चीन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Disamb2.jpg chin ek bahuvikalpi shabd hai any arthon ke lie dekhen:- chin (bahuvikalpi)
chin ka dhvaj

chin vishv ki prachin sabhyataon men se ek, jo eshiyaee mahadvip ke poo‍rv men sthit hai. chin ki sabhyata evn snskriti chhathi shatabdi se bhi purani hai. yah duniya ka sarvadhik janasnkhya vala desh hai. chin hi ek aisa desh hai, jisane sabase pahale kagaz banane ka kam shuroo kiya tha. aitihasik roop se chini snskriti ka prabhav poorvi aur dakshin poorvi eshiyaee deshon par raha hai aur chini dharm, rivaz aur lekhan pranali ko in desho men alag-alag star tak apanaya gaya hai. chin ke nivasi apani bhasha men apane desh ko 'chngakyooh' kahate hain. kadachit isiliye bharat tatha faras ke prachin nivasiyon ne is desh ka nam apane yahan 'chin' rakh liya tha.

itihas

chin tatha bharat ke vyaparik tatha sanskritik snbndh ati prachin hain. prachin kal men chin ka reshami kapada bharat men prasiddh tha. mahabharat, sabhaparv[1] men kitaj tatha pattaj kapade ka chin ke snbndh men ullekh hai. is prakar ka vastr pashchimottar pradeshon ke anek nivasi (shak, tushar, knk, romash adi) yudhishthir ke rajasooy ygy men bhent svaroop lae the[2]-

'pramanaragasparshadhyn valhi chinasamudbhavamh orn ch rankavnchaiv kitajn pattajn tatha.'
  • tatkalin bharatiyon ko is bat ka gyan tha ki resham kit se utpann hota hai. mahabharat, sabhaparv[3] men chiniyon ka shakon ke sath ullekh hai. ye yudhishthir ki rajy sabha men bhent lekar upasthit hue the-
'chinachhakanstatha chaudranh barvaranh vanavasin:, varshneyanh harahoonanshch krishnanh haimavatanstatha.'[2]
  • bhishmaparv men vijatiyon ki namasoochi men chin ke nivasiyon ka bhi ullekh hai-
'uttarashchaparamlechchha: kroora bharatasattam yavanashchinakamboja darunamlechchhajatay:. sakridgraha kulatthashchahoona: parasikai: sah, tathaiv ramanashchinastathaivadashamalika:.[4]
'gachchhati pur: sharirn dhavati pashchadasnsthitashchet: chinanshukamivaketo: prativatn niyamanasy.'
  • 'harshacharit' ke prathamochchhavas men banabhatt ne shon ke pavitr aur tarngit balukamay tat ko chin ke bane reshami kapade ke saman komal bataya hai.

bauddh dharm ka prachar

chin men bauddh dharm ka prachar chin ke han vnsh ke samrat mignti ke samay men (65 ee.) hua tha. usane svapn men suvarn purush buddh ko dakha aur taduparant apane dooton ko bharat se bauddh sootragranthon aur bhikshuon ko lane ke lie bheja. parinamasvaroop, bharat se 'dharmaraksh' aur 'kashyapamatng' anek dharmagranthon tatha moortiyon ko sath lekar chin pahunche aur vahan unhonne bauddh dharm ki sthapana ki. dharmagranth shvet ashv par rakh kar chin le jae ge the, isalie chin ke pratham bauddh vihar ko shvetashvavihar ki sngya di gee. bharat-chin ke sanskritik snbndhon ki jo parnpara is samay sthapit ki gee thi, usaka poorn vikas age chal kar fahyan (chauthi shati ee.) aur yuvanachvang (satavin shati ee.) ke samay men hua, jab chin ke bauddhon ki sabase badi akanksha yahan rahati thi ki kisi prakar bharat jakar vahan ke bauddh tirthon ka darshan karen aur bharat ke prachin gyan aur darshan ka adhyayan kar apana jivan samunnat banaen. us kal men chin ke bauddh, bharat ko apani punyabhoomi aur snsar ka mahanatam sanskritik kendr manate the.[2]

bharat-chin sambndh

varsh 2008 bharat-chin snbadhon ki drishti se mahattvapoorn varsh raha. pradhanamntri daau. manamohan sinh ne 13-15 janavari, 2008 ke dauran 'pipals ripablik aauf chin' ki sarakari yatra ki. bharat aur chin ke netaon ne donon deshon ke bich shanti aur khushahali ke lie samarik evn sahayogatmak snbndh vikasit karane ka snkalp vyakt kiya. unhonne sabhi bakaya matabhedon ko shantipoorn batachit ke jarie door karane ka dridh snkalp doharaya aur yah sunishchit karane ka bhi snkalp vyakt kiya ki aise matabhedon ka apasi snbadhon ke rachanatmak vikas par koee asar nahin padega. donon pradhanamntriyon ne 21vin sadi ke lie sajha lakshy tay karane snbndhi dastavej par hastakshar kie, jisamen donon deshon ki yah akanksha jhalakati hai ki ve kshetriy aur bahurashtriy mamalon men apasi hit ke kshetron men ek-doosare ke sath sahayog karenge. bharat aur chin ke videsh mntriyon ne bhi kramashah joon, 2008 aur sitnbar, 2008 men ek-doosare desh ki yatra ki. in yatraon ke dauran guvanjhoo aur kolakata men ne mahavanijy dootavason ka aupacharik roop se vimochan kiya gaya. apasi vyapar 2008 men 51.8 arab amariki daaular par pahunch gaya, jo donon pradhanamntriyon dvara 2010 ke lie tay kie ge 60 arab amariki daaular mooly ke lakshy ke qrarib hai.

raksha snbndhon ke kshetr men sahayog aur adan-pradan bhi jari raha. isake antargat disnbar, 2008 men bharat men doosara sayukt sainy abhyas aur doosari varshik raksha varta ayojit ki gee. bharat-chin sima vivad ke bare men 12ven daur ke vichar-vimarsh ke lie donon deshon ke vishesh pratinidhiyon ki baithak sitabnr, 2008 men huee. mee, 2008 men chin ke sichuvan prant men ae vinashakari bhooknp ke bad bharat ne manaviy sahayata ke roop men chin ko 50 lakh amariki daaular ki madad pahunchayi. donon deshon ne antarrashtriy vittiy snkat aur jalavayu parivartan sahit mahattvapoorn antarrashtri muddon par ek-doosare ke sath vichar-vimarsh bhi kiya.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. mahabharat sabhaparv 51, 26
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 aitihasik sthanavali |lekhak: vijayendr kumar mathur |prakashak: rajasthan hindi grnth akadami, jayapur |snkalan: bharatakosh pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 338 |
  3. mahabharat, sabhaparv 51, 23
  4. mahabharat, bhishmaparv 9, 65-66
  5. abhigyanashakuntalam 1, 32
  6. chin ka reshami vastr

snbndhit lekh