15 lakh dalar par amarika ke hath bech diya.

is kal uttari aur dakshini rajyon men dasapratha ko lekar vaimanasy ki bhavana tivr ho uthi jo amariki grihayuddh ka ek bada karan bani. uttari rajyon men dasapratha ko hata diya gaya tha par dakshini rajy apani arthik aur bhaugolik paristhitiyon ke karan use banae rakhana chahate the. ve use ghareloo mamala samajhate the jisamen unake mat se, kangres ko hastakshep karane ka adhikar n tha. amariki rajaniti men bhi dasapratha ko lekar rajanitik dalon men phoot pad gee. dasapratha ke virodhiyon aur pakshapatiyon ke bich sngharsh ka jor badhata ja raha tha. 1857 ee. men sarvochch nyayalay dvara bahumat se kie ge drek skat ke phaisale ne ag men ghi ka kam kiya. 8 pharavari, 1865 ee. 'kanaphedaret stet aauv amerika' ka sngathan hua jisaka linkan ne virodh kiya. 12 aprail ko charlstan (sauth kairolaina) ke fort sumatar par golabari huee aur grihayuddh arnbh ho gaya. yah char varsh chala aur ant men 8 aprail, 1865 ee. ko dakshini sena ne hathiyar dal die.

vistar aur sudhar ka yug : grihayuddh aur pratham vishvayuddh ke 50 varsho ke madhyakal men snyukt rajy men bhari parivartan hue. bade bade karakhane khule, mahadvip ke ar par rel dvara yatayat sugam ho gaya tatha samudr, nagaron aur hare bhare kheton ne desh ki arthik unnati men yog diya. lohe, bhap, bijali ke utpadan aur vaigyanik avishkaron ne rashtr men ne pran phoonke. snyukt rajy badi teji se pragati kar chala. 1914 ee. ke yooropiy mahayuddh ke samachar se ise bhari dhakka pahuncha par amariki udyog pashchimi rashtron ki yuddhasamagri

ki mang ke karan phoolane phalane laga. 1915 ee. men jarmani ke sainik netaon ne ghoshana ki ki ve british dvipon ke asapas ke samudr men kisi bhi vyaparik jahaj ko nasht kar denge. rashtrapati vilsan ne apani niti ghoshit ki ki amariki jahajon athava jan ke nash karane ke lie jarmani uttaradayi hoga. jarman panadubbiyon ne amarika ke kee jahaj dubo die. at: 2 aprail, 1917 ee. ko amarika ne vishvayuddh men pravesh kiya aur usake sainik aur jahaj phrans pahunch ge. janavari, 1918ee. men vilsan ne nyayayukt shanti ke adhar par apane suprasiddh 14 sootr rache. isake antargat rashtrasngh ka nirman karana, chhote bade rajyon ko saman rajanitik svatntrata aur rashtr ki akhndata ka ashvasan dilana tha. unhin sootron ke adhar par 11navnbar, 1918ee. ko jarmani ne asthayi sndhipatr par hastakshar kar die. vilsan ke sootron ka aur rashtron men sthayi sndhi ka poornataya palan nahin kiya gaya, at: snyukt rajy rashtrasngh (lig aauv neshns) ka sadasy nahin bana.

20vin shatabdi ke tisare dashak men amarika men arthik snkat utpann hua. krishi kshetr men mndi a gee aur snsar ke bajar dhir-dhire amarika ke lie bnd ho ge. 1929 ki patajhad men sheyar bajar ke bhav gire aur lakhon vyaktiyon ki jivan bhar ki snchit poonji nasht ho gee. karakhane bnd ho ge aur lakhon adami bekar ho ge. 1932 ee. ke chunav men demokrait phrainkalin roozavelt ki jit huee. usane nyoo dil namak vyaparik niti se amarika ki arthik sthiti sudharane ka prayas kiya aur usamen vah saphal bhi hua. 1939 ee. men dvitiy mahayuddh chhid gaya. amarika ne pahale to tatasthata ki niti apanaee, par 1941 ee. men use bhi yuddh men ana pada. lagabhag char varsho ke yuddhakal men amarika ne sainikon aur yuddhasamagri se mitrarashtron ki badi sahayata ki. 8 mee, 1945 ee. ko jarmani ki sena ne atmasamarpan kiya aur japan ke hiroshima aur nagasaki dvipon par paramanu bam girane ke phalasvaroop 2 sitnbar, 1945 ee. ko usane bhi atmasamarpan kiya aur vishvayuddh ka ant hua. 26 joon, 1945 ee. ko 51 rashtron ne snyukt rashtriy ghoshanapatr svikar kiya jisamen ek ne antararashtriy sngh ka snvidhan tha. amarika ke itihas men ek naya adhyay arnbh hua. isane vishv ki any shaktiyon ke sath gutabndi shuroo ki. uttar atalantik (naito) aur dakshin-poorvi eshiyaee (sito) samajhaute tatha bagadad paikt se amarika ka bahut se rajyon ke sath sainik gathabndhan ho gaya, par isake javab men roos aur usake sathi deshon ne bhi apane gut bana lie.[1][2]

sanh‌ 1950 se 1953 ee. tak amarika ne koriyaee yuddh men snyuktarashtr-sngh ki senaon ki sainik, dhan tatha any yuddhopayogi samagri dekar kaphi sahayata ki. 1956 ee. ke chunav men ripablikan parti ke janaral aizanahavar dobara rashtrapati chune ge. amarika ne 1949 ee. men sthapit janavadi chin (piking) ko manyata nahin di, isake viparit vah pharamoosa dvipasamooh men chang kaee shek ki sarakar ko hi chin ki vastavik sarakar ke roop men manata raha aur use paryapt sahayata bhi deta raha. udhar stalin ki mrityu ke bad halanki roos aur amarika ke bich nirntar chal rahe shitayuddh men kuchh kami huee phir bhi 1962 ee. men ukt donon ke bich tanav us samay apani charamavastha par pahunch gaya jab rashtrapati kenedi ne kyooba ko sainik samagri pahunchanevale roosi jahajon ko samudr men hi rok liya aur kyooba ke sthapit roosi prakshepastron ke addon ko samapt karane ki mang ki. tatkalin roosi pradhan mntri hkhraushchov ne lebanan se amariki adde khatm karane ki shart rakhi. kisi tarah mamala tala aur snsar bhaynkaratam yuddh ki vibhishika se bal bal bacha. navnbar, 1963 men rashtrapati kenedi ki dalas (teksas) men hatya kar di gee aur tatkalin uparashtrapati lindan janasan ne rashtrapati ki haisiyat se karyabhar snbhala. unhonne kangres ke madhyam se amarika men is prakar ki yojanaen chaloo kin jinase desh ke antargat arthik drishti se kamajor samudayon ko vikas ka avasar mil sake, halanki kale gore ke prashn ko lekar amarika men tanav bana hi raha. jahan tak antarrashtriy sthiti ka prashn tha, rashtrapati janasan ne dakshini viyatanam evn pakistan ko atyadhik sainik evn arthik sahayata di. pakistan ne 1965 men amariki hathiyaron ke bharose hi bharat se yuddh chheda aur munh ki khaee.

navnbar, 1968 men richard en. niksan (ripablikan) amarika ke rashtrapati chune ge. isi varsh nagarik adhikaron ke lie sngharshashil kale amarikiyon ke neta martin loothar king tatha rashtrapati pad ke pratyashi rabart kenedi (jan.eph.kenedi ke bhaee) ki hatya kar di gee. 1968 men hi roos aur amarika dvara snyukt roop se prastut paramanu shastron ki hod par pratibndh lagane ka prastav rashtrasngh men parit kiya gaya.

navnbar, 1972 men hue 92vin kangres ke madhyavadhi chunav men ripariblakan dal ko n to sinet aur n hi avar sadan men bahumat mila. isase amarikiyon ne demokraitik dal ko spashtat: shaktishali bana diya. phalat: rashtrapati ko apane mntrimndal men vyapak parivartan karane pade aur agami chunav jitane ke lie niksan ne chin tatha roos ki sadbhavanayatraen bhi kin.

disnbar, 1971 ee. men bharat tatha pakistan ke bich hue yuddh men rashtrapati niksan ne khule am pakistan ka paksh liya. rajanitik aur antararashtriy mnch par jab vah kisi bhi tarah bharat ko n jhuka sake to bhayadohan karane ke lie sataven bede ka paramanushakti chalit 'entarapraiz' namak yuddhapot hind mahasagar men bheja. isase bharat aur amarika ke snbndhon par bahut bura asar pada.

navnbar, 1972 men chunav jitakar niksan pun: amarika ke rashtrapati ho ge. lnbe arase se chala a raha viyatanami yuddh bhi 27 janavari, 1973 ko us samay samapt ho gaya jab peris men uttari viyatanam, dakshini viyatanam, rashtriy mukti morache (viyatakandh) dvara sthapit asthayi krantikari sarakar tatha amarika ke videsh mntriyon ne viyatanam sndhi par hastakshar kar die. 30 janavari ko yuddhaviram ka kary prarnbh hua aur 3 pharavari, 1973 ko lagabhag poorn yuddhaviram ho gaya. lekin is bich amarika ki arthik sthiti kamajor ho gee. phalat: 13 pharavari, 1973 ee. ko amariki dalar ka avamoolyan karana pada.[3]



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

  1. sn.gn-henari viliyam elasan : histri aauv di yunaited stetas aauvh‌ amerika, nyooyark, 1949; hairold phakanar : shart histri aauv di amerikan pipul, lndan, 1938; di.siy somaravel : histri aauv di yoonaited stets (yoonaited stets inphameshan sarvis dvara vitarit).
  2. baijanath puri
  3. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 191-93 |